50 terms

DAT Bootcamp - Excretory System

what is the primary role of the excretory system?
filter out metabolic wastes from the body
humans have _____, which are the most significant part of the excretory system
2 kidneys
the _____ is the outer part of the kidney, where blood enters
the _____ is the middle portion of the kidney
the _____ is the inner portion of the kidney where filtrate exits
what is a nephron?
a single, functional unit of the kidney
kidneys are made of thousands of individual _____
what are the 4 main processes that occur in the nephron of the kidneys?
filtration; reabsorption; secretion; excretion
how does blood flow to the glomerulus?
renal artery --> afferent arteriole --> glomerulus
the _____ is a ball/collection of blood vessels in the renal cortex portion of a kidney nephron
the glomerulus is located adjacent to the _____
Bowman's capsule
what is a renal corpuscle?
glomerulus + bowman's capsule
filtration occurs from the _____ to the _____ of a renal corpuscle
glomerulus; Bowman's capsule
the glomerulus acts like a sieve because it does not allow _____ or _____ to enter the Bowman's capsule
proteins; RBCs
the Bowman's capsule has _____ that wrap around the glomerulus to form _____
podocytes, fenestrations

red arrow = podocytes
Bowman's capsule _____ are large enough for some molecules but too small for others
blood leaves a renal corpuscle via the _____
efferent arteriole
the efferent arteriole goes on to form the _____
peritubular capillaries
_____ surround the different tubes of the nephron and exchange water, salts, and other important molecules
peritubular capillaries
_____ is the removal of water and solutes from the filtrate back into the blood vasculature
where does reabsorption occur?
proximal convoluted tubule (predominantly) up to the collecting duct
the _____ is the part of the nephron that descends from the cortex of the kidney to the medulla
loop of Henle
the descending limb of the loop of Henle has a _____ permeability to water and _____ permeability to solutes
high; low
filtrate becomes _____ concentrated at the descending limb of the loop of Henle

(water leaves)
water that leaves the descending limb is taken up by the _____
vasa recta
_____ are blood capillaries that run adjacent and parallel to the loop of Henle
vasa recta
the ascending limb of the loop of Henle has a _____ permeability to water and _____ solutes out
low; actively transports
filtrate becomes _____ concentrated at the ascending limb of the loop of Henle
less (solutes leave)
solutes that leave the ascending limb are taken up by the _____
vasa recta
transfer of solutes/harmful substances from the blood and directly into the nephron tubule filtrate
secretion occurs in the _____ & _____
proximal; distal convoluted tubules

(predominantly distal)
the proximal convoluted tubule lies between the _____ and the _____ of the loop of Henle
renal corpuscle; descending limb
the distal convoluted tubule lies between the _____ of the loop of Henle and the _____
ascending limb; collecting duct
what is excretion?
filtrate removal from the body as urine
_____ occurs after filtration, reabsorption, and secretion
the _____ collects filtrate from several different nephrons, and it leads into the renal pelvis
collecting duct
what is a ureter?
connecting passageway between the kidneys and the urinary bladder
the _____ is where the urine is temporarily stored until the body signals for it to be excreted
urinary bladder
the _____ is where the urine is excreted
parathyroid hormone (PTH) _____ reabsorption of Ca2+ in the nephron tubules
PTH _____ Ca2+ in the blood
calcitonin _____ the reabsorption of Ca2+ from the tubules

(calcitonin is released by the thyroid gland)
calcitonin _____ Ca2+ in the blood
aldosterone is considered a _____ hormone, so it is secreted from the adrenal _____
mineralocorticoid; cortex
what is the function of aldosterone?
increase Na+ and H2O reabsorption; increase K+ secretion
aldosterone functions in the _____ and _____ of the kidney nephrons
distal tubules; collecting duct
antidiuretic hormone (ADH/vasopressin) prevents _____, by reabsorbing water from the kidneys when we are dehydrated
diuresis (production of urine)

(leads to very concentrated urine)
ADH is produced by the _____; however, it is stored in the _____
hypothalamus; posterior pituitary
the hypothalamus stimulates ADH to release when the extracellular fluid volume is _____
ADH causes _____ to insert into the _____, which allows more H2O reabsorption
aquaporins; collecting duct