West Civ I Practice Exam 2
Terms in this set (203)
constantine became sole emperor at the battle of ___________
the milvian bridge
the mishnah is ___________
a commentary on jewish law
which of these roman deities was imported from pergamum?
the forum was ____________
the seat of roman political life
which of these men traveled south into africa, as far as modern senegal?
according to polybius, the two consuls in the roman republic represented _____________
the first mosque was in __________
how did roman patricians view hellenism in the roman republic during the second century b.c.e?
they reacted in a paradoxical fashion in that they wanted the continuation of roman traditions even as they adopted many greek ideas and customs
arab communities before the emergence of islam were __________
generally organized into tribes
which of these men ruled as emperor around 300, dividing the empire in two?
augustine's acceptance of both christianity and rome's intellectual legacy was generally _____________ by later christians
following roman precedent, the christian administration was ______________
organized through cities
julius caesar first came to prominence primarily because of ______________
a political deal
the most pressing problem facing the roman empire the late third century was _____________
which of these egyptian cities was founded by the muslim arabs?
the roman familia was essentially the _____________
tacitus was a roman _____________
the career of which of these men is most associated with the transition from republic to empire?
in general, roman women left their fathers' control when they ____________
during diocletian's reign, peasants in the roman empire ___________
gradually lost their land and their right to move from the land
the law of the twelve tables was published about ______________
which of these roman administrators came to be in charge of cities from the fourth century on?
in the western roman empire, justinian _____________
temporarily reestablished imperial control
the pantheon is a prominent example of _____________ in roman building
the use of concrete
the caliphate describes ________________
islamic leadership after the death of muhammad
roman cities in the provinces were most closely modeled on ___________
the marcomanni were an example of a(n)
what were the main forces of romanization in the provinces?
the army and law
looking at map 8.1, "the byzantine empire, ca. 600," which of these was true around 600?
the greatest threat to the byzantine empire was the persian empire
reflecting greek influence, roman gods were _____________
reshaped by greek traditions
provincial cities were ruled __________
by a city council
what was the capital of the byzantine empire?
which of these zones of christianity was most unified around 400?
the eastern roman empire
when rome defeated its enemies in italy, it ___________
allowed the defeated people to become citizens
which of these led to the punic wars?
the "house of war" is so named because it is the region ____________
to be conquered by islam
the roman humillores were the _________
constantine converted to christianity because he _____________
came to believe that the christian God had helped him become emperor
the capture of jerusalem in 70 c.e. led to a greater role for __________
the period of the antonine age was roughly what century?
the second century c.e.
what was the approximate proportion of slaves in the roman republic by the first century b.c.e
one-third of the population
when muhammad died in 632, ___________
most of the arabian peninsula had converted to islam
constantine created a new capital at _____________, renaming the city constantinople
muslims believe that muhammad received his revelations from ______________
god through the angel gabriel
which of these was most supportive of the use of icons?
the arians are an example of ____________
an early christian sect
during the macedonian dynasty, the emperor ___________
was increasingly represented as divine
the long conflict with the persian empire in the 500s resulted in ____________
which of these best describes the roman decision to go to war with carthage?
romans were divided on the issue
the greek influence on roman culture came primarily through which of these?
compared to other capitals in the mediterranean world, cordoba ____________
had more magnificent buildings
which of these roman gods was largely modeled on the greek zeus?
for muslim rulers, what did jews, christians, and zoroastrians share with islam?
a sacred book
the role of pontifex maximus was essentially a _________ position
the people of rome generally _________ octavian
who led the most famous slave revolt in the roman republic?
what was the main tool used by gaius marius to gain power?
rome's early conquest had what effect on later conquests?
later conquests were made possible by an army drawn from the earliest conquered territories
what is ramadan?
the month of fasting between sunrise and sunset in the muslim calendar
classical learning in the byzantine empire __________
was gradually replaced with christian instruction
looking at map 6.3, "languages and agriculture in the roman empire," which of these regions matched italy in its concentration of cities?
agriculture during the roman empire ____________
was highly productive
resistance to greek culture in rome was generally motivated by fears concerning the influence of greek traditions on roman ____________
what did rome expect from its conquered peoples?
loyalty and troops
the teachings of paul had the effect of transforming the followers of christ into _________
a universal religion
which of these was put in place to rule the roman empire around 300?
unlike most of the peoples moving into eastern europe in the fifth century, the bulgars were __________
the council of nicaea and the council of chalcedon agreed that jesus ___________
was both fully human and fully divine
the pax romana _________
refers to a long period of stability and peace in the roman empire
which of these men ruled rome from 63 b.c.e to 14 c.e.
how did neoplatonism influence christianity?
it influenced the conception of the immortality of the human soul
which of these was the lowest of the three aristocratic orders in the roman empire?
justinian's corpus of civil law _______
preserved roman law for future generations
which of these was a roman playwright?
the roman emperors ________
began to persecute christians as early as the reign of nero
what was the official language of umayyad rule?
the roman republic collapsed primarily because of ___________
a gap between the most powerful and the lower classes
the british ruler boudicca is an example of __________
resistance to roman rule
the creation of the tetrarchy was a solution to what problem?
the julio-claudian dynasty refers to the ____________
group of emperors who were all related to augustus
the celebration of new year's day and easter illustrate what trend?
merging of christian and older roman traditions
the celebration of jesus's birthday on december 25 is an example of christian appropriation of celebrations _________
that threatened the spread of christianity
the antonine decree _________
gave roman citizenship to nearly all free men and women in the empire
the council of nicaea ___________
was a victory for the athanasians
the roman senate ___________
was a very powerful advisory body to the consuls
the successors of emperors from nerva through antoninus pius _____________
were chosen on merit
constantine adopted ____________ in 3012
who was the byzantine emperor that launched iconoclasm in the 700s?
when did the byzantine empire finally collapse?
what does the cult of cybele illustrate about roman religious beliefs and practices?
a willingness to adopt foreign gods
which of these steps did diocletian take to help the roman economy?
he froze wages and prices
the religious and political ties between rus and byzantium ______________
limited the spread of latin christianity in eastern europe
the byzantine emperor sought to end the use of icons because he ____________
believed that icon veneration was becoming worship of saints
the abbasid caliphate established their capital in ___________
the accession of tiberius was a sign that _________
augustus had put a monarchy in place
who invented an alphabet for the slavic language?
cyril and methodius
the macedonian dynasty ruled the byzantine empire from the ___________ centuries
ninth to eleventh
the patricians __________
were a group of elite families in the roman republic
how was the byzantine army organized?
into four themes or military districts commanded by generals
the association of sol invictus with apollo is an example of ____________
who was the religious head of the orthodox church?
the patriarch of constantinople
the long-term success of diocletian's reforms was due primarily to his __________
who wrote the city of god?
which of these was the greatest threat to the empire in justinian's time?
the first punic war ____________
pitted rome and carthage in a struggle over sicily
like the germanic peoples, the parthians were ___________
successful in limiting roman expansion
in the time of augustus, the germanic peoples were organized into _____________
the second punic war ___________
included hannibal's famous march across the alps with war elephants
the word christian derives from ____________
the greek word that means messiah
what people dominated central italy from about 800 b.c.e.?
christians went on pilgrimages primarily _________
to share in the holiness of sacred sites
ovid's career illustrates the ___________
power of the roman emperors
the establishment of the exarchates indicates the desire of the byzantine emperors to ______________
hold onto the entire roman empire
the hijra marked a departure in the history of islam because it marked ___________
the creation of a separate muslim community
constantine's reform of the coinage system led to ___________
the creation of a stable currency
belisarius was sent by justinian to reconquer what portion of the western roman empire?
the current western dating system begins with ___________
the birth of jesus
rome's most significant achievement during the republic was probably the ______________
conquest of territory in italy and across the mediterranean
which of these emerged in the eastern empire following the foundation of constantinople?
the byzantine empire
slaves comprised about what proportion of roman society?
the dirhams and the arabian nights are both examples of _________
umayyad borrowing from earlier traditions
the doctrine of the petrine succession ______________
was used to justify the preeminent position of the bishop of rome over all other bishops
looking at map 7.3, "the byzantine empire at the death of justininan, 565," which of these roughly corresponded to the roman empire at its height?
the struggle of the orders led to __________
great political power for the plebeians
how did diocletian end his reign?
he voluntarily gave up the imperial throne
the five pillars of islam concerned __________
proper acts of faith that all good muslims should follow
wealthy businessman in the roman republic were usually members of which social class?
who was benedict of nursia?
the founder of communal monasticism in the west
what does islam mean?
the term rus applied the lands ruled by ___________
the princes of kiev
before the emergence of islam, mecca was a ____________
spiritual and commercial center
who was targeted in the great persecution that began in 303?
octavian was given the title augustus by _____________
the roman senate
the trade imbalance between rome and the far east was caused by __________
the low demand for roman goods
the accession of tiberius was a sign that ___________
augustus had put a monarchy in place
which of these men was renowned byzantine scholar?
the patriarch photius
plebeian small farmers in the late roman republic ____________
increasingly lost their lands to bankruptcy
wealth in the roman provinces was centered in the ___________
provincials in the cities
tiberius gracchus attempted to implement reforms through what institution?
the plebeian assembly
at the battle of zama in 202 b.c.e., __________
scipio decisively defeated hannibal
rome took control of the italian peninsula _________
through a combination of conquest and diplomacy
which of these best explains why the roman people accepted the tyranny of augustus?
he followed a period of chaos
roman knowledge of sub-saharan africa was generally ________
looking at map 8.2, "the expansion of islam: the umayyad caliphate," which of these describes the byzantine empire around 750?
essentially reduced to anatolia
early christian leaders modeled their administrative structures on ___________
roman imperial urban administration
the choice of a caliph was important because the caliph's claimed ______________
to be muhammad's successors
how many wars did rome fight against macedon between 215 and 167 b.c.e.?
under the macedonian dynasty, constantinople _____________
enjoyed a prosperous economy
chosroes I was king of ____________
the conversion of the slavic peoples in eastern europe brought ______________
a complicated pattern of religious affiliations
like the followers of isis, the followers of christ _______________
believed in an afterlife
the disagreement between the arians and athanasians concerned _________
the nature of jesus and the nature of the trinity
roman building techniques included ____________
the career and writings of augustine symbolize ____________
the smooth transition between the ancient and medieval worlds
the equestrians during the roman empire were _____________
just below the senatorial order in status
the book of ceremonies helped to establish the notion of the rule of kings by __________
muslim rulers resembled byzantine emperors in ___________
claiming both political and spiritual authority
which hellenistic philosophy most appealed to the romans during the republic?
wrote a famous history of rome
the abbasid capital followed the pattern set by the umayyads, namely ___________
an eastward shift of the center of the muslim world
people became slaves in the roman empire ________
mainly as a result of conquest
which of these powers was preeminent in the western mediterranean by 300 b.c.e.?
roman artists ____________
developed a realistic portrait sculpture
byzantine control of eastern europe was complicated by _____________
the fall of rus
the qur'an is _________
the written collection of muhammad's revelations
what does the term hijra refer to?
muhammad's move to medina from mecca in 622
which of these ruled in the mid-second century and built a wall across northern britain?
the law of the twelve tables was important because it _________
provided for legal remedies
during the early years after rome's founding, the roman political system was a(n) ___________
the cult of the emperor was useful to the empire because it ____________
provided a unifying force for the empire
most christians in late antiquity were ___________
which of these played an important role in the everyday lives of the people of the byzantine empire?
as christianity emerged in the roman empire, jews _________
suffered greater persecution and repression
early rome developed ________
on the hills around the tiber river
which of these was established in rome around 500 b.c.e.?
tiberius and gaius gracchus ________
sought unsuccessfully to initiate land reform in the late roman republic
at the battle of actium in 31 b.c.e., ___________
octavian defeated antony and cleopatra
the roman policy concerning conquered territories was generally ___________
succession during the umayyad caliphate was based on _________
roman rhetoric is an illustration of ____________
borrowing from greece
diocletian's most influential reform was the decision to _________
divide the roman empire into two parts
if you wanted to attain roman citizenship, you would be most likely to become a(n) ____________
which of these best explains the inability of the byzantine empire to repel invaders in the late 500s?
constant warfare with persia
in most roman marriages, which of these was true of a wife's position?
she remained a legal member of her birth family
the umayyads conquered territory as far west as ___________
which of these emperors oversaw the codification of law known as the corpus jurius civilis?
the collapse of the roman empire in the west ___________
happened gradually over a century or more
looking at map 8.3, "christian reconquest of muslim spain," which of these is true?
it took five centuries for christians to gain control of iberia
what was the language of the christian church in the western roman empire?
why did augustus call himself princeps?
he wanted to pretend that he was not really a monarch
the first ruling dynasty in islam after the death of muhammad was the _____________
which of these occupied the region formerly ruled by persia?
like augustus, vespasian began a __________
the shi'tites emerged after __________
a dispute over who should succeed muhammad after his death
concerning the tetrarchy, constantine _____________
for the romans, "africa" meant __________
diocletian's treatment of the christians was based on the roman tradition of ___________
the antonine decree ____________
gave roman citizenship to nearly all free men and women in the empire
who ruled italy around 500?
which social group dominated the roman republic?
which of these brought romans and chines into contact?
the silk trade
which of these brought romans and chinese into contact?
the silk trade
statues of emperors and roman coins served the purpose of _____________