48 terms

Chapter 10 Cell Division

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1) difficulties in transporting materials such as food and waste due to surface/volume ratio
2) Too much demand on DNA would cause an "information crisis"
Why are cells limited in size?
asexual reproduction
The production of genetically identical offspirng from a single parent
sexual reproduction
The production of offspring that has genetic information inherited from two parents
chromosomes
Genetic information is bundled into packages of DNA called
Chromatin
Thin strands of DNA and proteins within the nucleus is called
binary fission
Prokaryotic cells like bacteria undergo a type of asexual reproduction called...
G1, S and G2
Interphase is broken down into three phases called...
G1
The normal growth phase of the cell is called
S
The phase in interphase when DNA is replicated is called...
G2
The phase in interphase when the cell begins to form centrioles and other parts to prepare for cell division (mitosis)
mitosis and cytokinesis
The M phase (cell division) consists of two main stages which often overlap. They are...
prophase
phase of mitosis when the nuclear envelope disappears, chromatin forms chromosomes and centrioles and spindle fibers move to opposite sides:
centromere
The sides of a duplicated chromosome are connected together by a ...
sister chromatid
Each side of a duplicated chromosome is called a...
metaphase
phase of mitosis when the spindle fibers cause the chromosomes to line up in the middle of the cell in a single file line.
anaphase
phase of mitosis when chromosomes separate and move along spindle fibers to opposite ends of the cell
telophase
phase of mitosis when chromosomes untangle, nuclear envelope begins to be made again, centrioles and spindle fibers dissinigrate and the cell begins to pinch inward forming two new cells
interphase
The cell spends most of its life in...
cyclins
a family of proteins that regulate the cell cycle
internal regulators
a group of proteins that respond to event occuring inside the cell. (like spindle fibers attaching to centromeres)
external regulators
A group of proteins that respond to events outside the cell. (like damage to the skin)
growth factors
External regulators that stimulate the growth and division of cells. Very important in embryo development and wound healing
contact
Typically cells will slow down dividing when they come in _________ with each other.
apoptosis
programmed cell death and plays a role in shaping tissues and organs.
three phases to apoptosis
cell and chromatin shrink, cell membrane breaks off, neighboring cells clean up the cell's remains
cancer
A disorder in which cells cannot control their growth rate
tumor
a mass of cells
benign tumor
mass of cells that does not spread to surrounding healthy tissue or to other pats of the body
malignant tumor
cells that leave the original tumor and invade and destroy surrounding healthy tissue
metastasis
process of malignant cells leaving the tumor and traveling to healthy tissue via the blood stream or lymph system to begin secondary tumors.
cells that don't respond to internal or external regulator proteins
General reason for what causes cancer
genetic or environmental factors
Sources of cancer
smoking, bad diet, tobacco, alcohol, pollution.
Enviromental factors that increase the risk of cancer
surgery, radiation, chemotherapy
Three treatments for cancer
chemotherapy
Chemical compounds that kill or slow down cancer cells but also interfere with cell division in normal, healthy cells.
Differentiation
during development, cells change into many types of cells specialized to perform certain tasks
Differentiation
determines the cell's ultimate identity...
Totipotent
can develop into any type of cell. Only the fertilized egg and cells produced by the first few cell divisions
Blastocyst
after fourth day of development, hollow ball of cells.
Pluripotent
Cells of the inner cell mass of a blastocyst that can produce most of the body's cell types. (Also another name for embryonic stem cells)
Multipotent
A cell type that can develop into many cell types (also known as adult stem cells)
Stem cell research
Research that can raise ethical concerns but has the potential to repair cellular damage.
Harvesting embryonic stem cells
Technique that destroys embryos and is a topic of controversy
p53
A defective gene that has been identified as one responsible for cells turning cancerous.
cell plate
Plant cells going through telophase don't pinch in two but they form a ___________ dividing the cell in two.
diploid
A full set of chromosomes is called the __________ number.
mitosis
A body cell that's diploid will undergo ________ to produce two diploid cells identical to the first.
absorb vital nutrients from the organ, obstruct normal organ activity and block nerve connections to the organ
Why are cancerous tumors problematic for organs?

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