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Texes Bilingual Education Supplemental #164 - Competency 1
Terms in this set (99)
Languages used during the colonial period
English, German, French, Dutch, Swedish, Welsh
Linguistic tolerance and multiculturalism.
Documents were printed in English, German and French
17th - 19th Centuries
- Multiple languages were used as the language of instruction in US schools: German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Polish, Italian, French, Czech and Spanish.
- Second half of 19th century, some public schools were offering dual language education. Some states passed laws authorizing instruction in two languages.
- During the same period, military conflicts in Europe restricted the immigration, the influence of French, Dutch and German decreased and English become the national language and bilingual education as official policy disappeared.
- New immigrants were expected to Americanize or assimilate, learn English and abandon their cultures and languages.
- 15 states called for English-only instruction.
- ELLs were punished if using their native language at school.
- Dual language instruction virtually disappeared in the US.
1920s through 1960s
- ELLs were submersed in English without any kind of support through L1 (submersion, "sink or swim" approach)
- Academy failure for many ELLs.
- 1953 UN title "The use of the Vernacular Language in Education"
- 1960 ESL
- 1966 TESOL
Submersion / Sink or Swim approach
L2 students are placed in the same classes as L1 students and required to learn as much as they can.
Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages
The use of the Vernacular Language in Education
Document providing the foundation for the rebirth of dual language instruction in the U.S.
- "It is axiomatic that the best medium to teach a child is his mother tongue"
- Indirectly launched the development of the bilingual education programs in the 1960s.
- Paved the way for modern bilingual education programs.
- Using funds for the relocation of Cuban refugees, the Us government sponsored the creation of the first dual language program of the 1960s in Dale County, Florida (Coral Way Elementary)
1964, Texas implemented
Bilingual education program in Laredo (United Consolidated ISD) and in the San Antonio ISD.
- 1965, two new programs in Pecos (NM) and Edinburg (TX)
- 1966 similar programs were implemented in California, New Mexico, Arizona and New Jersey.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Was used as a foundation for the many court cases that emerged in the 1970s, seeking support for the education of language minority students.
Intervention of the Federal Government
- 1968: No mandated bilingual education but provide funding to support educational programs.
- 1973 - 1974: Bilingual education was officially the model to address the needs of ELLs.
- 1978: Transitional nature of the approach > early-exit transitional bilingual education programs. Legislation prohibits use of federal funding to create language developmental/maintenance programs.
- 1994: Improving America's School Act and School Reform: allowed the participation of English proficiency students in the bilingual education programs.
No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)
- Title I: Requires school districts to hire highly qualified teachers.
- Title III: English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement Act: Promote English language development, allows local flexibility in the implementation of programs.
No Child Left Behind Act
Act containing stipulation to ensure that schools teach all children to perform at minimally acceptable, documented levels, according to federally defined standards.
TELPAS - Texas English Language Proficiency Assessment System
was designed to comply with the accountability system required in the NCLB legislation.
How well ELLs understand and use English for everyday use and academic purposes.
- Reading: Multiple choice test for grades 2-12
- Writing: Holistic scoring
- Classroom Observation: How well students understand and use language.
TELPAS results can be used for
- Assessing and evaluating language and instruction.
- Reporting purposes
Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives.
- Progress in learning the English language, attainment of English language proficiency.
- LEP AYP based on the state's student academic achievement standards.
English Language Proficiency Standards
ELPS (English Language Proficiency Standards)
Outlines the instruction school districts must provide ELLs in order for them to have the full opportunity to learn English and to succeed academically.
Mendez v. Westminister
1947 case which overturned school segregation of Latinos in orange county, California
Brown v. Topeka
1954 - Segregation of students in public schools violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, because separate facilities are inherently unequal.
Cisneros v. Corpus Christi ISD
1971- Grouped with blacks to comply with desegregation laws, unfair... ruling: 3 groups must be together blacks, whites and Mexican Americans.
Diana v. Board of Education
1970 - Student placed in a mildly retarded classroom because of low IQ scores from English test. Spanish students should be tested in Spanish.
Serna v. Portales
1972 - 1974 - Found that Spanish surnames students' achievement levels were below those of their Anglo counterparts. District was ordered to implement a bilingual/bicultural curriculum, revise procedures for assessing achievement, and hire bilingual school personnel.
Lau v. Nichols
-1974 - Became the defacto tool for the implementation of bilingual education in the US.
-The failure of San Francisco schools to provide English-language instruction to approximately 1,800 students of Chinese ancestry who do not speak English, or to provide them with other adequate instructional procedures, denies them a meaningful opportunity to participate in the public education program, & thus violates the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the 14th A.
ASPIRA v. New York
1974 - The court mandated a citywide assessment and identification of students in need of special language services and implementation of a district wide bilingual education program.
Rios v. Reed
1977 - Provide the foundations for the development of the many bilingual education programs founded later in the 1980s and beyond.
Found that a district's transitional bilingual program was basically a course in English and students were denied an equal educational opportunity by not receiving academic instruction.
Castaneda v. Pickard
1981 - The quality of bilingual program was addressed again, 3 steps: based on sound research, adequate resources and opportunities for students to have access to the full curriculum.
U.S v. The State of Texas
1981 - 1982 - Ordered that Texas has to offer a bilingual education program for Mexican American students in kindergarten through 12. The ruling was reversed a year later.
Plyler v. Doe
1982 - Under the Fourteenth Amendment a state cannot deny school enrollment to children of illegal immigrants.
Title VI of the Civil Rights Act
- Prohibits institutions receiving federal funding from discriminating on the grounds of race, color, or national origin
Office for Civil Rights (OCR) Memorandum of 1970
- Required districts to offer appropriate instruction to address the educational needs of language minority students.
- Prohibit the use data relying only on language as the key reason for assigning students to special education programs.
Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974
Prohibits states receiving federal funds from denying equal educational opportunity to people based on race, color, sex, or national origin
- The document described the process for identification and evaluation of students in program.
- Schools must not assign students to classes for the mentally retarded on the basis of criteria that measures language development in English.
- Mandated bilingual education for elementary schools and ESL instruction for older students.
- Described the guidelines for exiting students from the programs.
1980 - Regan eliminated the law because unreasonable.
The English-only movement
Campaign to declare English the official language and to eliminate bilingual education.
Currently 24 states have passed legislation banning dual language instruction.
The English-plus movement
Reaction against the English-only movement.
Influenced the increased funding for bilingual education in 1994
First two states to pass legislation repealing English-only laws
1969 - NM & TX
Opening the path to bilingual education legislation.
First state to mandate bilingual education
1971 - Massachusetts
Bilingual Education and Training Act
Texas Governor Dolph Briscoe signed it into law.
It mandates bilingual education from grades 1 through 6.
Texas legislature passed the state's current bilingual education law
1981 - Senate Bill 477
It mandates bilingual education through the elementary grades, bilingual or ESL for middle schools and ESL for high schools.
Texas instituted the English-only rule in education
ELLs were submerged in English-only instruction
Texas began offering home-based reading and writing instruction in Spanish
1920 - Program active until 1960s
Laredo School District became the 1st in TX to offer bilingual education to Mexican American children
1964 - San Antonio, McAllen, El Paso and others followed Laredo's lead.
Texas legislature officially ended the English-only legislation
1969 - Allowed but not required bilingual education through grade 6
Commissioner's Rules Concerning State Plan for Educating Limited English Proficient Students
- Rules guiding the implementation of the state's education laws.
- They provide a detailed interpretation of bilingual education & special languages programs.
Goals of bilingual and ESL
Enable LEP & ESL students to:
- Become competent in comprehension, speaking, reading and composition in English, through the use of L1 and L2.
- Master English language skills,math, science & social studies.
Limited English Proficiency
Components of the Bilingual Program
- Affective component
- Linguistic component
- Cognitive component
Introduces basic concepts of the school environment in L1 and L2.
Instills confidence, self-assurance and develops a positive identity with the student's cultural heritage and US'
Instruction in L1 and L2 is used to develop and master ELLs skills in comprehension, speaking, reading and composition.
Instruction in L1 and L2 is used to develop and master ELLs the TEKS & higher order thinking skills in math, science, social studies & other content areas.
Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills
Home language survey
- What language is spoken in your home most of the time?
- What language does your child speak most of the time?
If the answer to any of these questions is other than English, child must be tested for language dominance or proficiency.
Scanning for admission to the Program
Kindergarten through 2:
- Oral Language proficiency test. Woodcock Munoz language Survey and Language Assessment Scales (LAS)
Grades 3 through 12:
- Take an oral proficiency test. TAKS, STAAR, and a norm- reference test if available.
Using the results from the test + input (teachers, parents, administration), the LPAC makes placements decisions within 4 weeks of initial enrollement
Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills
State of Texas Assessment of Academic Readiness
- Composed of at least one administrator, teachers, and a parent representative.
- Regulates admission, treatment, dismissal and follow-up services to students in the bilingual or special language programs.
- Follows progress of students for 2 years, when they are exited from the program and makes decisions based on data.
- Exists for each student receiving special education services.
- Responsible for determining if a student is eligible for special education and for developing an appropriate educational program.
- Has sole authority to review and change a special education student's eligibility for services, educational placement or IEP.
Identification of LEP students
- PK-1: an oral language proficiency test, within 4 weeks of enrollment.
- 2-12: a TEA approved oral language proficiency test and the English reading and English language arts sections from a TEA approved norm reference test or another test approved by TEA
Exit and reclassification of LEP students
1- TEA approved test that measure the extent to which the student has developed oral and written language proficiency and specific language skills in English.
2- Satisfactory performance on the reading assessment instrument, or a TEA approved English Language Arts assessment instrument administrated in English.
3- Results of a subjective teacher evaluation
4- Passing grades on all subjects
5-Reclassification decision of LPAC and ARD (if applicable)
Two-year monitoring services
On reclassification of a fluent English speaker:
- Student is monitored for 2 years to ensure success in the English-only class
- LPAC evaluates performance on the STAAR & additional instruments using in school to measure progress.
- If student is having academic problems LPAC can return him to the bilingual or ESL program.
- Designate language proficiency and academic level of each LEP student.
- Designate the initial instructional placement of each student in the program (Subject to parental approval)
- Facilitate the participation of students in other special programs.
- Reclassify students as English proficient.
Probably one of the best examples of a bilingual nation. Its experiments with immersion programs have been used as a model in the US
Bilingual Education Programs
- Early Exit transitional bilingual education programs
- Late exit dual language programs
- Developmental bilingual education
- Two way dual language immersion
Early Exit transitional bilingual education program (TBE)
- Program of choice for most school districts in US
- Mainstream students as quickly as possible. L1 is a problem that needs to be eradicated.
- Promotes literacy in L1 and offers native language instruction in k-2 with at least 45 min of ESL instruction. By 4th grade student are transitioned to sheltered English.
- Doesn't allow sufficient time to become proficient in L1, they don't benefit from possible language skills transferred from L1 to L2.
- Students are not successful academically in this program
Late exit dual language program
- Four or more years of treatment.
- Originally designed for preK - 12. Most are implemented through 5th or 6th grade.
- Types: Developmental bilingual education (DBE) and Dual language immersion program
Developmental bilingual education
Also called One-Way bilingual education
Developmental bilingual education
- Students are encouraged to maintain L1 and add L2 to be able to function academically and socially in L1 and L2.
- Length: 4 - 5 years approx
- Students can transfer literacy skills from L1 to L2.
Two way dual language immersion
- Promotes the maintenance of both languages.
- Helps native English speakers and ELLS in a setting where they learn from each other by peer teaching.
- Contributes to a better cultural understanding among children in the group.
Two way dual language immersion implementation
- Two teachers or team teacher; Good because discourage code switching.
- Single teacher
By Time percentages
- Balanced program (50/50 model)
- Minority/majority language program (90/10 or 80/20 model)
- Combination program
Balanced program (50/50 model)
- Students receive equal instruction time in L1 and L2.
- Second most popular program in US, implemented by 33% of the programs.
Minority/Majority (90/10 or 80/20 model)
- Most popular model in US, implemented by 42% of programs
- Largest % of the instruction is done in the minority language.
- By 3rd or 4th grade balanced instruction is achieved.
- Because language minority students receive instruction in L1, they are not part of the immersion model, they are exposed to maintenance bilingual education.
- Only 2% of the programs have implemented this approach.
- Combines native language instruction with dual language.
- Students receive instruction in their native language for one part of the day. The rest of the day they are grouped heterogeneous to receive dual language instruction.
- Half day alternating bilingual program: alternates languages used in the portions of the day.
- One day alternating bilingual program: One day English one day Spanish
Both avoid the repetition of lessons in each language
- System of instruction designed to teach language to children whose native language is other than English.
- Part of the curriculum in most school districts in the US
- Most expensive model, and least effective.
- Students withdrawn from their regular classrooms for one or more periods a week for special classes of ESL instruction in small groups
Structured English Immersion (SEI)
- Subtractive program designed to teach English only.
- In the self contained ESL classroom the teacher delivers instruction in English to ELLs.
- Through the use of "sheltered instruction", children learn content and language concurrently.
Sheltered English or ESL content
- Academic instruction in English understandable to ELLs while promoting English language development.
- Teachers use hands on, concrete objects, simplified speech and physical activities to teach concept development in the content areas.
- Most effective with intermediate to advanced proficiency in English.
- Program geared toward students who are new to English language.
- Focuses on creating a nurturing environment while it exposes students to the language.
- Generally developed by schools that see a high influx of immigrant students.
-Traditionally, students remain in the center a year or less before they are sent to mainstream classrooms.
1978 American Institutes for Research (AIR) Study
-In was the first and one of the largest national studies on the effectiveness of federally sponsored Title VII programs.
-The study encompassed 8,200 students in 38 schools from 10 states.
-It compared the performance for ELLs in bilingual education programs with the performance of Latino students in all English program.
- Study comparing the effectiveness of 3 program models: early and late exit or developmental, and structured English immersion.
- Found that ELLs in late exit continued to grow in English language arts, reading and math. Early exit and mainstream programs had gains in lower grades, but declined as they progressed to a higher grade.
Thomas and Collier Study
Students in two way bilingual classrooms out perform their counterparts being schooled in monolingual classrooms, and they sustained their gains all the way through high school.
Programs for language minority students
- Accelerated Learning
- Critical Pedagogy
- Enhance and enrich learning among students in at-risk situations to allow them to catch up academically with their peers.
- Relies heavily on enrichment strategies taken from the gifted-and-taleted programs and effectively employs the strengths that children bring from home.
- Guides students to identify real-life problems, reflect on them, gather information, share it with peers, and collectively find solutions. They become active learners and participants in their own reality.
Strategies Used in Bilingual Education
- Reciprocal Teaching
- Preview-Review Approach
- Concurrent Approach
Students and teacher engage in a dialogue about the class content. Strategies:
- Question generating
Both teacher and students share responsibility for the conduct of the discussion
Preview Review Approach
- Rarely used in bilingual education.
- Teacher introduces the content in one language and presents the body of the lesson in the second language.
After, lesson might be reviewed by grouping students by language dominance, with reinforcement activities conducted in L1or by using concurrent approach.
Both languages are used for instruction.
It is required special skills from the teacher to dominate the instruction and strong knowledge of the curriculum.
*It is is strange used as the main medium to deliver content in modern dual language programs or BE.
Total language immersion programs in Canada
Are designed for both, English speakers and ELLs
Structured English immersion programs in US
Designed mostly to teach ELLs
Benefits of the additive nature of developmental bilingual education
- Cultural reinforcement
- Continued cognitive growth in L1 that reinforces cognitive development in L2
Maintenance bilingual education
Provides the most extensive instruction in L1
Students who develop cognitive-academic skills in L1
Have a better chance of succeeding academically in L2
If a student has mastered Spanish STAAR but is not ready to study content areas in English, the LPAC
Should allow him to stay in the bilingual program
A bilingual education program should
- Emphasize a student's personal and cultural self-esteem.
- Present the learning of English as an additive component rather than a replacement for the student's native language.
To improve their chances of achieving academic parity with native English speakers
ELLs should receive content area and language arts instruction in L1 and L2 for at least six years.
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Texes Bilingual Education Supplemental #164 - Comp…
Texes Bilingual Education Supplemental #164 - Comp…
Texes Bilingual Education Supplemental #164 - Comp…
TExES 164 Bilingual Supplemental, 164
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