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Combo with Chapter 7 and 1 other
Terms in this set (158)
Effects from alleles of multiple genes that all contribute to the ultimate phenotype for a given characteristic
Alternate versions of a gene
An individual who carries one allele for a recessive trait and who who does not exhibit the trait
The breeding of organisms that differ in one or more traits
The case in which the heterozygote displays characteristics of both alleles
an allele that masks the phenotypic effect of the other.
The genes that an organism carries for a particular trait; also collectively, an organisms genetic composition
The greater resemblance of offspring to parents than to other individuals in the population, a consequence of the passing of characteristics from parents to offspring through their genes
Describes the genotype of a trait for which the two alleles an individual carries differ from each other
Describes the genotype of a trait for which the two alleles are the same
The case in which the heterozygote has a phenotype intermediate between those of the two homozygous
Genes that are close to each other on a chromosome, and so are more likely than others to be inherited together.
Mendel's law of independant assortment
Alleles pair for different genes separate independently in meiosis, so the inheritance of one trait generally does not influence the inheritance of another trait
Mendel's law of segregation
During the formation of gametes, the two alleles for a gene separate, so that half the gametes carry one allele, and half of the gametes carry the other.
The case in which a single gene has more than two possible alleles
In genetics, a type of family tree that maps the occurrence of a trait in a family, often over many generations
The manifested structure, function, and behaviors of an individual; the expression of the genotype of an organism
A phenomenon in which an individual gene influences multiple traits
Describes a trait that is influenced by multiple different traits
A diagram showing the possible outcomes of a cross between two individuals
Describes an allele whose phenotypic effect is masked by a dominant allele for a trait
A trait controlled by a gene on a sex chromosome
Single -Gene Trait
A trait that is determined by instructions on only one gene
A mating in which a homozygous recessive individual is bred to individuals of unknown genotype, showing the dormant phenotype
Describes a population of organisms in which, for a given trait, the offspring of crosses of individuals within the population always show the same trait, thus the offspring of a pea plants that are true- breeding for round peas always have round peas
the third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles
a type of reproduction common in prokaryotes, in which the offspring inherit their DNA from a single parents
a type if asexual reproduction in which the parent cell divides into two genetically identical daughter cells
unrestrained cell growth and divison
the alternation of activities related to cell division and those related to growth and metabolism
the region of contact between sister chromatids , occurs near the center of the two strands
one of the two strands of a replicated chromosome
the exchange of some genetic material between a paternal homologous chromosome and a maternal homologous chromosome, leading to a chromosome carrying genetic materal from each
in the cell cycle, the stage following mitosis in which cytoplasm and organelles duplicated and are divided into approximately equal parts and the cell separates into two daughter cells, in meiosis two diploid daughter cells are formed in cytokinesis
cells produced by the division of a parent cell
describes cells that have two copies of each chromosome
the fusion of two reproductive cells
haploid cells from two individuals that as sperm and egg will combine at fertilization to produce offspring; also called the reproductive cell
the ovaries and testes in sexually reproducing animals
describes cells that have a single copy of each chromosome
an organism that produces both male and female gametes
Homologous pair (Homologues)
the maternal and paternal copies of a chromosome
in cell division, the phase during which the cell grows and functions, replication of DNA occurs in preparation for cell division
a visual display of an individual's full set of chromosomes
a process of nuclear division in the gonads that along with cytokinesis produces reproductive cells that have half as much genetic material as the parent cell, and that all differ from each other genetically
cells that divide to form daughter cells, which are genetically identical to the parent cell
the first phase of mitosis, in which the nuclear membrane breaks down, sister chromatids condense, and the spindle forms
the process in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes by which DNA duplicates itself in preparation for cell division
haploid cells from two individuals that as sperm and egg will combine at fertilization to produce offspring; also called gametes
a type of reproduction in which offspring are produced by the fusion of gametes from tow distinct sexes
two identical strands of a replicated chromosome
the (usually diploid) cells of the body of an organism
a part of the cytoskeleton of a cell, formed in prophase from which extend fibers that organize and separate the sister chromatids
fibers that extend from one pole of a cell to the other, which pull the sister chromatids apart in the anaphase stage
a non-coding highly repetitive section of DNA at the tip of every eukaryotic chromosome that shortens with every cell division
the fourth phase of mitosis, in which the chromosome being to uncoil and the nuclear membrane is reassembled around them
X & Y Chromsomes
the human sex chromosomes
second phase of mitosis, in which the sister chromatids line up at the center of the cell, in meiosis the homologues line up at the center of the cell
the division of a nucleus into tow genetically identical nuclei along with cytokinesis leads to the formation of tow identical daughter cells
one of a number of different forms of a gene
one of the nitrogen-containing side chain molecules attached to a sugar molecule in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA and RNA
two nucleotides on complementary strands of DNA that form a pair, linked by hydrogen bonds
the modification of organisms, cells, and their molecules for practical benefits
a type of mutation characterized by a change in the overall organization of genes on a chromosome, such as the deletion of a section of DNA
a genetically identical DNA fragment, cell or organism produced by a single cell or organism
a genetically identical DNA fragment, cell or organism produced by a single cell or organism
a collection of cloned DNA fragments, also known as a gene library
the production of genetically identical cells, organisms or DNA molecules
the base sequence of a gene
three base sequences in mRNA that link with complementary tRNA molecules
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
carries information about the production of particular proteins in the sequences of its nucleotide bases
the base unit of heredity
the manipulation of an organism's genetic material by adding, deleting or transplanting genes from on organism to another
the full set of DNA present in an individual organism
the genes that an organism carries for a particular trait; collectively an organism's genetic composition
Human Genome Project
a project to decode the three billion base pairs in the human genome and to identify all genes present in it
the interbreeding of closely related species
A non-coding region of DNA
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
the ribonucleic acid that "reads" the sequence for a gene in DNA and then moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm; where the next stage of protein synthesis will occur
an alteration in the base-pair sequence of an individual's DNA
one of the four types of biological macromolecules, the nucleic acids of DNA and RNA store genetic information in unique sequences of nucleotides
a molecule containing a phosphate group, a sugar molecule, and a nitrogen-containing molecule, nucleotides are the individual unites that together in a unique sequence constitute a nucleic acid
the manifested structure, function and behaviors of an individual, the expression of the genotype of an organism
a grouping of organism in a hierarchical system that reflects the evolutionary history and relatedness of the organisms
a mutation in which one base pair in DNA is replaced with another or a base pair is either inserted or deleted
a part of a DNA molecule that indicates where the sequence of base pairs that makes up a gene begins
the construction of a protein from its constituent amino acids, by the processes of transcription and translation
the two structural parts of a ribosome which function together to translate mRNA to build a chain of amino acids that will make up a protein
undifferentiated cells that have the ability to develop into any type of cell in the body
any characteristic or feature of an organism
the process by which a gene's base sequence is copied to mRNA
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
RNA molecules in the cytoplasm that link specific triplet base sequence on mRNA to specific amino acids
an organism that contains DNA from another species
the process by which mRNA, which encodes a gene's base sequence, directs the production of a protein
Different people can have free or attached earlobes. The DNA that encodes for making free or arranged earlobes is called a(n)______, and there are two different versions of it called___.
Which molecule acts as a "middle man" between the nucleus, where transcription occurs, and the cytoplasm, where translation occurs?
How might telomere length be affected in a cloned animal like "Dolly" the sheep?
Telomeres might be shorter than normal.
In which part of the cell cycle does the cell spend most of its time?
What cellular process listed below might involve mitosis?
Which of the following processes occur first during mitosis?
Why do chemotherapy and radiation affect cancer cells and normal cells?
Both treatments affect cells that are actively dividing.
A Human sperm contains _____ chromosomes, but when the sperm fuses with an egg, the total number of chromosomes is ____.
What is the final outcome of meiosis?
Four genetically non-identical cells
What event or events occur during meiosis to make each resulting gamete genetically non-identical?
Crossing over between homologous chromosomes.
Alignment between pairs of homologous chromosomes can differ during Metaphase I (independent assortment).
A common misconception is that all arteries carry oxygen rich blood Which of the arteries listed below carries oxygen-poor blood?
Automated external defibrillators can be found in many public places. This device can be used to give a shock to someone who may have a cardiac arrhythmia. What part of the heart is "reset" using this device?
Exercise increases heart rate so if I increase exersize i will speed up the point at which my heart will stop.
The organ systems of your body need to work together; therefore, performing any task will likely involve more than one organ system. Which organ system would not be involved in eating an apple?
Why can flatworms and jelly fish use direct diffusion or protruding respiratory sacs for gas exchange?
They have a low metabolic needs when compared to fish, insects, and animals with lungs.
Why is countercurrent exchange an efficient form of gas exchange?
Water and blood flow in opposite directions.
It maintains a concentration gradient between the water and the blood.
Exhalation occurs when the...
intercostal muscles relax
Chicken breast muscles are light in color. Chicken breast is mostly white meat. This means that:
Chicken breast muscle contains hardly any myoglobin
What part of the ingestion process allows food to be moistened for easy swallowing?
Saliva secreted by the salivary glands.
Where does most of the absorption of good take place?
What characteristic allows the intestine to have a large surface area?
Fold in the wall of the villi increase surface area.
It's 20 feet long!
Projections on the cells that form the villi increase surface area.
Which of the following correctly describes the locations of the transcription and translation within a eukaryotic cell?
DNA is transcribed in the nucleus, then the mRNA transcript is transported to the cytosol to be translated into protein.
Genotype is to phenotype as:
Recipe is to cookie
A person's unique DNA is carried within some of the cells, tissues and fluids from their body. Choose all that are correct.
A mutation that involves the addition, subtraction, or substation of a single base is known as
a point mutation
A cell is said to have reached the metaphase stage of mitosis when:
the centromeres have arrived at the equatorial plate.
often are expressed in different frequencies in males and females,
Sex cells having the ___ number of chromosomes are called _____.
Crossing over means the same as:
the process by which pieces of homologous chromosomes are exchanged.
In humans, both sexes have the same number of autosomes but different ratios of sex chromosomes. Males are XY and females are XX. Which of the following statements comparing the X and Y chromosomes is NOT true?
Genetic instructions on the X chromosome instruct the fetal gonads to develop as testes rather than ovaries.
Which of the following does NOT represent a way in which meiosis and mitosis differ?
Chromosome replication occurs before mitotic division, but not before meiotic division.
In asexual reproduction, daughter cells inherit their DNA from ____.
A single parent
Which of the following DOES occur during anaphase I of meiosis
The chromosomes move toward the poles.
In certain plants, red flowers are dominant to white flowers. If a heterozygous plant is crossed with a homozygous red-flowered plant, what is the probability that the offspring will be white-flowered?
What is the classic mendelian f2 phenotypic ratio for a cross between 2 heterozygotes
What is the difference between genes and alleles?
A gene is a DNA which codes for a certain characteristic and alleles are different versions of a gene for the same characteristic.
Phenotypes are generally a product of:
The genotype in combination with the environment.
The impact of a single gene on more than one characteristic is called:
Which term refers to the genetic control of continuously varying traits such as height?
The difference in sizes between male and female gametes results from two unequal divisions of __________________ in female gamete development.
A diploid cell undergoes meiosis. What are the products of this division?
four haploid cells
What are the two major methods of cellular division in eukaryotic cells?
meiosis and mitosis
A human skin cell contains 46 chromosomes (23 paternally inherited and 23 maternally inherited). Before mitosis begins, this cell must duplicate its genetic material. What are the products of this duplication?
92 sister chromatids, in 46 pairs that are connected by a centromere
The Gap 1, DNA synthesis, and Gap 2 phases of the cell cycle are collectively called:
is the unequal division of the genetic material during cell division.
Some animals are primarily asexual in their reproduction, but have the ability to switch to sexual reproduction under certain conditions. Why might an animal that generally reproduces asexually make this switch to sexual reproduction?
to increase the genetic diversity of its offspring during periods of stress
In some species, sex is determined by environmental, rather than genetic, factors. This is true of:
The planned process of cell suicide is called:
To start the transcription process, a large molecule, ______, recognizes a ______.
RNA polymerase; promoter site
During transcription, at the point where the DNA strand being copied has an adenine, a(n) ______ is added to the ______.
There are different ______ molecules for each of the 20 different amino acids that are used in building proteins.
Deletions and substitutions are two types of point mutations. Which type is more likely to cause mistranslations of proteins?
Deletions, because they shift the reading frame and cause downstream amino acids to be changed.
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR):
makes it possible to create huge numbers of copies of tiny pieces of DNA
A VNTR is
a highly variable section of an individual's DNA.
Most genes come in alternative forms called:
Traits that are determined by a single gene:
must occur on the X chromosome, because males have only a single X and so the gene must be able to function in the absence of its homologous allele.
The law of segregation states that:
each of two alleles for a given trait segregate into different gametes.
In pea plants, purple flower color is dominant to white flower color. If two pea plants that are true-breeding for purple flowers are crossed, in the offspring:
all of the flowers will be purple
Because of Mendel's law of independent assortment:
individuals with red hair are more likely to have freckles.
In pea plants, purple flower color is dominant to white flower color. If two pea plants that are true-breeding for white flowers are crossed, in the offspring:
all of the flowers will be white.
How can two pea plants that have different genotypes for seed color be identical in phenotype?
One of the two plants could be homozygous for the dominant allele while the other could be heterozygous.
Albinism (lack of skin and hair pigmentation) is caused by a recessive autosomal allele. A woman and man, both normally pigmented, have an albino child together. For this trait, what is the genotype of the albino child?
are on the same chromosome.
A diploid individual with two identical alleles for a particular gene is said to be:
homozygous for that gene.
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