134 terms

DAT Bootcamp - Reproduction

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all non-animals reproduce by _____
asexual reproduction
asexual reproduction means all offspring are _____ to the parent
genetically identical
what are some common examples of asexual reproduction?
binary fission; budding; regeneration; parthenogenesis
list the steps of binary fission:
DNA replication --> DNA migration to opposite cell poles --> septum formation --> septum splitting
the _____ creates a dividing wall during binary fission
septum
where does binary fission occur?
in prokaryotes and some organelles within eukaryotes (mitochondria and chloroplasts)
budding can occur in _____ or _____ organisms
unicellular; multicellular
list the steps of budding:
outgrowth on original organism --> DNA replication --> replicated DNA deposition into the bud --> bud/organism separation
what is an example of a eukaryotic organism that uses budding?
yeast (fungus)
in regeneration (fragmentation), a piece of an organism breaks off to create 2 organisms - each organism is half _____ and half _____
old; new
what are some examples of organisms that use regeneration (fragmentation)?
hydra and planaria flatworms
_____ occurs when an unfertilized egg develops into a viable organism
parthenogenesis
organisms that display parthenogenesis (asexual) can usually perform asexual or sexual reproduction - when do they use sexual?
when environmental conditions are not ideal
bees are a common _____ organism
haplodiploid
_____ means that sex determination is based on whether the organism is haploid or diploid at that time
haplodiploid
bee offspring that arise from unfertilized eggs (parthenogenesis) are _____ male drones
haploid
bee offspring that arise from fertilized eggs (sexual) are _____ females
diploid
humans engage in sexual reproduction, meaning offspring are created when two _____ join
haploid gametes
_____ produce gametes
germ cells

(spermatogonia are male germ cells)
_____ are the only cells that can undergo mitosis and meiosis
germ cells

(spermatogonia are male germ cells)
_____ are male germ cells
spermatogonia
_____ are female germ cells
oogonia
spermatogonium are replicated by _____ in the _____ of the testicle
mitosis; seminiferous tubules
spermatogonium are the primordial (earliest) _____ cells
sperm
_____ is the process of converting 1 diploid spermatocyte into 4 haploid sperms inside the _____ of the testicles
spermatogenesis; seminiferous tubules
diploid spermatogonia differentiate into diploid _____ to initiate spermatogenesis
primary spermatocytes
diploid, primary spermatocytes undergo the first meiotic division to produce 2 haploid cells, called
secondary spermatocytes
secondary spermatocytes (haploid) undergo the second meiotic division to produce 4 _____
haploid spermatids
spermatids differentiate into _____
haploid sperm
sperm are created by the differentiation of _____
spermatids
sperm combine with various fluids to form _____
semen
what are the 3 main parts of a sperm?
head; mid-piece; tail
which portion of the sperm contains the nucleus?
head
the head of the sperm contains an organelle called the _____
acrosome
the _____ contains digestive enzymes for egg cell penetration
acrosome
the _____ of sperm contains a lot of mitochondria
mid-piece
what is the function of the mitochondria in the sperm mid-piece?
produce ATP to power flagellar motion in the sperm tail
the tail of a sperm is also a _____
flagellum
sperm flagella are made of _____
microtubules
microtubules are made of the protein _____
tubulin
flagellar microtubules emanate from _____
basal bodies
_____ are the male reproductive gland
testis
_____ occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes
spermatogenesis
spermatogenesis occurs in the _____ of the testes
seminiferous tubules
what are the types of cells in the seminiferous tubules?
Sertoli cells; spermatogonium, primary & secondary spermatocytes; spermatids; sperm
spermatogenesis ends with _____ (cell type)
spermatozoa

(sperm)
_____ cells surround and nourish sperm cells that are developing through spermatogenesis in the seminiferous tubules
Sertoli
Sertoli cells are activated by _____ (hormone)
FSH
_____ is a peptide hormone that is secreted by the anterior pituitary, and it activates Sertoli cells
FSH
FSH is a _____ hormone that is secreted by the _____ pituitary, and it activates Sertoli cells
peptide; anterior
Sertoli cells secrete the _____ hormone inhibin
peptide
_____ acts on the anterior pituitary to inhibit the further release of FSH (a peptide hormone)
inhibin (from Sertoli cells)
inhibin (from Sertoli cells) acts on the _____ pituitary to inhibit the further release of _____ (a peptide hormone)
anterior; FSH
do the sperm fully mature in the seminiferous tubules?
no; they mature in the epidymis
describe the structure and location of the epididymis:
a duct that sits around the testes
the _____ is the site of sperm storage before ejaculation (where sperm mature)
epididymis
the _____ is a group of tubules that move sperm from the epididymis to ejaculatory ducts
vas deferens
what are the wave-like muscular contractions that are responsible for moving sperm through the male reproductive system?
peristalsis
the _____ receives secretions from vas deferens and seminal vesicles
ejaculatory duct
ejaculatory ducts propel the sperm into the _____, which leads to ejaculation of the sperm out of the penis as _____
urethra; semen
_____ is a combination of sperm and secretions from accessory glands
semen
what are 3 accessory glands that contribute secretions to sperm?
seminal vesicles; prostate gland; bulbourethral glands
seminal vesicles produce secretions containing _____ sugars
fructose
fructose from the seminal vesicles acts to provide sperm with nutrients to produce _____ for motility
ATP
seminal vesicles secrete viscous mucus, which cleans/lubricates the _____
urethra
_____ secrete prostaglandins to stimulate contraction of the urethra
seminal vesicles
seminal vesicles secrete _____ to stimulate contraction of the urethra
prostaglandins
the _____ makes semen more alkaline (basic)
prostate gland
what is the purpose of the prostate gland making the semen alkaline (basic)?
so sperm can survive the acidity of the female reproductive tract
bulbourethral glands are similar to seminal vesicles because they also secrete _____
viscous mucus

(bulbourethral glands may also be called Cowper's glands)
pathway of the sperm?
SEVEn UP

Seminiferous tubules --> Epididymis --> Vas deferens --> (nothing) --> Ejaculatory duct --> Urethra --> Penis
what does follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) do in males?
stimulates sperm to develop in the seminiferous tubules

(FSH comes from the anterior pituitary)
what does luteinizing hormone (LH) do in males?
stimulates the Leydig cells of the testes to produce testosterone

(LH comes from the anterior pituitary)
Leydig cells are interstitial cells next to the _____
seminiferous tubules
Leydig cells are stimulated by _____ (peptide hormone) from the _____ to produce testosterone
LH; anterior pituitary
Leydig cells are stimulated by LH (peptide hormone) from the anterior pituitary to produce _____
testosterone
testosterone is a male _____ hormone
gonadal steroid
testosterone functions in _____ to mature the sperm
spermatogenesis
_____ is responsible for contributing to male secondary sex characteristics
testosterone
the ovaries are responsible for the production of
ovums (eggs)
females have _____ ovaries
2
ovums (eggs) travel through the _____ after they are released from an ovary
oviduct (fallopian tube)
females have _____ oviducts (fallopian tubes)
2
oviducts (fallopian tubes) connect the ovaries and the _____
uterus
the uterus is a muscular organ ideal for _____
embryo implantation
what are the 3 layers of the uterus?
perimetrium (outer layer); myometrium (smooth muscle, middle layer); endometrium (inner epithelial layer, lined by mucous membranes)
the _____ connects the uterus and the vagina
cervix
the vagina acts as the opening between the _____ with the _____
uterus; external environment
where do sperm first enter a female body?
the vagina
where does parturition (giving birth) occur?
the vagina
_____ (giving birth) occurs through the vagina
parturition
_____ are primordial egg cells that are replicated by _____ in the ovaries
oogonia; mitosis
oogonia differentiate to produce _____
primary oocytes
_____ begin meiosis I in oogenesis, but they will not complete meiosis I until puberty
primary oocytes
primary oocytes begin _____ in oogenesis, but they will not complete it until _____
meiosis I; puberty
when a female hits puberty, 1 of her _____ (arrested @ meiosis I) will go through ovulation each _____
primary oocytes; month
ovulation occurs when a primary oocyte completes meiosis I to give which 2 things?
a large secondary oocyte and a small polar body
ovulation is the _____ division of female oogenesis, so the secondary oocyte becomes _____
reductional; haploid
the secondary oocyte produced by ovulation will arrest at _____
metaphase II
secondary oocytes only complete meiosis II if _____ occurs
fertilization
can polar bodies contribute to a viable offspring?
no, only the secondary oocyte can
what does follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) do in females?
follicle development in the ovary --> estrogen production from the follicle

(FSH is secreted from the anterior pituitary)
what does luteinizing hormone (LH) do in females?
surges to trigger ovulation --> corpus luteum left after secondary oocyte released from follicle --> corpus luteum makes estrogen & progesterone

(LH is secreted from the anterior pituitary)
_____ and _____ are the female sex hormones
estrogen; progesterone
female sex hormones contribute to the _____ cycle and _____
menstrual; reproduction
female sex hormones develop _____
secondary sex characteristics
estrogen & progesterone inhibit the function (negative feedback) of the _____ & _____
hypothalamus; pituitary
what begins the next menstrual cycle?
a decrease in the amount of estrogen and progesterone from the previous cycle
how does a decrease in estrogen and progesterone allow the next menstrual cycle to start?
the endometrial lining can no longer be maintained, and the hypothalamic/pituitary inhibition is lost
the hypothalamus produces _____, a peptide hormone that acts on the anterior pituitary
gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
GnRH is a _____ peptide hormone from the hypothalamus
tropic
_____ hormones are released from 1 endocrine gland to stimulate another endocrine gland to release hormones
tropic
GnRH causes the release of _____ (peptide hormones) form the anterior pituitary gland
FSH & LH
in the menstrual cycle, FSH binds to the _____ to cause follicular development
ovaries
the _____ is the most developed follicle, and it is where the secondary oocyte to be ovulated will release from
Graafian follicle
the Graafian follicle produces _____
estrogen
what tissue becomes thicker and more vascularized during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (thanks to estrogen)?
the endometrium (inner lining of the uterus)
increasing estrogen levels during the follicular phase stimulates a rapid spike in _____
LH

(FSH to a lesser extent)
the spike in LH around day 15 of the menstrual cycle triggers _____
ovulation (release of the secondary oocyte from the Graafian follicle)
_____ are ciliated, finger-like projections that act to sweep ovulated secondary oocytes into the oviduct
fimbriae
_____ form a key structural/functional component of cilia
microtubules
the _____ is the remnants of the Graafian follicle left after ovulation
corpus luteum
the corpus luteum produces _____ & some _____
progesterone; estrogen
like estrogen, _____ also acts to thicken and vascularize the endometrium
progesterone
which peptide hormones maintain the corpus luteum?
FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary
increased progesterone & estrogen during the luteal phase causes negative feedback to the hypothalamus/pituitary - what happens as a result of this negative feedback?
FSH & LH decrease from the anterior pituitary, so the corpus luteum begins to degenerate
what happens if implantation does not occur?
the corpus luteum degenerates --> progesterone & estrogen decrease --> the endometrial lining sloughs off (menses)
_____ is when the endometrial lining sloughs off
menses/menstruation

(beginning of the follicular phase)
what happens if implantation does occur?
menstruation prevention due to HCG release
_____ maintains the corpus luteum, preventing its degeneration despite reduced FSH & LH
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
_____ feedback loops stimulate pathways to increase production
positive
give 3 examples of positive feedback loops (hormones):
prolactin (lactation); oxytocin (milk letdown); oxytocin (labor contractions)
_____ feedback loops inhibit pathways to decrease production
negative
give 2 examples of negative feedback loops (hormones):
FSH & LH --> progesterone & estrogen, which inhibit FSH & LH; high testosterone inhibiting the hypothalamus and pituitary
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