46 terms

Quick Biology Review on Cell Reproduction

a review of chapter 8 cell reproduction
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Terms in this set (...)

chromosome
rod shaped structures made of DNA
histone
proteins which eukaryotic DNA wrap around to maintain their shape
chromatid
half a chromosome that forms as the DNA copies itself before division
centromere
point where two chromosomes are joined
chromatin
less tightly coiled DNA complex
sex chromosomes
chromosomes that determine the sex of an organism
autosomes
all chromosomes in an organism except for sex chromosomes
homologous chromosomes
same size, shape, and carry genes for the same trait
karyotype
photomicrograph of chromosomes in a normal dividing cell found in a human
diploid
cell having two autosomes for each homologous pair
haploid
cells which contain only one set of chromosomes
binary fission
division of a prokaryotic cell into two offspring cells
mitosis
results in new cells with genetic material that is identical to the genetic material of the original cell
asexual reproduction
the production of offspring from one parent
meiosis
results in four haploid cells instead of two diploid cells
gametes
haploid reproductive cells
cell cycle
repeating set of events in the life of a cell
interphase
the time between cell divisions that is divided into three phases
cytokinesis
the division of the cell's cytoplasm
G1 phase
first stage of interphase where offspring cells grow to mature size
S phase
second stage of interphase where DNA is copied
G2 phase
third stage of interphase that prepares for cell division
G0 phase
phase where cells don't prepare for division
prophase
first stage of mitosis that begins with the shortening and tight-coiling of DNA into rod-shaped chromosomes
centrosomes
two pairs of dark spots that appear next to the disappearing nucleus
centrioles
small, cylindrical bodies contained in the centrosomes
spindle fibers
fibers made of microtubules radiate from centrosomes in preparation for metaphase
mitotic spindle
array of spindle fibers which serves to equally divide the chromatids between the two offspring cells during cell division
kinetochore fibers
attach to the kinetochore and extend to attach each chromatin to a centrosome
kinetochore
disk-shaped protein found in the centromere region of each chromosome
polar fibers
extend across the dividing cell from centrosome to centrosome
metaphase
second phase of mitosis in which chromosomes are easier to identify
anaphase
stage of mitosis during which chromatin separate
telophase
stage when chromosomes reach opposite ends of the cell and spindle fibers disassemble
cleavage furrow
area of the cell membrane that pinches in and eventually separates the dividing cell into two cells
cell plate
vesicles from the Golgi apparatus join together at the midline of the dividing cell; this eventually forms a cell wall
cancer
the uncontrolled growth of cells
synpasis
the pairing of homologous chromosomes
tetrad
pair of homologous chromosomes
crossing-over
portions of chromatid break off and attach to adjacent chromatids on the homologous chromosomes
genetic recombination
the process of exchange of genetic material between paternal and maternal chromosomes to create a new mixture
independent assortment
random separation of the homologous chromosomes resulting in genetic variation
spermatogenesis
production of sperm cells
oogenesis
production of mature egg cells or ova
polar bodies
other three products of meiosis that will eventually degenerate
sexual reproduction
production of offspring through meiosis and the union of a sperm and an egg