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HIST 2112 Summer 2018 Exam #1
Terms in this set (62)
Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan
Lincoln's blueprint for Reconstruction,which specified that a southern state could be readmitted into the Union once 10 percent of its voters (from the voter rolls for the election of 1860) swore an oath of allegiance to the Union.
a bill proposed for the Reconstruction of the South written by two Radical Republicans, Senator Benjamin Wade of Ohio and Representative Henry Winter Davis of Maryland.
Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments to the United States Constitution, adopted between 1865 and 1870, the five years following the Civil War.
laws passed by Southern states in 1865 and 1866 in the United States after the American Civil War with the intent and the effect of restricting African Americans' freedom restricting the wage they could earn.
Military Reconstruction Act of 1867
organized the south into 5 military districts, and the states had to have a military leader from the north (Marshall law). They also had to get rid of the black codes,and ratify the 14th amendment.
Tenure of Office Act
a United States federal law (in force from 1867 to 1887) that was intended to restrict the power of the President of the United States to remove certain office-holders without the approval of the Senate
Impeachment of President Andrew Johnson
On February 24, 1868 three days after Johnson's dismissal of Stanton, the House of Representatives voted 126 to 47 (with 17 members not voting) in favor of a resolution to impeach the President for high crimes and misdemeanors. (Then, the process for impeachment was ratified.)
African Americans who migrated from states along the Mississippi River to Kansas in the late nineteenth century, as part of the Exoduster Movement or Exodus of 1879. It was the first general migration of blacks following the Civil War.
Custer's Last Stand/Battle of Little Bighorn
was an armed engagement between combined forces of the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes and the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army. The battle, which resulted in the defeat of US forces, was the most significant action of the Great Sioux War of 1876. It took place on June 25-26, 1876, along the Little Bighorn River in the Crow Indian Reservation in southeastern Montana Territory
Compromise of 1877
The Compromise of 1877 was an informal, unwritten deal that settled the intensely disputed 1876 U.S. presidential election. It resulted in the United States federal government pulling the last troops out of the South, and formally ended the Reconstruction Era. Through the Compromise, Republican Rutherford B. Hayes was awarded the White House over Democrat Samuel J. Tilden on the understanding that Hayes would remove the federal troops whose support was essential for the survival of Republican state governments in South Carolina, Florida and Louisiana
Jim Crow laws
mandated the segregation of public schools, public places, and public transportation, and the segregation of restrooms, restaurants, and drinking fountains for whites and blacks
devised by the Democratic Party in that state to overthrow the Republican Party in Mississippi by means of organized threats of violence and suppression or purchase of the black vote. Democrats wanted to regain political control of the legislature and governor's office.
a clause exempting certain classes of people or things from the requirements of a piece of legislation affecting their previous rights, privileges, or practices. (For example, if you worked in a factory before a living wage was established, you kept your job at the wage that you came in on, even if it was more than a living wage.
Plessy v. Ferguson
established a separate but equal clause.
Williams v. Mississippi
that reviewed provisions of the state constitution that set requirements for voter registration. (Literacy tests, etc.)
Booker T. Washington
From the last generation of black American leaders born into slavery and became the leading voice of the former slaves and their descendants. (Adviser to presidents, educator, advocate.
First African American to earn a PhD, spoke against slavery and Jim Crow, and was an ally to Booker T. Washington
term coined by Mark Twain that meant that society was "sparkling" on the surface but that it was corrupt in reality.
vertical and horizontal integration
Vertical integration is when a company has control of more than one aspect of the supply chain, and horizontal integration is when a company acquires a smaller company within the same industry
led the expansion of the American steel industry
an American oil industry leader
Knights of Labor
the first national labor organization in the United States
American Federation of Labor
a national federation of labor unions in the United States founded in Columbus, Ohio, in December 1886 by an alliance of craft unions disaffected from the Knights of Labor, a national labor union.
The Great (Railroad) Strike of 1877
Started on July 14 in Martinsburg, West Virginia, in response to the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad (B&O) cutting wages of workers for the third time in a year. Striking workers would not allow any of the trains, mainly freight trains, to roll until this third wage cut was revoked.
On May 4, 1886, a labor protest rally near Chicago's Haymarket Square turned into a riot after someone threw a bomb at police. At least eight people died as a result of the violence that day. Despite a lack of evidence against them, eight radical labor activists were convicted in connection with the bombing. The Haymarket Riot was viewed a setback for the organized labor movement in America, which was fighting for such rights as the eight-hour workday
industrial lockout and strike which began on June 30, 1892, culminating in a battle between strikers and private security agents on July 6, 1892. The battle was one of the most serious disputes in U.S. labor history.
a nationwide railroad strike in the United States that lasted from May 11 to July 20, 1894, and a turning point for US labor law. It pitted the American Railway Union (ARU) against the Pullman Company, the main railroads, and the federal government of the United States under President Grover Cleveland. The strike and boycott shut down much of the nation's freight and passenger traffic west of Detroit, Michigan. The conflict began in Pullman, Chicago, on May 11 when nearly 4,000 factory employees of the Pullman Company began a wildcat strike in response to recent reductions in wages.
Munn v. Illinois
a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court upheld the power of government to regulate private industries.
Wabash v. Illinois
Supreme Court decision that severely limited the rights of states to control interstate commerce.
Interstate Commerce Act of 1887
A United States federal law that was designed to regulate the railroad industry, particularly its monopolistic practices.
Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)``
allowed certain business activities that federal government regulators deem to be competitive, and recommended the federal government to investigate and pursue trusts.
laws in effect in mostly midwestern states that favored farmers and their relationships with railroad pricing
crop lien system
a credit system that became widely used by cotton farmers in the United States in the South from the 1860s to the 1930s. Sharecroppers and tenant farmers, who did not own the land they worked, obtained supplies and food on credit from local merchants
an organized agrarian economic movement among American farmers that developed and flourished around 1875.
organized in St. Louis in 1892 to represent the common folk—especially farmers—against the entrenched interests of railroads, bankers, corporations, and the politicians
US political movement for the free coinage of silver, especially that of the last quarter of the nineteenth century.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
a United States federal law, enacted in 1883, which established that positions within the federal government should be awarded on the basis of merit instead of political affiliation.
Election of 1896
Former Governor William McKinley, the Republican candidate, defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan.
de Lome letter
a letter written by the Spanish Ambassador to the United States, Enrique Dupuy de Lôme, criticized American President William McKinley by calling him weak and concerned only with gaining the favor of the crowd.
an American naval ship that sank in Havana Harbor during the Cuban revolt against Spain, an event that became a major political issue in the United States.
War between the US and Spain in 1898 after the internal explosion of the USS Maine
an amendment that said that the US would help Cuba gain independence and then withdraw all its troops
When the Spanish authorities in Manila yielded the capital of the Philippine Islands to American forces under Admiral George Dewey in August 1898, they knew the game was up and they much preferred to surrender to the Americans than to the native Filipino nationalists who were waging a guerrilla war against them.
canal that connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
Coal Strike of 1902
a strike by the United Mine Workers of America in the anthracite coalfields of eastern Pennsylvania. Miners struck for higher wages, shorter workdays and the recognition of their union.
Meat Inspection Act
an American law that makes it a crime to adulterate or misbrand meat and meat products being sold as food, and ensures that meat and meat products are slaughtered and processed under sanitary conditions
Pure Food and Drug Act
prevented the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated or misbranded or poisonous foods, drugs, medicines, and liquors,
government legislation aimed at breaking monopolies and trusts
Frederick W. Taylor
one of the intellectual leaders of the Efficiency Movement and his ideas, broadly conceived, were highly influential in the Progressive Era (1890s-1920s). Was a mechanical engineer
Election of 1912
election between Woodrow Wilson and Howard Taft
re-imposed the federal income tax after the ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment and lowered basic tariff rates
Federal Reserve Act
An act of Congress that established the Federal Reserve, the banking system in the US, that has the authority to issue currency.
Clayton Antitrust Act
An act issued to clarify the Sherman Antitrust Act
imposition of an income tax with the Sixteenth Amendment, direct election of Senators with the Seventeenth Amendment, Prohibition with the Eighteenth Amendment, election reforms to stop corruption and fraud, and women's suffrage through the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
Chinese exclusion act
United States federal law signed by President Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers.
Said that the United States would intervene as a last resort to ensure that other nations in the Western Hemisphere fulfilled their obligations to international creditors, and did not violate the rights of the United States or invite "foreign aggression to the detriment of the relationship"
the theory that individuals, groups, and peoples are subject to the same Darwinian laws of natural selection as plants and animals. Now largely discredited, social Darwinism was advocated by Herbert Spencer and others in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and was used to justify political conservatism, imperialism, and racism and to discourage intervention and reform.
a protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by Ohio businessman Jacob Coxey. They marched on Washington D.C. in 1894, the second year of a four-year economic depression that was the worst in United States history to that time.
Henry Grady's New South Creed
He wanted the south to become more industrialized and to "abandon its agrarian nature"
An American Protestant clergyman, organizer, editor and author. He was a leader of the Social Gospel movement, calling for social justice and combating social evils. He supported missionary work so that all races could be improved and uplifted and thereby brought to Christ.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Naval officer who has been called the most influential American author of the 19th century
new immigrants (Gilded Age)
Immigrants came from war-torn regions of southern and eastern Europe, such as Italy, Greece, Poland, Russia, Croatia, and Czechoslovakia. This new group of immigrants was poorer and less educated than the Irish and German immigrants who had made the journey to the United States earlier in the century.
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