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cognitive inhibition

stopping oneself from thinking about or doing something, without it attention would be controlled by movement, intensity and change

cognitive self-regulation

an integrated learning process, consisting of the development of a set of constructive behaviors that affect one's learning. These processes are planned and adapted to support the pursuit of personal goals in changing learning environments.

concrete operational stage

Piaget's third stage of cognitive development, extending from about 7 to 11 years of age, during which thought becomes logical, flexible, and organized in its application to concrete information, but the capacity for abstract thinking is not yet present

convergent thinking

the type of cognition emphasized on intelligence tests, which involves arriving at a single correct answer to a problem. Distinguished from divergent thinking. Emphasized on intelligence tests


the ability to produce work that is original yet appropriate - something others have not thought of that is useful in some way.


Process of changing from a totally self-oriented point of view to one tha recognizes other people's feelings, ideas, and viewpoints

divergent thinking

the type of cognition associated with creativity, which involves generating multiple and unusual possibilities when faced with a task or problem. Distinguished from convergent thinking.


a memory strategy that involves creating a relationship, or shared meaning, between two or more items of information that do not belong to the same category in order to improve recall. End of middle childhood


inability to control the flow of urine and involuntary urination; often a family trait. Happens to 10% of kids. Has psychological impact. There are medications available

intelligence quotient

a measure of a person's intelligence as indicated by an intelligence test
EX. the ratio of a person's mental age to their chronological age (multiplied by 100)


nearsightedness; 25% of children


a greater-than-20-percent increase over healthy body weight, based on the body mass index, a ratio of weight to height associated with body fat.


in Piaget's theory, the internal rearrangement and linking together of schemes so that they form a strongly interconnected cognitive system. in information processing, a memory strategy that involves grouping related items together to improve recall (early grade school)

reciprocal teaching

kids take turns learning from each other. This helps students make predictions, formulate questions, summarize information, and clarify points of confusion when reading.


a memory strategy that involves repeating information to oneself to improve recall (early grade school)


The ability to effect a change and then go back to the original condition by a reversal of the change, physically or mentally.


the ability to order items along a quantitative dimension, such as length or weight


outstanding performance in a specific field

theory of multiple intelligences

Gardner's theory, which identifies eight independent intelligences on the basis of distinct sets of processing operations that permit individuals to engage in a wide range of culturally valued activities

transitive inference

the ability to seriate, or order items along a quantitative dimension, mentally

triarchic theory of intelligence

Sternberg's theory, in which intelligent behavior involves balancing three broad, interacting intelligences - analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence - to achieve success in life, according to one's personal goals and the requirements of one's cultural community

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