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21 terms

Ch 9 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

STUDY
PLAY
cognitive inhibition
stopping oneself from thinking about or doing something, without it attention would be controlled by movement, intensity and change
cognitive self-regulation
an integrated learning process, consisting of the development of a set of constructive behaviors that affect one's learning. These processes are planned and adapted to support the pursuit of personal goals in changing learning environments.
concrete operational stage
Piaget's third stage of cognitive development, extending from about 7 to 11 years of age, during which thought becomes logical, flexible, and organized in its application to concrete information, but the capacity for abstract thinking is not yet present
convergent thinking
the type of cognition emphasized on intelligence tests, which involves arriving at a single correct answer to a problem. Distinguished from divergent thinking. Emphasized on intelligence tests
creativity
the ability to produce work that is original yet appropriate - something others have not thought of that is useful in some way.
decentration
Process of changing from a totally self-oriented point of view to one tha recognizes other people's feelings, ideas, and viewpoints
divergent thinking
the type of cognition associated with creativity, which involves generating multiple and unusual possibilities when faced with a task or problem. Distinguished from convergent thinking.
elaboration
a memory strategy that involves creating a relationship, or shared meaning, between two or more items of information that do not belong to the same category in order to improve recall. End of middle childhood
enuresis
inability to control the flow of urine and involuntary urination; often a family trait. Happens to 10% of kids. Has psychological impact. There are medications available
intelligence quotient
a measure of a person's intelligence as indicated by an intelligence test
EX. the ratio of a person's mental age to their chronological age (multiplied by 100)
myopia
nearsightedness; 25% of children
obesity
a greater-than-20-percent increase over healthy body weight, based on the body mass index, a ratio of weight to height associated with body fat.
organization
in Piaget's theory, the internal rearrangement and linking together of schemes so that they form a strongly interconnected cognitive system. in information processing, a memory strategy that involves grouping related items together to improve recall (early grade school)
reciprocal teaching
kids take turns learning from each other. This helps students make predictions, formulate questions, summarize information, and clarify points of confusion when reading.
rehearsal
a memory strategy that involves repeating information to oneself to improve recall (early grade school)
reversibility
The ability to effect a change and then go back to the original condition by a reversal of the change, physically or mentally.
seriation
the ability to order items along a quantitative dimension, such as length or weight
talent
outstanding performance in a specific field
theory of multiple intelligences
Gardner's theory, which identifies eight independent intelligences on the basis of distinct sets of processing operations that permit individuals to engage in a wide range of culturally valued activities
transitive inference
the ability to seriate, or order items along a quantitative dimension, mentally
triarchic theory of intelligence
Sternberg's theory, in which intelligent behavior involves balancing three broad, interacting intelligences - analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence - to achieve success in life, according to one's personal goals and the requirements of one's cultural community