DAT Bootcamp - Integumentary System
what are the key components of the integumentary system?
skin, hair, nails, glands, and nerves
what are the 3 layers of the integumentary system (superficial to most deep)?
epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis
is the hypodermis an actual portion of the skin?
no, but it is a part of the integumentary system
the epidermis is the most _____ layer of the skin, and it is thin and _____
the _____ protects us from dehydration, UV radiation, and pathogens
the epidermis receives nutrients from the blood supply of the _____
the _____ is composed of stratified squamous cells
the epidermis has 4 to 5 layers, which are mostly _____
keratinocytes migrate from _____ to more _____ layers in the epidermis as they divide and differentiate
when keratinocytes migrate, they expel their _____ and produce additional _____
5 layers of the epidermis (superficial to deep)
Come Lets Get Some Beers
the stratum corneum is composed of dead, fully differentiated keratinocytes (_____)
flattened cells of keratin
the stratum _____ provides protection against infection, dehydration, and physical harm
the _____ has dead keratinocytes that aren't fully differentiated to corneocytes
the stratum lucidum is only present in the _____ and _____
palms of the hand; soles of the feet
the stratum granulosum contains keratinocytes that migrated from the stratum _____
how does the stratum granulosum create the skin's water barrier?
by secreting lamellar bodies that form a lipid-containing hydrophobic membrane
the stratum spinosum provides skin with strength and flexibility because of _____ that hold keratinocytes together
the stratum spinosum contains the highest prevalence of _____ cells, but all epidermal layers have them
Langerhans cells are the dendritic cells of the epidermis because they provide communication between the _____ and _____ immune systems
the _____ provides continuous renewal of the epidermal keratinocytes, via keratinocyte stem cells
_____ are located in the stratum basale, and they create melanin
melanin is responsible for the skin's _____ and protection from _____
pigmentation; UV radiation
_____ are located in the stratum basale, and they are specialized mechanoreceptor cells that are abundant in fingertips
Merkel cells are specifically attuned to respond to _____ sensations
what is a mechanoreceptor?
a cell that has the ability to respond to external stimuli
the dermis is located just _____ to the epidermis
the _____ is a network of dense irregular connective tissue
the dermis functions to cushion the body from injury and provide a home for skin structures - what are some examples of those structures?
vessels, glands, nails, and hair
what are the 2 layers of the dermis?
the papillary dermis is named for its _____
_____ are small nipple-like, upward projections of the dermis towards the epidermis
what creates fingerprints?
why is it good that the dermal papillae increase the surface area between the epidermis and dermis?
the epidermis depends on the vascular dermis for nutrients/waste removal
_____ and _____ are present within the dense, irregular connective tissue of the reticular dermis
collagen; elastic fibers
reticular fibers make the reticular dermis _____ and _____
the _____ dermis contains blood vessels, sensory receptors, hair follicles, nail beds, and glands
_____ generate hair and keep it attached to the body surface
what is hair made of?
keratin protein filaments
hair protects mammals from _____ and _____
UV radiation; hypothermia
_____ attach to hair follicles to erect the hair
arrector pili muscles
_____ glands create and secrete a product through a duct to an external surface
_____ glands are exocrine sweat glands
two types of sudoriferous glands?
eccrine and apocrine
_____ glands are the main sweat glands of the body, and they are important for thermoregulation
eccrine glands are all over the body but most abundant in the _____, palms of the hands, and the _____
axilla (armpit); soles of the feet
_____ glands have more oily and viscous sweat secretions than eccrine glands
apocrine glands secrete their products into the _____
what are some locations where apocrine glands are found?
armpit, nipple, ear canal, eyelid, nostril, and parts of the pubic area
ceruminous glands are specialized _____ glands
ceruminous glands produce _____, which is secreted into the external auditory canal
mammary glands are specialized _____ glands
mammary glands are located below the _____, and they produce milk
_____ secrete oily and waxy products (sebum) into the hair follicle
sebaceous glands are located everywhere, except the _____ and _____
palms of the hands; soles of the feet
the _____ is located beneath the dermis, and it is not part of the skin
(part of the integumentary system)
the hypodermis is also called _____ tissue
the _____ contains larger nerves, blood vessels, loose connective tissue, and adipose tissue
the main function of the hypodermis is _____
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