58 terms

C175 - Chapter 1

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ad hoc query
A "spur-of -the-moment" question.
analytical database
A database focused primarily on storing historical data and business metrics used for tactical or strategic decision making.
availability
In the context of data security, it refers to the accessibility of data whenever required by authorized users and for authorized purposes.
centralized database
A database located at a single site.
cloud database
A database that is created and maintained using cloud services, such as Microsoft Azure or Amazon AWS.
data
Raw facts, or facts that have not yet been processed to reveal their meaning to the end user.
data anomaly
A data abnormality in which inconsistent changes have been made to a database. For example, an employee moves, but the address change is not corrected in all files in the database.
data dependence
A data condition in which data representation and manipulation are dependent on the physical data storage characteristics.
data dictionary
A DBMS component that stores metadata - data about data. Thus, the data dictionary contains the data definition as well as their characteristics and relationships. A data dictionary may also include data that are external to the DMBS. Also known as an information resource dictionary. See also active data dictionary, metadata, and passive data dictionary.
data inconsistency
A condition in which different versions of the same data yield different (inconsistent) results.
data independence
A condition in which data access is unaffected by changes in the physical data storage characteristics.
data integrity
In a relationship database, a condition in which the data in the database complies with all entity and referential integrity constraints.
data management
A process that focuses on data collection, storage, and retrieval. Common data management functions include addition, deletion, modification, and listing.
data processing (DP) specialist
The person responsible for developing and managing a computerized file processing system.
data redundancy
Exists when the same data is stored unnecessarily at different places.
database
A shared, integrated computer structure that houses a collection of related data. A database contains two types of data: end-user data (raw facts) and metadata.
database design
The process that yields the description of the database structure and determines the database components. The second phase of the Database Life Cycle.
database management system (DBMS)
The collection of programs that manages the database structure and controls access to the data stored in the database.
database system
An organization of components that defines and regulates the collection, storage, management, and use of data in a database environment.
desktop database
A single-user database that runs on a personal computer.
discipline-specific databases
A database that contains data focused on specific subject areas.
enterprise database
The overall company data representation, which provides support for present and expected future needs.
field
An alphabetic or numeric character or group of characters that defines a characteristic of a person, place, or thing. For example, a person's Social Security number, address, phone number, and bank balance all constitute fields.
file
A named collection of related records.
general-purpose databases
A database that contains a wide variety of data used in multiple disciplines.
hub
A warehouse of data packets housed in a central location on a local area network. It contains multiple ports that copy the data in the data packets to make it accessible to selected or all segments of the network.
information
The result of processing raw data to reveal its meaning. Information consists of transformed data and facilitates decision making.
islands of information
In the old file system environment, pools of independent, often duplicated, and inconsistent data created and managed by different departments.
knowledge
The body of information and facts about a specific subject. Knowledge implies familiarity, awareness, and understanding of information as it applies to an environment. A key characteristic is that new knowledge can be derived from old knowledge.
logical data format
The way a person views data within the context of a problem domain.
metadata
Data about data; that is, data about data characteristics and relationships. See also data dictionary.
multiuser database
A database that supports multiple concurrent users.
NoSQL
A new generation of database management systems that is not based on the traditional relational database model.
online analytical processing (OLAP)
Decision support system (DSS) tools that use multidimensional data analysis techniques. OLAP creates an advanced data analysis environment that supports decision making, business modeling, and operations research.
online transaction processing (OLTP) database
A database designed primarily to support a company's day-to-day operations. Also known as a operational database, transactional database, or production database.
operational database
A database designed primarily to support a company's day-to-day operations. Also known as a transactional database, OLTP database, or production database.
performance tuning
Activities that make a database perform more efficiently in terms of storage and access speed.
physical data format
The way a computer "sees" (stores) data.
production database
A database designed primarily to support a company's day-to-day operations. Also known as a operational database, transactional database, or OLTP database.
query
A question or task asked by an end user of a database in the form of SQL code. A specific request for data manipulation issued by the end user or the application to the DBMS.
query language
A nonprocedural language that is used by a DBMS to manipulate its data. An example of a query language is SQL.
query result set
The collection of data rows returned by a query.
record
A collection of related (logically connected) fields.
role
In Oracle, a named collection of database access privileges that authorize a user to connect to a database and use its system resources.
router
(1) An intelligent device used to connect dissimilar networks.
(2) Hardware/software equipment that connects multiple and diverse networks.
semistructured data
Data that has already been processed to some extent.
single-user database
A database that supports only one user at a time.
social media
Web and mobile technologies that enable "anywhere, anytime, always on" human interactions.
structural dependence
A data characteristic in which a change in the database schema affects data access, thus requiring changes in all access programs.
structural independence
A data characteristic in which changes in the database schema do not affect data access.
structured data
Data that has been formatted to facilitate storage, use, and information generation.
Structured Query Language (SQL)
A powerful and flexible relational database language composed of commands that enable users to create database and table structures, perform various types of data manipulation and data administration, and query the database to extract useful information.
transactional database
A database designed primarily to support a company's day-to-day operations. Also known as a operational database, OLTP database, or production database.
unstructured data
Data that exists in its original, raw state; that is, in the format in which it was collected.
website
Refers to the Web server and the collection of Web pages stored on the local hard disk of the server computer.
workgroup database
A multiuser database that usually supports fewer than 50 users or is used for a specific department in an organization.
World Wide Web (WWW or the web)
Worldwide network collection of specially formatted and interconnected documents known as Web pages. Also called the Web.
XML database
A database system that stores and manages semistructured XML data.
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