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Vertical Integration

The consolidation of numerous production functions, from the extraction of the raw materials to the distribution and marketing of the finished products, under the direction of one firm

Horizontal Combination

The merger of competitors in the same industry

Gospel of Wealth

Theory that hard work and perseverance led to wealth, implying that poverty is a character flaw, came from the Protestant work ethic

Social Darwinism

Superimposed that the brutal struggle for existance that supposedly dominated nature onto modern society, and underscored the principle of "survival of the fittest"

Andrew Carnegie

A captain of industry who wrote 'The Gospel of Wealth'; he was a Scottish immigrant who went from rags to riches

John D. Rockefeller

Founder of the Standard Oil Company

Frederick W. Taylor

Pioneer of scientific management, said managers must make decisions

Scientific Management

A theory that stated that it is managers, not workmen, who make decisions

American Federation of Labor

Union formed in 1886 that organized skilled workers along craft lines and emphasized a few workplace issues rather than a broad social program

Knights of Labor

Labor union founded in 1869 that included skilled and unskilled workers irrespective of race or gender.

Chinese Exclusion Act

1882 law that curtailed Chinese immigration for ten years, it was meant to stop Chinese Americans from entering hard labor

Gilded Age

Term applied to late nineteenth-century America by Mark Twain, refers to the shallow display and worship of wealth characteristic of that period

Conspicuous Consumption

Highly visible displays of wealth and consumption, coined by Thorstein Veblen


Four- to six-story residential dwellings, once common in New York, built on tiny lots without regard to providing ventilation or light

Middle class children

not having to work, enjoyed creative play and physical activity such as summer camps and sports

Public high schools

increasing attendance, but still only served 4% of children between 14 and 17 were enrolled in school, most schoolgirls planning to become teachers or office workers. They mostly served middle-class families, the immediate demands of working class families forcing children into the workforce.

Booker T. Washington

promoted practical education and founded the Tuskegee Institute


National past time that bridged middle and working class tastes, drawing on variety show tradition that made racial and ethnic stereotypes and city life into amusement

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