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Terms in this set (18)
Somatosensory receptors detect ____.
Proprioceptiors detect ___.
Limb and body positions
Nociceptors detect ___.
Describe the steps involved when a sensory unit uses a specialized cell to stimulate an afferent neuron
1: signal goes from first order neuron (periphery) to spinal cord or brain stem
2: second order neuron (Interneuron in spinal cord) takes stimulus to thalamus
3: interneuron that takes stimulus from thalamus to cortex
Explain the difference between rapidly adapting phasic receptors verses tonic receptors that adapt slowly or not at all
Phasic: stop sending a stimulus even though it's still happening
Tonic: take a while to adapt or don't adapt at all, as long as the stimulus is there tonic receptors will keep firing
A sensory unit is composed of ___.
All receptor cells & associated afferent neuron
How does the nervous system detect stimulus strength? What is population coding?
Frequency of the action potential
-population coding: the more afferent neurons involved the stronger the stimulus
How is the size of a receptive field, the degree of overlap between sensory units and lateral inhibition used in stimulus localization?
Receptive field: the larger the field, the harder it is to detect the exact location of the stimulus... the smaller the field the easier it is to detect a stimulus
Degree of overlap between sensory units: the more overlap the more accurate your location detection will be (more neurotransmitter is being released)
Lateral inhibition: the spot that the neurons overlap
What is the mechanism behind referred pain?
When the pain comes from a visceral body organ, it goes from the same second order neuron as the other somatic pain stimuli in the past, so your brain thinks it's the same pain
How does the gate control hypothesis explain the fact that rubbing the area around an injury can reduce the sensation of pain?
When someone rubs the skin around the hurt area, an action potential stimulates a inhibitory interneuron. The inhibitory neuron inhibits the second order neuron which reduces the ability to trigger an action potential
How does the natural analgesic encephalin counteract the action of the pain perception neurotransmitter substance P?
Pain induced stress triggers release encephalin from an efferent neuron onto the afferent 2nd order neurons. This hyperpolarizes the neuron
What is the significance of the fovea and optic disc of the eye?
Optic disc: blind spot
Fovea: best visual acuity
How do melanocyte stimulating hormone and the melanocortin 1 receptor interplay affect eumelanin and pheomelanin production?
Melanocortin 1 receptor determines which type of melanin is produced
Explain how the eye reflects light in order to focus on distance and near objects. Include the role of the cornea, lens, ciliary muscle and zonular fibers.
Cornea: contributes the most to the eyes refractive ability but it cannot change its constant
Lens: refraction can change dependent on how close or far something is
Ciliary muscle & zonular fibers: around the lens, when the ciliary muscle contracts there's less tension on the zonular fibers and vice versa
What cells serve as connector neurons to connect photoreceptors and retinal ganglion?
What cells modulate photoreceptor stimulation of bipolar cells?
What cells modulate bipolar cell stimulation of retinal ganglion cells?
What cells are the only neural cells in the eye that can generate an AP?
Retinal ganglion cells
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