Croesus was the ruler of ...
Cyrus the Achaemenid conquered this kingdom in ...
kingdom of Lydia in SW Anatolia
Cyrus the Achaemenid was also called...
He reigned from... to...
Cyrus the Shepherd and/or Cyrus king of the Persians
from 558 BCE to 530 BCE
Cyrus' victory over Lydia was a major turning point in the development of...
The Persian Empire. It also provided wealth and trading interactions with already established societies (Greece, Egypt, Phoenicia by sea; and Mesopotamia and Persia by land)
Lydia was the first to use_________ and Darius later used this system for his own economic system.
Persian society took shape in the ________ century B.C.E. when _________ conquered the region from the ______ River to __________ and SE __________. Persian rule over this area was until the early 7th century C.E.
6th century BCE / Warriors / Indus / Egypt / Europe
During Cyrus' rule in the Achaemenid Empire, it was a ___________ government that relied heavily on ___________ techniques of administration.
decentralized government / Mesopotamian
High __________ productivity enabled many people to work at other tasks other than _______. This created _________ classes.
agricultural / cultivation / social
The social _________ under Darius consisted of:
classes / bureaucrats, administrators, priests, craftsmen, and merchants.
The early migrating peoples spoke __________ languages. They were cousins of the ________.
Indo-European / Aryans
The Medes and Persians were mostly _________ and practiced limited amounts of agriculture. They organized themselves in ________ instead of states or formal political institutions. However, they recognized leaders who collected __________ and delivered tribute to their ___________ overlords.
pastoralists / clans / taxes / Mesopotamian
The Medes and Persians were expert ________ and were peoples of considerable military ________. They possessed _________ skills common to most steppe peoples from whom they were descendent of.
archers / power / equestrian
Cyrus' conquests laid the foundation for the first _________ Empire known as the __________ Empire.
Persian Empire / Achaemenid
Cyrus pursued a policy of _________ which caused many of the lands he conquered to immediately recognize him as their lord.
The greatest of the Achaemenid emperors was ______, who was a younger ________ of Cyrus.
Darius / kinsman
Darius conquered and absorbed lands that stretched _________ miles from the ________ River to the _______ Sea; and from _______ miles from Armenia to the first _________ of the ________ River.
1,865 miles / Indus / Aegean / 933 miles / cataract / Nile
Darius' empire touched the shores of Arabian Sea, Aral Sea, Persian ______, Caspian Sea, Black Sea, Red Sea, and the __________ Sea. The empire's population during this time was about _________.
Gulf / Mediterranean Sea / 35,000,000
These ethnic groups spoke many different _______ and observed many different ________ and cultural traditions.
languages / religious
Darius formed the first ________ government of the Achaemenid empire and built a new capital at _________ near Pasargadae.
centralized / Persepolis
The new capital of Darius served as an administrative center with reception halls, royal residences, and a well-protected ________. Advisors, administrators, diplomats, scribes, accountants, _________, and bureaucratic officers of all descriptions filled the city.
treasury / translators
Darius replaced irregular tribute payments with _______ that were paid ________. He also issued standardized coins first seen in _________ and codified ________.
formal tax levies that were paid annually / Lydia / laws
Darius set up a legal ________ that allowed tolerance in the conquered lands by codifying and modifying _______ when needed to harmonize with the _______ principles within the empire as a whole and then modifying laws within districts that were more specific to that district's______ group. He did not abolish their existing laws.
system / laws / legal / ethnic
Darious allowed the ________ who had been exiled by the _________ to return to Jerusalem and rebuild their __________.
Jews / Babylonias / temple
The "eyes and ears of the king" were:
imperial spies who conducted surprise audits of accounts and procedures in the provinces and collecting intelligence reports.
The _____________ stretched 1,600 miles from the Aegean port of Ephesus to _________ in Anatolia, through Mesopotamia along the ________ River, to Susa in ________, with an extension to Pasargadae and ___________.
Royal Road / Sardis / Tigris / Iran / Persepolis
It only took caravans 90 days to travel the ____________. It was well-policed and organzied with 111 ________ services that were spaced in intervals every 25-30 miles. The modern-day U.S. ________ picks up its slogan from these services that were described by the Greek Historian ___________. (Name the Slogan).
Royal Road / courier / Postal Service / Herodotus
"Neither snow nor rain nor heat nor gloom of night stays these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds."
_________ built during the Achaemenid Empire improved communications and was the cause of the rapid incline of civilizations because of increased __________ between developing societies.
Roads / interactions
Who was Darius' successor?
His son Xerxes (reign 486 to 465 B.C.E.). He went against the policies of toleration causing rebellions.
What caused the Persian Wars (500-479 B.C.E.)?
The Greeks assissinated their Persian governors who were put into office by Darius. Their rebellion asserted thier independence and launched a series of conflicts.
Alexander invaded Persia in _______ with an army of _________.
334 B.C.E. / 40,000 tough, battle hardened Macedonians.
The Macedonians carried heavier arms and employed more _________ military ________ than their opponents.
sophisticated military tactics.
At the Battle of ________ in 331 B.C.E., Alexander defeated the _________ forces.
Battle of Gaugamela / Achaemenid forces
Upon winning the battle, Alexander paid his respects to the __________, claimed himself heir to the Achaemenid rulers, and then _________ the city of _________. He died in ________.
tomb of Cyrus / burned / Persepolis / 323 B.C.E.