9 terms

APES Biome Classification

Tundra (Arctic Tundra)
- Low fertility in soil
- Permafrost, low species richness and primary productivity, common dwarf trees
- 10-25 cm precipitation annually
- Cold, long winters and short summers
- Extreme northern latitudes
Boreal Forests (Taiga)
- Acidic soil with few minerals
- Patchy permafrost, coniferous tres, large and medium-sized mammals
- 50 cm precipitation annually
- Cold winters
- South of tundra (North America and Eurasia)
Temperate Rain Forest
- Nutrient rich soil from decaying tree needles
- Acidic soil because conifers are acidic
- Wood production, rich vegetation, Evergreens, mosses, and lichen
- 127 cm precipitation annually
- Mild winters and cool summers
- Northwestern coast of North America
Temperate Deciduous Forest
- Organically rich top-soil, clay-rich lower level, mineral ions leached by trees
- Large mammals, recreation, deciduous (shedding annually) trees like maples and oaks
- 75-150 cm precipitation annually
- Hot summers and cold winters
- Europe and North America
Temperate Grassland
- Nutrient rich and organic soil, increases with precipitation
- Tallgrass prairies (wolves and coyotes) and Shortgrass prairies (drought-resistant plants), corn and wheat
- 25-60 in per year precipitation
- Hot summers and cold winters
- Tallgrass: Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, Kansas
- Shortgrass: Montana, Western S. Dakota, The Ukraine
- Thin and not fertile soil
- Evergreens shrubs, small trees, rarely pines and oaks, fire-resistant plants
- Lots of precipitation
- Mild winters with abundant rainfall ("Mediterranean climate"
- Mediterranean Sea, southwestern North America, southwestern and southern Australia, southwestern Africa, central Chile
- Soil low in organic material but high mineral content (like NaCl)
- Drastic temperature changes n 24 hrs
- Perennial plants (cacti, yuccas, Joshua rees, sagebrushes)
- Soil low and nutrients and minerals filtered from topsoil
- Grasses and trees like the acaia, droughts and fires, hoofed animals and migratory predators
- SEASONAL temperature, monsoons and heat with about 76-150 cm precipitation yearly
- Africa, South America, northern Australia
Tropical Rain Forest
- Poorest soil of all biomes: all nutrients are in plants because they leach it up quickly
- Lots of photosynthesis, sun exposure, rain
- Highest species richness
- Evergreen flowering plants and epiphytic communities (3 layers)
- Daily rain (250-400 cm yearly)
- Warm temperatures throughout year
- Central and South America, Africa, Southeast Asia