Terms in this set (27)
Primary Curves of Vertebral Column
Curves show posterior convexity, are found in thoracic and sacral regions and are kyphotic
Secondary Curves of Vertebral Column
Curves show posterior concavity, are found lumbar and cervical regions and are lordotic
Curves that develop as a result of accommodation of the skeleton to an upright position
Curves are ______________ in that changes to the position of one result in changes to the position of other segments
Main Articulations of Vertebrae
1) Cartilaginous joints between the vertebral bodies 2) Diarthrodial (synovial) joints between the facets
Vertebral motions around one axis is consistently associated with motion around another axis. These motions are dependent on the spinal posture, orientation of articulating facets, thickness of intervertebral disk, and extensibility of the muscles surrounding the joint.
Support of spinal column derived from both the intrasegmental system and the intersegmental system
Bone under stress creates more bone
Bridge of Vertebrae
Weak area of Vertebrae where there is no trabeculae crossing, potential site for compression fracture.
Area of vertebrae with trabecular bone covered by cortical bone (thicker around superior and inferior epiphyseal plates). The center has hyaline cartilage.
Area of vertebrae that has four articular (two superior and two inferior) and three non articular (two transverse and one spinous) processes. Has two areas, the pedicle and the laminae.
Make up about 20-30% of vertebral column length, they increase in size from cervical to lumbar regions (ratio of thickness to body thickness is greatest in cervical and lumbar regions and least in thoracic region), comprised of nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus.
Anterior Longitudinal Ligament
This ligament is intersegmental and runs along the anterior and lateral surfaces of the vertebral bodies from sacrum to C2. It is compressed in flexion and stretched in extension. Its superficial fibers bridge several vertebrae while the deep fibers run between single pairs and blend with annulus fibrosus. It is also 2x stronger than its counterpart
Posterior Longitudinal Ligament
This ligament is intersegmental and runs within the vertebral canal along the posterior surface of the vertebral bodies from the sacrum to C2. It is stretched in flexion and compressed in extension (but can become stretched in extension as well). Provides little support for lumbar region because it narrows inferiorly.
This ligament is intrasegmental and is located on the posterior surface of the vertebral canal. Extends from the sacrum to C2. It is very thick and elastic, it is stretched in flexion but provides constant tension even in neutral position.
This ligament is intrasegmental and is well developed only in the lumbar region. It runs from spinous process to spinous process, stretched during flexion and slack during extension. Less tactile tensile strength than anterior & posterior longitudinal ligament, and ligamentum flavum.
This ligament is intersegmental and runs along the tips of the spinous processes from the sacrum to C7. It becomes the ligamentum nuchae in the cervical region
This ligament is intrasegmental and paired, is well developed only in the lumbar area. Provides support during lateral bending of vertebral column.
Concept related to the vertebral column's ability to resist an applied load (the steeper the line on a stress/strain plot, the stiffer the material). Has many components and has contributions from many structures.
Represents instability in stiffness (also known as neutral zone)
Ability of something to return to its normal length after being stretched
A force that acts on the long axis of the vertebral column (sup/inf). Is due to gravity, ligaments and muscles contraction forces. Most of these forces are shared equally by disks and vertebral bodies.
This force causes both compression and tension of spine structures.
This force is created during axial rotation, highest stiffness is seen in the thoracolumbar junction (facets orientation contribute to stiffness)
The chance of this happens when tension, axial compression, and bending are combined.
Force that acts on the midline of the disk and acts to cause vertebral movement anteriorly, movement can be resisted by facets.
Functional Demands of Vertebral Column
1) Stability 2) Mobility 3) Protection 4) Service as an outrigger for attachment of muscles/ligaments