OTA 106: Foundations of Human Occupation MIDTERM PREP Wright College 2018
ENGAGEMENT IN OCCUPATION TO SUPPORT PARTICIPATION IN CONTEXT
Terms in this set (64)
The ordinary and familiar things we do every day.
A set of actions and behaviors that have a social definition -- example: parent, student, employee.
An activity directed toward a goal or that satisfies a need that a person considers meaningful. Also called "meaningful doing." UNIQUE TO EACH PERSON AND INFLUENCED BY HIS PERSONAL LIFE EXPERIENCES.
The use of purposeful activity or interventions designed to achieve functional outcomes which promote health, prevent injury or disability, and which develop, improve, sustain or restore the HIGHEST POSSIBLE LEVEL OF INDEPENDENCE.
Four essential Goals of Occupational Therapy
1. Increase INDEPENDENT FUNCTIONING. 2. Enhance an individual's ongoing DEVELOPMENT. 3. PREVENT new or further disability. 4. MAINTAIN an individual's health status.
Activities that help people meet the challenges or difficulties that impair or threaten their ability to engage in occupations that are basic to their life occupational roles.
Therapeutic Activity Requirements: P.L.A.G.A.N.
1. PURPOSEFUL. 2. Individual LIFESTYLE/LIVING SITUATION. 3. Involves the client in ACTIVE-DOING. 4. GOAL-DIRECTED. 5. Is culturally, socially, physically and/or developmentally APPROPRIATE. 6. Addresses the unique NEEDS of each client.
Therapeutic Activity can be used in a variety of ways:
1. Evaluation. 2. Facilitation. 3. Restoration. 4. Maintenance.
EVALUATING a client with therapeutic Activity
OT Practitioners observe and assess quality of performance while a client attempts and activity that relates to their occupations and roles.
Client performance of occupations can improve by using therapeutic activity to FACILITATE the client in gaining skills. Teaching strategies to facilitate improvement.
Therapeutic Activity can help to RESTORE or REGAIN lost function. The OTP plans the activity to target the development of lost abilities.
Therapeutic Activity can be used to MAINTAIN the client's current functional abilities.
Therapeutic Activity can be organized and used to meet the specific needs of individuals using two strategies:
1. GRADING of activities. 2. ADAPTING activities.
GRADING of activity
Changing the process of how the activity is typically done in order to INCREASE or DECREASE the amount of performance demand.
ADAPTING of an activity
Changing some part of either activity or the environment from the usual way the activity is done so that the individual can accomplish the activity. Example: Using a reacher if client can't bend over; placing a grab bar and shower seat in the shower for poor balance.
DOMAIN OF OT consists of:
A variety of ways to break down and define daily life activities, or occupations; Outlines the area of human experience in which OT practitioners provide service.
DOMAIN of OT Model
Helping people to engage in desired occupations in any areas of daily life and in a variety of contexts.
DOMAIN of OT includes
1. Seven Performance areas/roles. 2. Three Performance Skills. 3. Performance Patterns. 4. Context. 5. Activity Demands. 6. Client Factors.
DOMAIN 1. Seven performance areas/Roles PLEAS WorkS
1. Play. 2. Leisure. 3. Education. 4. ADLs and Instrumental ADLs - higher cognition needed. 5. Social Participation. 6. Work. 7. Rest/Sleep.
DOMAIN 2. Three Performance Skills
1. Process Skills. -- thinking; processing.
2. Motor Skills. -- movement; doing.
3. Communication/Interaction Skills.
DOMAIN 3. Performance Patterns
1. HABITS: Automatic behaviors or actions that are part of functional patterns of everyday life.
2. ROUTINES: Occupations with established regular sequences and provide structure for the flow of daily activities.
3. RITUALS: Actions that have cultural, spiritual, or social meaning.
4. ROLES: Behaviors and actions expected of a client by the societal and cultural contexts in which they are immersed.
DOMAIN 4. Context
!. Conditions that surround or are a part of a person's occupations.
2. These conditions reveal the UNIQUE and individualized meaning of the person's occupations.
3. Six aspects of context:
Six aspects of CONTEXT:
1. CULTURAL. Ethnicity, family, attitudes, beliefs, values.
2. PHYSICAL. Bedroom vs. classroom; shopping mall vs. corner store.
3. SOCIAL. Dinner with a friend; swim team; U.S. Army.
4. PERSONAL. Age, gender, socioeconomic status, educational level.
5. SPIRITUAL. That which inspires and motivates the person.
6. TEMPORAL. Stages of life, time of day, time of year.
DOMAIN 5. Definition of Activity Demands. 3 examples
The types of skills, knowledge and abilities a person must currently have to perform a particular activity or occupation with success. Examples are: 1. SPACE demands, 2. SOCIAL demands, and 3. REQUIRED ACTIONS.
DOMAIN 6. Client Factors and 4 examples
The STATUS of the Body Parts and Body Systems of the consumer. 1. Thinking functions - recognition, judgement. 2. Emotional functions. 3. Seeing and hearing functions. 4. Functions of joints, bones, organs.
OCCUPATIONAL PROFILE: GATHERING DATA
The occupational profile is a summary of a client's occupational history and experiences, patterns of daily living, interests, values, and needs. It is NOT a medical history, but a written picture of the client based upon the client's self-reported problems, concerns, and needs are in performance areas. Includes loss, lack of skills, disruption of habits, sources of problem, cultural factors. Based on client and/or family interview. DETERMINES WHAT CLIENT'S THERAPEUTIC GOALS ARE.
Possible Client Desired Outcome Goals of Therapy
1. Restore roles/occupations? 2. Develop new roles/occupations. 3. Maintain current roles/occupations. 4. Prevent future loss or disruption.
A complex, problem-solving process using critical thinking/problem solving skills. Use of critical thinking and judgement to develop and individualized client treatment plan.
Three Key TOOLS OF THE PROFESSION where clinical reasoning is applied
1. Therapeutic Use of Self. 2. Activity Analysis. 3. Teaching and Learning Purposes.
Therapeutic Use of Self: T.U.S.
PLANNED INTERACTION. A practitioner using her own personal qualities to draw people out. The art of RELATING to others in a way that facilitates healing and wellness and does not interfere with it. The OT Practitioner has self-awareness by recognizing personal values and beliefs, such as empathy, compassion, sense of humor, approachability, tone, touch, eye contact, respect, active listening, etc. The practitioner also treats psychosocial needs.
The process of analyzing an activity by breaking it down into its component parts to determine whether its inherent properties can elicit client motivation, and fulfill a client's needs in acquiring or maintaining occupational performance roles, skills, and/or patterns.
ACTIVITY ANALYSIS: Purpose
To determine if the activity/occupation has therapeutic potential or value in appropriately meeting the therapy goals established for the individual.
ACTIVITY ANALYSIS: Strategies
To decide how to select and design an activity for a particular impairment or limitation.
ACTIVITY ANALYSIS: Components
To evaluate a consumer and identify which components of the activity could not be done successfully.
General ACTIVITY ANALYSIS FORMAT for specific activity
1. Breaking down analysis into each of the 3 general Performance Skills/Body Functions.
2. Establishing Frequency and Level of Use of each Skill.
3. Listing Required Actions for the particular activity being analyzed.
PERFORMANCE SKILLS/BODILY FUNCTIONS --used in Activity being Analyzed
1. Motor Skills: Neuromuscular-Skeletal.
2. Cognitive, Perceptual and Affective: Process Skills/Mental Functions.
3. Sensory/Perceptual Functions.
4. Communication Skills.
1.--MOTOR SKILLS: NEUROMUSCULAR-SKELETAL
1. POSTURE: Balance; Alignment, sitting and standing. 2. MOBILITY: Ambulation; Range of Motion. 3. COORDINATION: Gross Motor; Fine Motor; Bilateral Hand Integration; Crossing the Body's Midline--Midsagittal Plane; Laterality--hand dominance. 4. MUSCLE FUNCTIONS--MUSCLE POWER, STRENGTH AND EFFORT: Move; Transport/Carry; Lift; Grip/Hold. 5. ENERGY: Endurance.
2. --COGNITIVE, PERCEPTUAL and AFFECTIVE: PROCESS SKILLS/MENTAL FUNCTIONS
1. ORIENTATION FUNCTIONS: Person; Place; Time.
2. MEMORY FUNCTIONS: Short Term Memory; Long Term Memory.
3. ATTENTION FUNCTIONS: Attention Span.
4. THOUGHT FUNCTIONS: Recognition; Categorization; Sequencing.
5. HIGHER LEVEL COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS: Learning; Time Management; Problem Solving.
3. --SENSORY/PERCEPTUAL FUNCTIONS
1. SENSORY FUNCTIONS AND PAIN--INTERPRETATION OF SENSORY STIMULI: Tactile; Vision; Auditory; Olfactory; Proprioceptive Function--awareness of body in space; Vestibular Function--Identifying an object by feeling it without seeing it..
2. PERCEPTUAL FUNCTIONS: Right-Left Hand Discrimination; Form Constancy; Stereognosis.
4. --COMMUNICATION--INTERACTION SKILLS
1. Social Conduct.
2. Interpersonal Skills.
5. Coping Skills.
The acquisition of knowledge and/or skill. 75% of learning comes from experience, while 25% is from school.
3. Kinesthetic--hands on.
Mosey's Guidelines to Teaching
1. Use Good Communication Skills.
2. Accept the client for who he is.
3. "Just Right" Challenge--begin where the person's current level of abilities is.
4. Current culture and environment.
5. Voice volume and pace.
6. Support Active Learning.
7. Control consequences of the learning process.
8. Provide opportunities for trial and error.
9. Provide opportunity for practice and repetition.
10. Person sets own goals.
11. Practice new skills in different situations. ex. change rooms to wash hands.
12. Ensure person understands what is to be learned from beginning and throughout process.
13. Move from simple to complex.
14. Encourage creative problem solving--person figures it out. Offer feedback.
15. Watch for and acknowledge when the learner is experiencing stress, anxiety that shuts down learning.
PHILOSOPHY OF A PROFESSION
A set of shared beliefs that form a foundation for how we understand and practice our profession.
OT is based on the belief that purposeful activity--occupation--may be used to prevent and mediate dysfunction, and to elicit maximum adaptation.
OT PHILOSOPHY: THE SEVEN CORE VALUES
1. Commitment and Caring.
2. Respect for Differences.
3. Independence, Collaboration, and Community.
5. Dignity and Empathy.
7. Good Judgement/Prudence.
The characteristics and knowledge of a particular group of people, encompassing language, religion, cuisine, social habits, music and arts.
Fear or dislike of strangers/foreigners.
Generalization of a population based upon limited personal experiences.
Prejudging a group negatively based upon believed stereotypes.
to lean toward one side.
Judgement based upon traditional gender roles.
Hatred toward/wanting to harm or make suffer another gender--usually female.
Coming from another culture--loss of old traditions to adapt to new culture.
Something that us passed down from generation to generation.
Action based on your society's practice.
The cultural modification of an individual, group, or people by adapting to or borrowing traits from another culture.
A social group that shares a common and distinctive culture, religion, language.
Having or combining the cultural attitudes and customs of two nations, peoples, or ethnic groups.
Belief in things that are irrational, not real or possible.
Culturally Competent Healthcare
The ability to provide care to patients with diverse values, beliefs and behaviors, including tailoring health care delivery to meet patients' social, cultural and linguistic needs.
Culture of Disability
The sum total of behaviors, beliefs, ways of living, and material artifacts that are unique to persons affected by disability.
Engagement in Occupation to Support Participation in Context