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Target Set 2
Terms in this set (20)
Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphate, Sulfur
6 most common elements in organic molecules
Atoms form bonds to satisfy the octet rule along with creating molecules.
Why do atoms form bonds?
They contain protons and neutrons in the nucleus, they have electrons in a cloud outside of the nucleus, and these electrons can be shared or transferred according to valence.
What are some key characteristics of atoms?
Polar covalent bonds are when valence electrons are shared equally. Nonpolar covalent bonds are when valence electrons are shared unequally. And Ionic bonds are when one atom gives a valence electron to another atom in order to satisfy the octet rule on "both sides".
What is the difference between polar covalent, nonpolar covalent, and ionic bonds?
Dehydration synthesis is when two monomers are covalently linked together through the removal of water to form a dimer.
What is dehydration synthesis?
Hydrolysis is the converse of dehydration synthesis. It is the process in which a polymer is divided into monomers when a water molecule splits into H and OH- groups.
What is hydrolysis?
Some important properties are water's capillarity (adhesion to surfaces such as inside straws), high specific heat capacity, high heat of vaporization (lots of energy required to evaporate), high surface tension, universal solvent, and how it expands when it freezes.
What are some important properties of water?
Acids and bases can help in the neutralization of substances along with the fact that these characteristics can be dangerous if they are too far out of the acceptable range in the body (such as in blood).
How are acids and bases significant to life?
pH is the measure of how acidic or basic a substance is and it is important because our blood has a specific range of pH that it can be before it begins to damage the body.
How is pH significant to life?
Carbon can bond with up to four other atoms at once, due to the fact that it is tetravalent (four valence elctrons in outer shell). Because of this, however, it is more likely to form covalent bonds rather than ionic bonds. If each carbon atom can bond with four other carbon atoms, then they can form large, complex molecules.
Explain how Carbon can join to other Carbon atoms in chains and rings to form large and complex molecules.
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
Identify the four major biomolecules.
Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They are used in energy flow and structure. Their building blocks are monosaccharides.
Describe the composition of carbohydrates. What are the building blocks(monomers) of carbohydrates? What are their general structures and primary functions?
Lipids are comprised of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. They are used for long-term storage of energy due to their nonpolar structure. They have a high caloric value and density. They are made up of 3 fatty acid monomers linked to a glycerol molecule.
Describe the composition of lipids. What are the building blocks of lipids? What are their general structures and primary functions?
Saturated fats are when carbon atoms are bonded to four atoms via single bonds, and tend to be solid/dense. Unsaturated fats are comprised of carbon atoms that share more than one pair of electrons in a double bond. This cause them to be more fluid, so they are more often liquids.
What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?
Proteins are made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms. They are used for structural purposes in living organisms and can also be used in energy flow. They are highly folded structures held in place with covalent bonds and weak intermolecular forces. Their building blocks are amino acids
Describe the composition of proteins. What are the building blocks of proteins? What are their general structures and primary functions?
Peptide bonds form when to amino acid monomers are joined by removing the hydrogen from one amine group and a hydroxide ion from the carboxyl group of another atom. A water molecule is formed, and the resulting link is a peptide bond. The four levels are primary (string of A.A. held by peptide bonds), secondary (coiled A.A.), tertiary (folded coil of A.A.), and quaternary (globular shape A.A.)
What are Peptide Bonds?
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (speed up reactions by decreasing the amount of activation energy needed) biochemical reactions.
What are enzymes?
Changes in temperature and pH. If the structure of an enzyme is changed, then it cannot be repaired and cannot function in the same way.
What are some things that affect the activity of enzymes?
Denaturation is the process in which an enzyme changes its shape and doesn't work anymore due to the fact that it does not fit with its substrate (form follows function).
What is denaturation?
An enzyme is a form of complex proteins in a specific 3D structure that fits with one specific substrate. Enzymes fit together with these substrates at an active site, and they work together to reduce required activation energy in a chemical reaction. Enzymes can be re-used after the products are formed.
Describe basic enzyme structure and function.
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