West Civ I Practice Exam 4
Terms in this set (152)
the encomienda system was intended to ____________
convert natives and organize conquered territories
where were the most advanced civilizations in the americas before the europeans appeared?
a confession is a ______________
henry VIII was faced in the 1520s with a(n) ___________ crisis
how many voyages did christopher columbus make across the atlantic?
the spanish armada _____________
was a costly failure for philip II of spain
by around 1600, the main competition faced by europeans trading in asian came from ____________
which of these elements of luther's theology was adopted by the council of trent?
none of these elements were adopted
the notion of the priesthood of all believers was a direct challenge to __________
europe's main competitors for control of trade in asia were the _____________
the most important crop grown in portuguese brazil was _____________
indulgences appealed to those who ____________
wanted release from purgatory for themselves or their loved ones
philip II strengthened the spanish inquisition in the netherlands because he wanted to _____________
find and punish dutch protestants
the religious peace of augsburg is best considered a(n) _____________
inconclusive response to the protestant reformation
the treaty of tordesillas was of limited validity because ______________
it was drawn up by the pope
for the conquistadores, taking part in the spanish conquests was a(n) ______________
opportunity to get rich
which of these was a women's religious order?
who called the diet of worms?
the holy roman emperor
looking at figure 15.1, "european population in millions," what is marked by the year 1400?
recovery from famine and the plague
luther's views on the penalties the church could impose were especially influenced by _____________
st. paul's epistle to the romans
the aztec objective of the "flowery war" was to ____________
obtain prisoners for human sacrifices
looking at figure 15.2, "european population, 1500-1600," which of these patterns is illustrated?
population growth across europe
the french wars of religion ended when ___________
henry IV converted to catholicism
the dutch revolt was a(n) ___________
independence movement inspired by religious persecution
who is the prominent writer of the elizabethan renaissance?
why was the council of trent important?
it reaffirmed the traditional doctrines of the church
considering map 14.1, "the division of western christianity by 1555," which of these remained catholic in 1555
christopher columbus wanted to sail west to china so that _________
western europeans could recapture jerusalem
hernan cortes was responsible for defeat of the __________ in the new world
in 1492, the incan empire was in the process of being ____________
during the period known as the "long sixteenth century," the european population ____________
began to grow consistently across europe
the anabaptists believed baptism should take place ______________
which of these summarizes the notion of cultural relativism?
many values change from culture to culture
the role of john tetzel in the protestant reformation was ______________
a focus of martin luther's call for reform
the slave trade was just one element in the ______________
quakers are considered _____________
plantation colonies usually needed to import _______________
the technologies innovations in maritime technology achieved by the 1500s were important because they ____________
made it possible for europeans to sail anywhere
unlike luther's style of reform, zwingli ___________
combined secular and religious governance
poland legally merged with which state in 1569?
which of these was part of the magisterial reformation?
what did the europeans explorers to the new world seek?
gold and new routes to the east
luther intended for his 95 theses to __________
initiate a debate on the buying and selling of indulgences
most historians agree that the price revolution was primarily caused by ___________
alchemy is an example of _____________
catholic families in this period tended to be __________ than protestant families
martin luther was supported and protected by _______
frederick the wise
on disciplining children: how the disobedient, evil, and corrupted youth of these anxious last days can be bettered was a _________ treatise
which country had the largest population in europe by 1600?
which of these caused the greatest mortality in the americas resulting from the european conquests?
which of these men first sailed from europe to india?
vasco da gama
the strength of the aztecs was based largely on ___________
improved farming methods
john calvin's reform movement was centered in ________
literacy in fifteenth-century europe was __________
largely restricted to urban areas
how did the conquest of peru affect spain?
the spaniards gained vast wealth in gold and silver, emerging as a major european power
which religious order played a critical role in christian missions in brazil?
the calvinist view of children was rooted in the idea that _________
children are naturally evil and must be disciplined
the european royal family who most supported the catholic church during the 1500s was the ________ family
which of these met from 1545 to 1563 to consider catholic doctrine?
the council of trent
teresa of avila wrote a new rule for the ________
unlike france in the same period, poland-lithuania in the 1500s experienced ___________
less religious strife
calvinism was particularly popular among the french ________
which of these men conquered the native empire in peru?
the incan empire was weakened just before the spanish conquest because they had __________
just fought a civil war
which theorist developed the english ideas of royal supremacy and the rejection of papal authoirty?
the work of bartolome de las casas was an example of _________
theories viewing native americans as innocents
the boyars were russian _________
the protestant reformation began with the _________
protests of martin luther
russia's "time of troubles" ended with __________
the election of the tsar michael romanov in 1613
the mestizo population of the americas was largely a result of which of these factors?
most spanish immigrants were males
europeans bought the first african slaves __________
to work in the cape verdes sugar cane fields
those who were designated the "dishonest" poor were assumed to be _________
families in northwestern europe tended to be _______ than those in southern europe
which of these was granted to spaniards in the encomienda system?
religious orders such as the jesuits were inspired by __________
about half of the witchcraft trials between 1450 and 1750 were in __________
the holy roman empire
europeans sought new routes to the east in the 1400s because ___________
they wanted to circumvent ottoman control of the trade routes to asia
which of these made voyages to sub-saharan africa appear necessary to europeans in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries?
muslim control of the african gold trade
witchcraft trials in the early modern period ___________
were ended when it became clear that accusations were random and unchecked
in the short term, which of these was the most influential element of the columbian exchange?
historians maintain that a small group of europeans was ultimately able to conquer the vast aztec and inca empires because of ___________
luther argued that humans achieve salvation _________
by believing in god
the dutch revolt was an uprising against ________ rule
different types of christianity in the 1500s were called confessions because _________
each type of christianity followed its own statement of faith
who was the most famous french essayist during the 1500s?
michel de montaigne
the middle passage in the slave trade was the journey ___________
across the atlantic
the negus was the emperor of __________
the christian humanists ___________
analyzed the bible using philology
what did european explorers to the new world seek?
gold and new routes to the east
the scots confession of 1560 did for scotland what the ________ did for england
who is the most prominent writer of the elizabethan renaissance?
maleficia was __________
using magic to do harm
luther's studies on which sacrament helped shape his lutheran theology?
__________ was the most prominent christian humanist
when did europeans realize that the new world was not anywhere near china?
after the journeys of amerigo vespucci
the european royal family who most supported the catholic church during the 1500s was the __________ family
in calvinism, _________ largely filled the role played by priests in catholicism
goods with inelastic demand are those for which __________
demand remains constant
religious freedom in switzerland was primarily a result of _________
prices in europe after the 1550s ___________
rose consistently for a century
which of these european cities of the 1500s resembled cordoba under muslim rule?
how did martin luther view the german peasants' revolt?
he opposed it because he saw the reformation as a spiritual phenomenon
the columbian question refers to debate about the __________
origins of syphillis
what two fifteenth-century inventions made books more widely available?
moveable type and cheap paper
the french wars of religion ended in 1598 with a _________
which of these helped to elevate the claims of the tsars to prominence in eastern europe in the fifteenth century?
the fall of constantinople
amerigo vespucci was the first european to __________
name the americas the new world
in the early 1400s, chinese voyages traveled west, as far as ___________
the east coast of africa
which of these popes launched the catholic reformation?
which of these best summarizes the results of the council of trent?
it embraced reforms, but none of those proposed by luther
at the diet of worms in 1521, martin luther ___________
refused to retract his criticisms of the roman catholic church
most christian humanists were from _________
who founded the society of jesus?
ignatius of loyola
columbus called the natives he encountered in the bahama indians because __________
he thought he was in india
what is john calvin's most famous work?
institutes of the christian religion
the caravel was a _______ used by portugal from the 1400s
the growth of catholicism in poland in the 1500s was a primarily a result of ________
europeans were drawn in to sub-saharan africa in their quest for ___________
gold and slaves
the zwinglian reformation___________
was not initially influenced by the lutheran reformation
the assassination of william the silent in 1584 was significant because ___________
his killer was motivated by religious rather than political reasons
what disease did several numbers of the habsburg royal family suffer from?
the economies kingdoms of mali and guinea depended on _____________
why did columbus apparently set out on his voyages based on the shortest calculation of the distance to asia?
it was expedient
in france, religious conflict was exacerbated by _________
which monarch tried unsuccessfully to bring catholicism back to england?
the peace of augsburg ____________
established the principle of cuius regions, eius religio
which of these were most willing to give women an equal spiritual role in their churches?
the institution of slavery ____________
existed in africa well before the european transatlantic slave trade
which of these was the state most tolerant of religious diversity?
diabolism is an example of _________
in general, settler colonies were given _________
great freedom in organizing their colony
which of these was the trigger for luther's protests?
the sale of indulgences
the acts of supremacy and succession created ___________
the church of england
who was the greatest spanish literary figure of the 1500s?
miguel de cervantes saavedra
the requerimiento was part of the process of __________ in the americas
conversion to christianity
who were the recusants?
christians who did not attend church of england services
the technological innovations in maritime technology achieved by the 1500s were important because they _________
made it possible for europeans to sail anywhere
as a form of punishment, the auto-da-fe stood out because it was ___________
the first voyage from europe that traveled around the world set out under whose leadership?
in the praise of folly, erasmus ___________
criticized and mocked both priests and monks
the elizabethan settlement _________
was a compromise between catholicism and protestantism
which of these aspects of family life in europe in the 1500s were generally linked?
later marriages and smaller households
luther's reforms appealed to women _________
less as the reformation advanced
which of these can be considered a product of the catholic reformation?
the index of forbidden books
the aztec objective of the "flowery war" was to _________
obtain prisoners for human sacrifices
southern european marriage practices tended to promote __________
as a result of the spanish conquest, the population of mexico fell to about _________ of its pre-conquest level
the edict of nantes _________
allowed the french huguenots a degree of independence in france
how was the holy roman empire governed?
it was a loose confederation of many states nominally ruled by the holy roman emperor
protestant middle-class children in the early modern period were __________
subject to strict discipline
europeans wanted to establish colonies in asia mainly _________
for commercial reasons
population growth during the 1500s can be explained primarily by ___________
the emergence of commercial agriculture in parts of europe