The consolidation of numerous production functions, from the extraction of the raw materials to the distribution and marketing of the finished products, under the direction of one firm
Gospel of Wealth
Theory that hard work and perseverance led to wealth, implying that poverty is a character flaw, came from the Protestant work ethic
Superimposed that the brutal struggle for existance that supposedly dominated nature onto modern society, and underscored the principle of "survival of the fittest"
A captain of industry who wrote 'The Gospel of Wealth'; he was a Scottish immigrant who went from rags to riches
American Federation of Labor
Union formed in 1886 that organized skilled workers along craft lines and emphasized a few workplace issues rather than a broad social program
Knights of Labor
Labor union founded in 1869 that included skilled and unskilled workers irrespective of race or gender.
Chinese Exclusion Act
1882 law that curtailed Chinese immigration for ten years, it was meant to stop Chinese Americans from entering hard labor
Term applied to late nineteenth-century America by Mark Twain, refers to the shallow display and worship of wealth characteristic of that period
Highly visible displays of wealth and consumption, coined by Thorstein Veblen
Four- to six-story residential dwellings, once common in New York, built on tiny lots without regard to providing ventilation or light
Middle class children
not having to work, enjoyed creative play and physical activity such as summer camps and sports
Public high schools
increasing attendance, but still only served 4% of children between 14 and 17 were enrolled in school, most schoolgirls planning to become teachers or office workers. They mostly served middle-class families, the immediate demands of working class families forcing children into the workforce.