West Civ I Practice Exam 3
Terms in this set (203)
guilds were urban associations of citizens grouped by _________
the early modern european state system generally signaled the emergence of __________
in the hundred years' war, which of these lost their status as the key element in warfare?
during the fourteenth century, the european population ______________
which of these was represented by the emergence of the communes?
independent town governments
who wrote the divine comedy?
the magna carta embodied protection for ____________
traditional privileges in england
which of these were key to the english victory at agincourt?
genghis khan was the ruler of the __________
the book the defender of the peace is an example of _____________
the renaissance fascination with ancient rome
the context of the epic the song of roland is __________
conflict between muslims and christians
alexander VI illustrates what aspect of many renaissance popes?
their close ties to italian ruling dynasties
wrote a famous biography of charlemagne
jews in the high middle ages were ___________
responsible for much of the translation into latin of classical works
who wrote the canterbury tales?
the famines of the early to mid-1300s were worst where ____________
population growth was highest
cluny was a __________
the taille was imposed in france to ____________
the military revolution of the later middle ages accompanied the development of _______________
in the mind of urban II, the crusaders were ____________
an army of pilgrims
rhetoric is the _____________
art of persuasive speaking and writing
the lombard kingdom was one of many ______________ in western europe around 700
the pragmatic sanction of bourges strengthened the french monarchy because it ______________
gave the french monarch extensive power over the french church
leonardo da vinci's work in milan and france illustrates the role of ____________ in renaissance artisitc production
an act of homage involved ____________
forming a personal tie between two men
the legal system in the kingdoms of latin christendom ________________
ultimately merged germanic and roman legal traditions
hugh capet ___________
controlled a feudal domain known as france
what caused the famines in the fourteenth century?
the great schism refers to ____________
the period when there were rival popes in france and italy
william I became king of england ___________
under henry VII, royal power grew at the expense of what group?
the adoption of roman law in germanic kingdoms generally had ________ impact on the lives of higher status women
the main argument of the prince was that a
prince's highest obligation was the preservation of his state
the crusades were launched following an appeal for help from the __________
the polish humanist nicolaus copernicus _______
argued that the sun is at the center of the universe
tight control of the royal domain was an important step to the consolidation of royal power because such control gave kings ___________
control of their vassal's armies
innocent III was most successful in strengthening the ___________ power of the medieval church
the holy roman empire was essentially a(n) ___________ empire
which of these men wrote the book the courtier?
the lombards controlled parts of ______________
the most important impact of european migration of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries was ___________
greater agricultural productivity
thomism was an answer to what question?
what is the relationship between faith and reason?
feudalism is best understood as a __________
reciprocal personal economic and political relationship between lord and vassal
which of these were townsmen that joined together to govern urban life?
at agincourt in 1415 ___________
english forces led by henry V won a great victory
what was the outcome of the first crusade?
it resulted in the successful christian conquest of jerusalem
around 750, britain was organized into ___________
clovis converted to catholic christianity primarily because ______________
he hoped to win the support of the subjects of the visigoth kingdom
who created the monumental statue, david?
considering the cause that triggered it, the hundred years' war can be considered ______________
a french victory
who were the two key players in the investiture controversy?
gregory VII and henry IV
who was the doge?
the leader of the venetian republic
considering the masaccio painting the tribute money, which of these medieval traditions was continued in renaissance painting?
where the black death first hit europe?
which of these practices led to wide age differences between marriage partners in renaissance italy?
using marriage to make family alliances
the "little ice age" hit europe in what century?
the english parliament was established during the reign of _____________
by 900, europe was subject to invasions from the ___________
vikings and the magyars
a medieval manor was a ______________
louis XI's taille and henry VII's court of star chamber are both examples of ____________
tools used to increase royal power
what does the word renaissance mean literally?
the quadrivium included _______________
arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music
which of these was the focus of humanists' studies?
the impact of the ottoman conquests was to ______________
bring the muslim and catholic worlds into direct contact
the impact of the black death was generally more rapid and severe in ___________
gunpowder first made an impact in european warfare in ___________
as a result of the hundred years' war __________
the english and french monarchies gained a greater monopoly on power in their respective countries
the english civil war in the 1400s was known as the __________
war of the roses
the most significant result of the crusades was the ____________
emergence of new contact between the west and the east
the hanseatic league and the champagne fairs were both part of what development
the revival of long-distance trade
the fourth crusade ___________
marked a complete detour from the original purpose of the crusades
the mongols, ottomans, and the forces of tamerlane were all _____________
the modern devotion can be said to have turned the walls of medieval monasteries "inside out" because this movement _____________
saw laypeople taking over some of the monks' role
what finally ended the magyar raids in western europe?
they established their own kingdom in hungary
the death of charles IV caused a problem because ___________
his heir was the king of england
about what percent of europeans were literate in 1050?
0 to 1 percent
the primary cause of the viking raids in western europe was probably ___________
the link between the possession of silver and status in viking society
dispensations were __________
exceptions to canon law
violence against religious minority groups
increased after 1348
which of these regions of europe led the way in both commerce and urbanization in the central middle ages?
looking at map 11.1, "the spread of the black death," which of these is true?
trade regions connected with the ottoman empire were hit first
what happened to jan hus?
he was burned at the stake as a heretic
which italian city-state first established colonies outside of italy?
the last visigothic king was defeated by the __________
john wycliffe's critics were aimed at ____________
the institutions of the church
looking at map 9.1, "europe, ca. 750," which of these was most divided around 750?
the muslim world
philology developed as an essential tool of the renaissance ______________
the crusades were launched by the ______________
both the fate of charlemagne's empire and the ritual of homage illustrate what aspect of early medieval politcal traditions?
loyalty was to an individual, not a government
the tudor dynasty began with the reign of ___________
philip IV ____________
attempted to control the french clergy
galileo galilei and andreas vesalius are both examples of renaissance _____________
unlike the mongols, tamerlane's attacks _____________
destroyed the silk road
the craft and merchant guilds represented the interests of ____________
unlike romanesque churches, gothic churches were __________
what was the primary objective of the first crusade?
the capture of jerusalem for christianity?
the impact of the ottoman conquests on western europe was ___________
to create a powerful new neighbor
which of these was the most important trigger for the twelfth-century renaissance?
the rediscovery of classical texts
the european population began to grow after the tenth century primarily because _________
the food supply increased
what was charlemagne's empire ultimately based on?
personal loyalty to charlemagne himself
which of these was the most successful?
the first crusade
the visigothic kings practiced ____________
which of these defeated the mongols in 1260?
mamluk egyptian rulers
the waldensians challenged the catholic church because they ____________
read the bible
which of these is an example of a republic?
the cistercians were established when _________
a group of benedictine monks moved to an isolated area
the germanic wergild was one's _________
like later renaissances, the carolingian renaissance was founded on ___________
the classical heritage
which of these was one of the renaissance popes, known for leading papal troops into battle?
scholasticism can be considered a reconciliation of __________
classical and christian teachings
what was the fate of charlemagne's empire following the treaty of verdun?
it was divided into three parts
where was the center of european medieval intellectual life?
the fief was ___________
usually a piece of land given to a vassal in exchange for his homage
the conversion of the scandinavian peoples around 1000 illustrates what pattern?
conversion in western europe generally spread from rome outwards
the fourth crusade resulted in _________
an attack on constantinople
who designed the bronze relief panels for the door of the baptistery in florence?
the black death last appeared in europe in what century?
charlemagne's coronation as emperor of the romans _________
revealed charlemagne's desire to recreate the idea of the roman empire
after the conversion of germanic kings to christianity, germanic and latin roman society and traditions tended to _____________
after the appearance of joan of arc, ___________
french forces began to win the war against the english
who wrote the prince?
the pope could coerce secular leaders to obey his decisions by using __________
excommunication and interdict
federico da montefeltro may be considered an ideal renaissance prince because he ____________
was both a soldier and a man of learning
why was the heavy plow important in medieval europe?
it allowed for the effective cultivation of the heavier soils in northern europe
jacopo sansovino worked in what field?
in what area did sofonsiba anguissola work?
the french baillis were _________
the mongols originated in _________
which of these is the study of how the meanings of words have changed over time?
which of these was a ruler of the early 1500s and the last patron of leonardo da vinci?
like the revolt of the ciompi, the jacquerie __________
was a violent peasants' revolt
genghis khan _________
was a mongol warrior whose conquests helped reestablish east-west trade routes
which of these peoples were part of the same eastward movement as the mongols?
the cistercians can be seen as a(n) _________ of benedictine monasticism
the statutes of kilkenny are a sign of the ___________
growing sense of national identity
what family controlled the throne of the holy roman empire in the renaissance?
the emergence of resident ambassadors in the 1500s indicated what direction in european politics?
formal international relations
the marriage of isabella and ferdinand in 1469 united ________
castile and aragon
henry II's dispute with thomas becket concerned this
clergy's special legal rights
what proportion of the european population probably died as a result of the black death?
in which of these disciplines did renaissance intellectuals and artists owe the most to the ancient past?
the arpad dynasty ruled the _______
which of these was a focus of the rule of ferdinand and isabella?
wrote a famous biography of charlemagne
the development of linear perspective had relevance for what two renaissance pursuits?
optics and painting
in the middle ages, the cult of the virgin mary ____________
provided a model that balanced the model of eve
after charlemagne died ________
his empire fell apart within two generations
henry IV and philip IV were both examples of what conflict?
the struggle between kings and popes for control of regional churches
which of these dynasties was replaced by the carolingians?
what is canon law?
who were the main opponents in the hundred years war?
england and france
renaissance courtiers were ___________
those who maintained a presence at a court
william the conqueror __________
defeated the last saxon king of england
the hanseatic league was a ___________
both the divine comedy and the canterbury tales reflect what medieval tradition?
who guided dante through hell in the divine comedy?
who wrote the history of italy?
alcuin of york _________
was the head of charlemagne's palace school
the byzantine emperors viewed the coronation of charlemagne as a _____________
threat to their claim to be heirs of the roman emperors
jews in spain __________
suffered violent persecution after 1378
probably the most important jewish philosopher during the middle ages was _________
the crusades were launched following an appeal for help from the ______________
the growth of cities was related to the agricultural revolution because ______________
cities grew larger as a result of increased agricultural productivity
in the carolingian empire, marches were _____________-
the hundred years war is best understood as ______________
occasional periods of war followed by long truces
john bessarion was part of what group?
refugees from the fall of constantinople
frederick I was ruler of __________
the holy roman empire
the ciompi were __________
florentine wool workers
who initiated the reform of the christian church in the middle ages?
averroes was important for christian intellectuals because he ____________
translated the bible into english
peter the hermit _________
led an unsuccessful army of the poor prior to the first crusade
the doctrine of transubstantiation was an outgrowth of what broader development?
the angles are an example of ___________
the germanic peoples that invaded western europe after about 400
the political systems of the italian city-states are best described as _________
which of these brought about the end of the ottoman empire?
the first universities grew out of the _________
cosimo de' medici resembled augustus because both _______
held more power than they appeared to hold
who led the french to victory at orleans in 1429?
joan of arc
civic humanists ___________
believed in service to the state
who ultimately won the investiture controversy?
both the pope and the emperor retained a role in investiture, but the pope won because he had the final say in who became a bishop
probably the most politically stable italian city-state was ___________
which of these converged to destroy jewish life in spain in the 1300s?
the black death and the reconquest
the technological innovation of the renaissance with the broadest impact was probably ___________
the printing press
the patriciate in florence and venice were important to the success of the renaissance because they _________
provided the funds to support artists and writers
the most influential scholastic thinker during the middle ages was probably ____________
gregory the great was a powerful _________ of around 600
boniface VIII went farther than earlier popes in attempting to make the pope ________
an effective emperor of europe
during the renaissance, the popes were most known for their ___________
the broad influence of cluny was felt through __________
the missionary activities of cluny's monks
which of these undertook the rebuilding of st. peter's basilica?
the conciliarists represented ____________
a restriction on papal power
the ottomans were able to conquer constantinople because _____________
they used gunpowder artillery to destroy the city walls
the dominicans and the fransciscans were __________ friars
the three-field system included three stages: __________
fallow, legumes, grains
which of these men wrote the book of the courtier?
the last muslim stronghold in spain was ___________
linear perspective is an example of an element of renaissance art that __________
owed nothing to the classical past
the investiture controversy was finally resolved ___________
by the concordat of worms
the hanseatic league and the champagne fairs were both part of what development?
the revival of long-distance trade
the ottoman renaissance took place in ___________
thomas aquinas was most important for his ___________
comprehensive examination of christian thinking
had more legal rights than slaves
what was the main religion in the germanic kingdoms?