DAT Bootcamp - Animal Behavior
_____ is the study of animal behaviors, which can be inherited or learned
ethology is the study of animal behaviors, which can be _____ or _____
innate behaviors are _____ behaviors, which have been shaped over time by _____
inherited; natural selection
innate/inherited behaviors should increase an animal's _____
describe the concept of high fitness:
the more fit the animal, the more viable and fertile offspring they have the potential of making
what is the study of
innate behaviors increase fitness?
what are the 4 types of innate behaviors?
instincts; reflexes; fixed action patterns; imprinting
what are instincts?
behaviors that occur without any thought
what are some common examples of instincts (innate behaviors)?
mothers instinct to care for her offspring; circadian rhythm
circadian rhythm is influenced by the release of _____ from the _____ in response to the amount of light
melatonin; pineal gland
a _____ is an involuntary, rapid response to a stimulus
what are the 2 types of reflex arcs?
simple and complex
what are the most rapid reflexes - simple or complex?
why are simple reflexes the most rapid?
peripheral nerves synapse directly in the spinal cord
what is an example of a simple reflex?
patellar (knee-jerk) reflex
_____ sensory neurons travel from the stimulus to the CNS
_____ motor neurons travel from the CNS to a muscle in order to coordinate a response to a stimulus
complex reflexes are slower than a simple reflexes - why?
peripheral nerves do not synapse with each other at the CNS - separated by interneuron
what do peripheral nerves synapse with in a complex reflex arc?
_____ allow the appropriate response to be selected (by the CNS) for a given stimulus
(hence complex reflex)
what is a common example of a complex reflex?
withdrawal reflex (hand on hot stove)
when a stimulus initiates a fixed action pattern (FAP), the behavior _____
almost always completes
what happens if a fixed action pattern (FAP) stimulus is removed during the behavior?
it is probable that the behavior will complete anyway
what is a releaser (sign stimuli)?
the stimulus that initiates a fixed action pattern (FAP)
fixed action patterns (FAPs) tend to _____ because they do not need to be _____
increase fitness; learned (they're inherited/innate)
_____ generate predictable responses to a stimulus
fixed action patterns (FAPs)
_____ is an innate way animals learn certain behaviors
once an imprinted behavior is acquired, it can never be _____
imprinting can only occur during the _____
how do learned behaviors increase an animal's fitness?
they allow animals to adapt to unexpected events
what are the 3 common forms of learning?
classical conditioning; operant conditioning; associative learning
_____ involves learning to pair a neutral stimulus to an unconditioned stimulus
_____ stimuli do not elicit an unconditioned response
_____ stimuli do elicit an unconditioned response
classical conditioning turns a _____ stimulus into a _____ stimulus
conditioned stimuli elicit conditioned _____
_____ occurs when a conditioned organism responds to stimuli that is not identical to the original conditioned stimulus
describe the stimulus generalization gradient:
as a stimulus differs from the original conditioned stimulus more and more, the conditioned response will get smaller and smaller in magnitude
_____ involves the ability of an animal to differentiate between conditioned stimuli and similar non-conditioned stimuli
what is an example of stimulus discrimination?
dogs that can discriminate between sound frequencies - interpreting the 1 they were trained on
animals associates their behaviors with a reward or punishment in _____
what are the types of operant conditioning?
positive and negative punishment; positive and negative reinforcement
adding something bad to decrease behavior is known as _____
adding something good to increase behavior is known as _____
what is negative punishment?
taking away something good to decrease behavior
what is negative reinforcement?
taking away something bad to increase a behavior
a skinner box is a common tool for _____ experiments
_____ occurs when animals learn that 2 things are connected
associative learning is beneficial to fitness - why?
it allows for more efficient responses to stimuli
_____ occurs when an animal associates landmarks with a specific location
what are the benefits of spatial learning?
allows animals to learn about safe/unsafe loactions
can associatively learned behaviors be forgotten?
_____ occurs when a learned behavior is forgotten if it stops eliciting the expected response
_____ is a process where extinct behaviors are remembered through re-association
_____ occurs when animals increase behavioral responses due to increased stimuli frequency
_____ occurs when an animal learns to decrease a behavioral response in a face repetitive, meaningless stimulus
how does habituation increase fitness?
it allows animals to ignore what is irrelevant to life
describe observational learning:
an animal learns a behavior by watching another animal perform that same behavior
does observational learning involve reinforcement?
how does observational learning increase an animal's fitness?
it requires no reinforcement, which makes learning more efficient
_____ occurs when an animal is placed in a scenario it has never encountered, yet they ignorantly do something that leads to a favorable outcome
how does insight increase an animal's fitness?
it does not require reinforcement (much like observational learning), so it increases learning efficiency
what are the 3 common types of animal movement?
kinesis; taxis; migration
_____ occurs when animals change their speed in random directions
animals that move by kinesis _____ in favorable environments and _____ in unfavorable environments
slow down; speed up
how does kinesis increase an animal's fitness?
it allows them to spend more time in a favorable environment (because they slow down here)
_____ has a specific direction, either towards or away from a stimulus
taxis is a _____ change in _____ or speed
positive taxis is directed _____ a stimulus
negative taxis is directed _____ a stimulus
_____ is the attraction/aversion to light
phototaxis (can be positive/negative)
_____ is the attraction/aversion to chemical signals
chemotaxis (can be positive/negative)
migration is a relatively long-distance movement from 1 area to another due to _____ behaviors
how does communication increase fitness?
it allows animals to coordinate social behaviors (find shelter, food, mates, etc)
what are some types of communication?
visual; auditory; tactile; chemical
visual communication can occur around which types of behaviors?
aggressive; submissive; mating rituals
_____ communication communicates sounds
when might auditory communication be useful?
at night; over long distances; through water
tactile communication is communication through _____
chemical communication occurs through chemicals called _____
_____ (chemical communication) are used to attract mates or inform animals about beneficial environments
_____ (chemicial communication) can be used as a signal to stay away
_____ pheromones trigger immediate and reversible behaviors
primer pheromones trigger _____ behaviors
what do honeybees use as a means of auditory, tactile, and chemical communication?
the waggle dance
(not a form of visual communication)
_____ allow animals to interact for the purposes of companionship, finding food, protection, and mating
_____ is a social behavior where animals group together to better achieve some goal
agonistic behaviors occur when _____
animals compete for food, territory, or mates
what are the components of agonistic behaviors?
threats; aggression; submission
aggressive behaviors between animals are often _____ to avoid both animals sustaining injuries
a threat followed by a submission avoids aggression, this is known as _____
a _____ is the pecking order of animals in a group
what are the top ranking animals called in a dominance hierarchy?
_____ refers to the behaviors animals use to protect their territories
search images are visual _____ for food that is safe to eat
how do search images increase an animal's fitness?
they allow for the quick identification of safe foods
_____ behaviors refer to the sacrifices an animal might make for its relatives
altruism increases the altruist's (individual doing the sacrificing) _____ fitness
what is inclusive fitness?
the sum of an animals direct and indirect fitness
_____ refers to the number of genes an animal can pass onto the next generation of its own
_____ refers to the number of genes passed onto the next generation by an animal's relatives
Hamilton's rule of altruism says that indirect fitness needs to _____ direct fitness for altruism to occur
_____ says that an animal's inclusive fitness is increased by its indirect fitness
kin selection is a form of natural selection that favors _____
_____ altruism refers to the sacrifices an animal might make for an unrelated animal of the same species
what are some examples of advantageous animal groups?
herds, flocks, schools, packs
_____ describes how males and females are different in their mating behaviors
_____ contribute a lot of energy to the mating process
females choose _____ mates that have the potential of producing _____ offspring
high quality; high quality
(this is because females contribute so much energy to mating)
_____ do not contribute a lot of energy to the mating process
males don't need to worry as much about the _____ of their offspring
males focus on the _____ of offspring they are able to produce
what are the 2 most common types of sexual selection?
female choice; male competition
_____ is a type of sexual selection that increases the frequency of male traits or behaviors that females find most attractive
male competition is a type of sexual selection that rewards the _____ males with more mating opportunities
_____ occurs when male and female animals of the same species begin to look less and less similar
sexual dimorphism results from sexual selection and an increase in the frequency of _____
traits that make males successful mates
_____ is the practice of having 1 mating partner at 1 time
_____ is the practice of having multiple mating partners at 1 time
it is more common for _____ to be polygamous than it is for _____
_____ is when 1 male has many female mates at 1 time
_____ is when 1 female has many male mates at 1 time
semelparous animals mate only _____ during their entire lifetime
_____ animals produce many offspring from their single reproductive episode
semelparous animals produce many babies that have a _____ chance of surviving to adulthood
semelparity tends to occur in _____ conditions, where parents do not care for their young for extended periods
_____ describes the animals that mate many times during life
iteroparous animals produce _____ offspring each time they reproduce
the babies iteroparous animals make have a _____ chance of surviving into adulthood
iteroparity occurs in animals living in _____ environments, where breeding can occur again
_____ animals tend to care for their young as they grow and mature