216 terms

DAT Bootcamp - Plants

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what are the 3 main components of a seed?
seed coat; storage material; embryo
the _____ is a hard outer layer that covers and protects the seed from various external forces
seed coat
the _____ stores nutrients for the embryo in a seed
endosperm
the _____ refers to the first leaves that appear on a seedling
cotyledon
what are the 4 main parts of the embryo of a seed?
radicle; hypocotyl; plumule; epicotyl
the _____ is the part of the embryo that develops into the young root
radicle
the _____ is the first to emerge from the seed coat, and it anchors the plant into the soil
radicle
what makes up the young shoot (things above the soil)?
hypocotyl, plumule, and epicotyl
the _____ is the bottom region of the young shoot (above the roots but below the cotyledons)
hypocotyl
the _____ develops into the very top region of the young shoot (shoot tip)
epicotyl
the _____ is found in between the hypocotyl and epicotyl, and it develops into young leaves
plumule
_____ is the sprouting of a seedling from a previously dormant seed
germination
seeds remain in a state of _____ until environmental conditions are suitable for growth
dormancy
what is the most important environmental "cue" that kick starts germination?
water
imbibition
the absorption of water by the seed
_____ is the growth of a seedling into a more mature plant
development
in plants, growth takes place via repeated cell division/mitosis at the _____
meristems
what are the 2 types of meristem?
apical and lateral
where are apical meristems located?
the very tips of roots and shoots
_____ cause the plant to grow vertically
apical meristems
what is the location and function of lateral meristems?
found where horizontal growth can occur

(i.e., lateral meristems function to increase thickness)
lateral meristems include _____ & _____
vascular cambium; cork cambium
where does primary growth occur in a new hatchling?
apical meristems
_____ cover and protect the apical meristem, so the meristem can further penetrate soil
root caps
what are the 3 zones created by apical meristem divisions?
zone of division; zone of elongation; zone of maturation
_____ is the vertical growth of a plant at its apical meristems
primary growth
_____ is the horizontal growth of a plant at its lateral meristems
secondary growth
what is the vascular cambium?
a ring of meristematic tissue located between the primary xylem and primary phloem
cells that are produced on the _____ of the vascular cambium ring become the secondary xylem
inside
cells produced on the outside of the vascular cambium ring become the _____
secondary phloem
the _____ forms wood (along with pith)
secondary xylem

(cells inside the vascular cambium = secondary xylem)
secondary phloem makes _____, which is constantly being shed and replaced
bark
the _____ is a ring of meristematic tissue located beyond the phloem, closer to the periphery of the stem
cork cambium
the cork cambium divides repeatedly to form _____
cork
cork is the _____ layer of bark, which acts as a protective plant layer
outermost
all plants undergo _____ growth but only woody plants undergo _____ growth
primary; secondary
what are the 3 categories of plant tissue?
ground; vascular; dermal
the _____ tissue provides structural support to the plant
ground
the ground tissue makes up the most of a plant's _____
mass
what are the 3 types of ground tissue?
parenchyma; collenchyma; sclerenchyma
_____ has the thinnest cell walls of the 3 ground tissue types
parenchyma
parenchyma is a _____ tissue, which provides the _____ of the plant
filler; bulk

(parenchyma = ground tissue type)
the _____ ground tissue cells provide extra plant support, especially in areas where the plant is actively growing
collenchyma
collenchyma ground tissue have _____ cell walls
irregular
sclerenchyma ground tissue is the main _____ of the plant
structural support
have the thickest cell walls of the 3 ground tissue types
sclerenchyma
what are the 2 main components of the vascular tissue?
xylem and phloem
what are the functions of the vascular tissue?
transport material from the source to the sink
the _____ is where plant nutrients are generated
source
the _____ is where plant nutrients are used
sink
the _____ transports sugars from the leaves (source) to the roots (sink)
phloem

(phloem is a sieve tube)
sugars are created in the _____ via photosynthesis
leaves
what is the phloem made of?
sieve and companion cells
sieve cells are long cells with _____ that allow substances to flow through them
pores
_____ are connected together to form a sort of continuous tunnel
sieve cells
sieve cells lack _____
organelles
_____ cells are connected to sieve cells
companion
companion cells have the necessary _____ to carry out metabolic functions
organelles
_____ connect sieve and companion cells
plasmodesmata
the _____ transports water from the roots (source) to the leaves (sink)
xylem

(notice roots are acting as a source of water in this case, while leaves are acting as a sink for water)
what are the 2 cells that make up xylem?
tracheids and vessel elements
_____ are long, thin, and organized so that they are in contract with other _____
tracheids; tracheids
water flows from tracheid to tracheid through _____ found at their overlapping, tapered ends
pits
_____ are shorter and stouter than tracheids, and they are in contact with other _____ (for the most part)
vessel elements; vessel elements
water flows from vessel element to vessel element through _____
perforations
in addition to water conduction, tracheids and vessel elements also provide..?
structural support
the _____ is the central region of the root or stem, which is formed by vascular bundles of xylem and phloem
stele
the _____ is tissue found at the very center of the root or stem
pith
the pith is made of _____ ground tissue
parenchyma
what are the primary functions of the pith?
storeage and the transport of materials (like vascular tissues)
_____ is the outer layer that protects the plant interior
dermal tissue
the _____ tissue regulates how the plant is affected by its external environment
dermal
the _____ is the type of dermal tissue that covers the outside of the plant
epidermis
the cuticle is a _____ layer that covers the epidermis, and it '_____' the plant
waxy; waterproofs
the _____ is especially found in plants found in hot climates
cuticle
root hairs project out of the _____ of root cells
epidermis
_____ increase the surface area of the epidermis, which allows for greater water and nutrient uptake
root hairs
what are the 2 ways to move water between plant cells?
symplastic pathway; apoplastic pathway
how does water move in the apoplastic pathway?
water movement outside the cell, within the cell wall
how does water move in the symplastic pathway?
through the cell's cytoplasm
the _____ regulates which substances can enter roots --> travel to the rest of the plant
Casparian strip
what is the Casparian strip made of?
a fatty, waxy substance that makes it impenetrable
where is the Casparian strip found?
in the endodermal cell walls of plant roots
do plant cell walls have a way of filtering substances?
no
do the plasma membranes of root cells have a way of filtering substances?
yes, they are semipermeable membranes
stomata are found on the _____ of leaves
lower epidermis
_____ allow for gas exchange between the external environment and the plant
stomata
what are the specialized epidermal cells that surround stomata called?
guard cells
what do guard cells do?
control the opening and closing of stomata
how do guard cells open stomata?
K+ ions diffuse in, which causes water to follow by osmosis --> the guard cell becomes turgid
during what period of the day is CO2 low in plants?
during the daytime, when photosynthesis is occurring
when are stomata open, and why?
stomata are usually open during the day to allow for the influx of more CO2 for photosynthesis

(stomata may close during the day to prevent transpiration, or if the plant is a CAM plant)
during what period of the day is CO2 high in plants?
photosynthesis does not occur at night time, so this is when CO2 builds up
when are stomata closed?
during the night, or during high daytime temperatures (to prevent transpiration)

(stomata are open at night in CAM plants)
why do stomata close at night (excluding CAM plants)?
CO2 is high and photosynthesis cannot occur
why do stomata close when temperature is high?
to prevent excessive water loss by transpiration
the _____ cells are found between the upper and lower epidermis (middle of the leaf)
mesophyll
what are the 2 types of mesophyll?
palisade; spongy
the palisade mesophyll are tightly-packed cells that carry out _____
photosynthesis
the palisade mesophyll are found closer to the _____ epidermis
upper
spongy mesophyll are _____, and they are found closer to the _____ epidermis (near stomata)
loosely-packed; lower
spongy mesophyll allows for _____ between the external environment and the leaf because they are loosely packed
gas exchange
what do bundle sheath cells do?
surround and protect vascular bundles from air exposure
the transport of _____ in a plant only goes from the roots to the leaves, meaning it is unidirectional
water

(xylem moves H2O in 1 direction)
what is the primary reason that water flows unidirectionally in plants?
transpirational pull
_____ is a cohesive force that follows the cohesion-tension theory
transpirational pull
_____ is when similar particles or surfaces cling to one another
cohesion
_____ is when water evaporates from leaf stomata, creating tension that pulls water from the roots to the leaves
transpiration
water's unidirectional movement can also be attributed to _____ within the xylem, which is an adhesive force
capillary action
_____ is when dissimilar particles of surfaces are attracted to each other
adhesion
how does water get into the root?
root pressure (osmotic gradient)
plants are also said to have a unidirectional flow due to _____ root pressure that pushes the water column upwards
osmotic
desiccation is the state/process of extreme drying, which can result from _____ in a plant
transpiration
plants can minimize _____ by closing their stomata
desiccation (transpiration)
the _____ hypothesis explains the movement of sugar in relation to the movement of water through the vessel elements of a plant
pressure-flow
_____ is a gaseous hormone that increases the ripening of fruit
ethylene
_____ promote stem growth by loosening cellulose fibers, increasing cell wall plasticity, and causing cell growth
auxins
auxins work with cytokinins to promote _____ and _____
cell differentiation; division
auxins are responsible for plant _____
tropisms (growth in a certain direction)

(auxin = IAA)
auxins cause _____ growth on the _____ side of the stem it concentrates on
increased; same

(auxin = IAA)
_____ is the curving of a plant stem towards light
phototropism
_____ is the curving of a plant stem to oppose gravity
gravitropism
_____ is plant growth in response to contact
thigmotropism
cytokinins work with _____ to regulate cell differentiation and division
auxins
the ratio of auxin:cytokinin affects _____
cell growth
cytokinins prevent _____ of plants
senescence (aging)
what are some of the main effects of gibberellins?
stem and shoot elongation; elimination of seed dormancy; flowering; fruit production; leaf/fruit death
abscisic acid functions in times of plant _____
stress
_____ promotes dormant seeds, closes stomata, and inhibits growth
abscisic acid
the _____ is the ability to exist and alternate between haploid/diploid forms
alternation of generations
fungi are non-plants that exhibit _____
alternation of generations
what parts are haploid in the alternation of generations in a plant?
spores; gametophyte; gametes
spores are produced from the _____ via _____
sporophyte; meiosis
the gametophyte is produced from _____ via _____
spores; mitosis
gametes are produced from haploid _____
gametophytes
what parts are diploid in the alternation of generations?
zygote; sporophyte
the zygote is produced from the _____ of haploid _____
fusion; gametes
the sporophyte is produced from the _____ via _____
zygote; mitosis
_____ are sporophyte structures in which haploid spores are formed
sporangia
_____ plants produce 1 type of spore, making it a bisexual gametophyte
homosporous
_____ plants produce 2 types of spores (male and female)
heterosporous
_____ give rise to male gametophytes, and they are produced by heterosporous plants
microspores
_____ give rise to female gametophytes, and they are produced by heterosporous plants
megaspores
_____ are nonvascular plants without roots
bryophytes
bryophytes must remain small and short, and they grow _____
horizontally
bryophytes are found in _____ habitats
moist
what are some examples of bryophytes?
mosses, hornworts, and liverworts
bryophytes do not have roots, but they do have _____
rhizoids
_____ are hair-like projections that aid in water absorption and provide minor anchorage, so they are similar to roots
rhizoids
what stage to bryophytes spend most of their life cycle in?
gametophyte stage
bryophytes possess flagellated _____ and use _____ as their dispersal unit
sperm; spores
bryophytes have a reduced sporophyte, which consists of which 3 things?
seta; foot; sporangia
bryophyte sporophytes are usually dependent/attached to the _____
gametophyte
tracheophytes are _____ plants
vascular (xylem and phloem)
because tracheophytes have vessels, they grow _____
vertically
_____ have a root system that anchors them
tracheophytes
what stage do tracheophytes spend most of their life in?
sporophyte stage
what are the 2 general types of vascular plants?
plants with seeds and plants without seeds
seedless _____ include lycophytes and pterophytes (club moss, quillworts, fern, and horsetail)
tracheophytes
ferns are seedless tracheophytes that formed the first forests during the _____ period
carboniferous
most seedless tracheophytes are _____, and have
have flagellated sperm
heterosporous
seed-bearing tracheophytes are _____
heterosporous
what are the 2 types of seed-bearing tracheophytes?
gymnosperms and angiosperms
_____ (seed-bearing tracheophytes) have seeds that are not protected
gymnosperms
what is the most common example of a gymnosperm?
conifers (cone-bearing plants)

fir, spruce, aspen, redwood, and pine are other examples
gymnosperms were the first _____ on earth
seed plant
the _____ is the dominant generation of gymnosperms
sporophyte
most gymnosperms disperse un-flagellated sperm by _____
wind
_____ (seed-bearing tracheophytes) have seeds that are protected
angiosperms
angiosperms are _____-bearing, and they can produce _____
flower; fruit
angiosperm seeds are protected/located in _____
fruit (considered the ovary of the plant)
what is the most abundant class of plant living today?
angiosperms
angiosperms disperse un-flagellated sperm by _____ or _____ (as pollen)
wind; animals
many angiosperms package their sperm in small, easily-movable _____
pollen grains
1 of the most notable characteristics of angiosperms is that they exhibit _____ fertilization
double
what are the components of a flower?
petals; stamen; carpel/pistil
angiosperm flowers have a male sex organ (_____) and a female sex organ (_____)
stamen; carpel/pistil
flower _____ function to attract animals to achieve pollination
petals
what is a stamen?
male sex organ of angiosperm flowers
what are the 2 components of an angiosperm stamen (male)?
anther; filament
what is the function of the stamen filament for male angiosperms?
to support the anther
what is the function of the stamen anther for male angiosperms?
the anther is the site of microspore formation via meiosis
angiosperm microspores can undergo mitosis to form pollen, which is made of which 2 cell types?
generative cell; tube cell
generative cells (from angiosperm microspores) contain:
sperm
tube cells (from angiosperm microspores) eventually develop into the _____, which is used during fertilization with the female carpel/pistil
pollen tube
angiosperm microspore mitosis results in _____, which is made of generative cells and tube cells
pollen
what is a carpel/pistil?
female sex organ of angiosperm flowers
what are the 3 components of the angiosperm carpel/pistil?
stigma; style; ovary
the stigma is found at the _____ of the carpel/pistil
top
the _____ is the tube found between the stigma and ovary
style
the ovary is found at the _____ of the carpel/pistil
bottom
an angiosperm flower's ovary is the part of the carpel/pistil that contains the _____
ovule
ovules contain the _____ of angiosperm flowers
female gamete (egg)
how does double fertilization occur in angiosperms?
generative cell --> 2 sperm --> 1 fertilization makes the seed --> other sperm combines with polar nuclei --> endosperm
what does the ovary turn into in angiosperms?
fruit
fruit (and the animals that eat them) aids in the process of _____ for angiosperms
gene migration
what are the 2 types of angiosperms?
monocotyledons; dicotyledons
monocotyledons (monocots) have a _____ cotyledon
single
monocots have _____ leaf venation, with flower organs in multiples of _____
parallel; 3's
monocots have scattered _____, and their root system is _____
vascular bundles; fibrous
monocots have _____ & _____ leaves
long; narrow
dicotyledons (dicots) have _____ cotyledons
2
dicots have _____ leaf venation, with flower organs in multiples of _____
netted/branching; 4's or 5's
dicots have _____ vascular bundles, and they have a _____ (root system)
circular; taproot
dicots have _____ leaves
broad
what are the 3 main components of a biogeochemical cycle?
reservoirs; assimilation; release
what 2 forms of nitrogen are essential for plant growth?
ammonia (NH3) and nitrate (NO3-)
nitrogen fixing bacteria are found in _____
root nodules of legumes
nitrogen fixing bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into _____ & _____
ammonia (NH3); ammonium (NH4+)
nitrifying bacteria convert ammonia (NH3) & ammonium (NH4+) into _____
nitrites (NO2-)
nitrifying bacteria convert nitrites (NO2-) into _____
nitrates (NO3-)
plants assimilate _____ into amino acids and chlorophyll
nitrates (NO3-)
plants are the _____ of the biosphere and are eaten by _____
producers; consumers
_____ is the term for death and decay
detritus
denitrifying bacteria convert nitrates (NO3-) into _____
atmospheric nitrogen (N2)
plants and nitrogen modulating bacteria have a _____ relationship
symbiotic
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