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Test 3 micro 261 ch 26-28
Terms in this set (98)
A molecule capable of interacting with specific components of the immune system and that often functions as an immunogen to elicit an immune response
An antibody that reacts to self antigens
A harmful immune reaction directed against self-antigen
a protein found on Th cells that interacts with MHC2 on an antigen protein
A protein found exclusively on Tc cells that interact with MHC1 on a target cell
The inability to produce an immune response to specific antigens due to the neutralization effector cells
For t cells selection in the thymus the killing of useless of self-reactive clones
a copy of an antigen reactive lymphocyte
an inflammatory allergic response mediated by Th1 lymphocytes
The portion of the antigen that reacts with the specific antibody or t cell receptors
An immune response leading to damage of host tissues
The capacity to respond more quickly to second subsequent exposures to an eliciting antigen
A molecule capable of eliciting an adaptive immune response
A long-lived B or T lymphocyte responsive to a specific antigen
MHC class 1 protien
An antigen presenting molecule found on all nucleated vertebrate cells
MHC class 2 protein
An antigen presenting molecule found in macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells
Primary immune response
The production of antibodies or immune T cells on first exposure to antigen; the antibodies are mostly of the IgM class
Secondary immune response
The enhanced production of antibodies or immune T cells on second a subsequent exposures to antigen; the antibodies are mostly of the IgG class
The ability of the immune response to interact with particular antigens
A pathogen product capable of eliciting an inappropriately strong inflammatory immune response by stimulating greater than normal number of T cells
T cell receptor
An antigen-specific receptor protein on the surface of T cells
T -cytotoxic (Tc) cell
A lymphocyte that interacts with MHC1-peptide complexes through its T cell receptor and produces cytotoxins and kill the interacting target cell
T-helper (Th) cell
A lymphocyte that interacts with MHC2 peptide complexes through it T cells receptor and produces cytokines that act on other cells. Th subsets include Th1 cells that activate macrophages; Th2 cells that activate B cells; Th17 cells that activate neutrophils; and Treg cells that suppress adaptive immunity
The acquired inability to produce an immune response to particular antigens
The inoculation of a host with inactive of weakened pathogens or pathogen products to stimulate protective active immunity
1. Distinguish between immune specificity, memory, and tolerance.
Antibody reaction is dependent on lymphocytes cell receptors with individual pathogens
Subsequent exposures to the same antigen result in rapid production of large quanties of antigen-reactive T cells and antibodies
The acquired ability to make an adaptive immune response to one's own antigen
2. Distinguish between clonal deletion and clonal selection.
T cells that recognize MHC peptides are retained. Deletion of T cells that have the potential to cause autoimmune disease
3. Where does the antibody bind to an antigen? What part of the antibody binds?
4. Give an example for each: natural and artificial active immunity and natural and artificial passive immunity.
Getting a disease and recovering; breastfeeding; vaccination; receiving pre-formed antibodies
5. Summarize antibody production starting with pathogen interaction with an APC.
B cells initially function as APCs. First their antigen specific Ig receptor traps antigen. Following endocytosis, antigen is processed in to peptide fragments which are bound by MHC II and transported to the B cell surface. The MHC II peptide complex is bound by the TCR on the Th2 cell to secrete cytokines which activate the B cell to produces clones that differentiate into many antibodies producing plasma cells and a smaller number of memory cells. The memory cells can differentiate into AB producing plasma cells upon secondary exposure
6. What are the different classes of antibody and where are they found? What is unique about each?
IgM primary response Ab
IgG secondary response Ab
7. Explain the rationale for periodic revaccination in children and adults.
The first vaccination you get a primary antibody response (short lived) the second and later exposures you get secondary antibody response (memory cells and faster response)
8. Describe primary and secondary antibody responses in serum.
Primary response from day 0 to day 100 is IgM and slow after secondary exposure from day 100 to day 200 is IgG and is 10-fold greater
9. Describe the basic structure of an antibody.
y-shaped constant region is the same for all and the variable is different and specific and what binds to the antigen
10. Identify the cells that display MHC class I and MHC class II proteins on their surfaces.
MHC1 is on all healthy nucleated cells
MHC2 is on the surface of antigen presenting cells (B cells, macrophages and dendritic cells)
11. How are T cells similar and different?
Cytotoxic T cells lyse target cells
Helper T cells 1 activate other T cells, macrophages, which take up and kill foreign cells
Helper t cells 2 activate B cells and antibody production
12. Compare and contrast the four types of hypersensitivy. Which ones are mediated by antibody?
Type 1 is immediate IgE, minutes
Type 2 is cytotoxic IgG on the cell surface antigen
Type 3 is immune complex IgG with soluble antigen
Type 4 is cell mediated and delayed Th1 inflammatory cell activation of macrophages
13. What is autoimmunity and give examples of autoimmune diseases. Explain the mechanism associated with each disease.
T and B cells react with self-antigens and are eliminated. Type 1 diabetes Th1 cells seek and destroy pancreatic cells that produce insulin, HIV/AIDS, lupus is caused by a type 3 hypersensitivity caused by autoantibodies against soluble self-antigens. When bound these Ag-Ab complexes deposit in different body tissues which binds complement and causes tissue damage
14. How do super antigens cause disease?
Activate more T cells then normal and is capable of eliciting an unusually strong immune response
15. What causes immunodeficiency and what is the result of this condition?
Proper formation of B or T cells is prevented which results in a deficiency of cell mediated and therefore a loss of antibody mediated immunity
The acquired ability to recognize and destroy a particular pathogen or its products, dependent on previous exposure to the pathogen or its products
A soluble protein produced by B cells and plasma cells that interacts with antigen; also called immunoglobin
A molecule that interacts with specific components of the immune system
Antigen presenting cell
A macrophage, dendritic cell, or B cell that takes up and processes antigens and present it to T-helper cells
A lymphocyte that has immunoglobin surface receptors, produces immunoglobin, and may present antigen to T cells
A soluble protein that recruits immune cells to an injury site; a type of cytokine
A series of proteins that react sequentially with antibody-antigen complexes, mannose-binding lectin, or alternative activation pathway proteins to amplify or potentiate target cell destruction
A soluble protein produced by a leukocyte or damaged body cell; modulates an immune response
A phagocytic antigen presenting cell found in various body tissues; transports antigen to secondary lymphoid organs
An increase in body temperature resulting from infection or the presence of toxins in the body
A leukocyte derived from a myeloid precursor that contains cytoplasmic granules consisting of toxins or enzymes that are released to destroy target cells
the ability of an organism to resist infection
A soluble protein produced by B cells and plasma cells that interact with antigen; also called antibody
A nonspecific response to noxious stimuli such as toxins and pathogens characterized by redness, swelling, pain and heat, usually located at the site of infection
The noninducible ability to recognize and destroy an individual pathogen or its products that does not rely on the previous exposure to the pathogen and its products
Cytokine proteins produced by virus-infected cells that induce signal transduction in nearby cells, resulting in transcription of the antiviral genes and expression of antiviral proteins
The ability of a pathogen to enter into host cells or tissues, spread, and cause disease
a nucleated cell in the blood; also called a white blood cell
Organs that contain lymphocytes and phagocytes arranged to encounter microorganisms and antigens as they travel through the lymphatic circulation
A subset of nucleated cells in blood involved in the adaptive immune response
A large leukocyte found in tissue that has phagocytic and antigen presenting capabilities
Major Histcompatibility complex
A genetic region that encodes several proteins important for antigen processing and presentation. MHC 1 proteins are expressed on all cells. MHC 2 proteins are expressed only on antigen-presenting cells
Tissue cells adjoin blood vessels throughout the body that contain granules with inflammatory mediators
The ability to rapidly produce large quantites of specific immune cells or antibodies after subsequent exposure to the antigen
Circulating phagocyte that contains many lysosomes and can differentiate into a macrophage or dendritic cell
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
A part of the lymphatic system that interacts with antigens and microorganisms that enter the body through mucous membranes
Natural Killer Cells
A specialized lymphocyte the recognizes and destroys infected host cells or cancer cells in a nonspecific manner
A leukocyte exhibiting phagocytic properties, a granular cytoplasm, and a multilobed nucleus also called polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)
The deposition of antibody or complement protein on the surface of a pathogen or other antigen that results in enhanced phagocytosis
A cell that engulfs foreign particles, ingest, kill and digest most pathogens
The process of engulfing and killing foreign particles and cells
An intracytoplasmic vacuole containing engulfed materials, especially pathogens or foreign particles
The liquid portion of blood containing proteins and other solutes
A differentiated B cell that produces soluble antibodies
The liquid portion of the blood with clotting proteins removed
The ability of the immune response to interact with particular antigens
A progenitor cell that can develop into other cell types
a lymphocyte that interacts with antigens through a T cell receptor for an antigen; T cells are divided into functional subsets including Tc(T-cytotoxic) cells and Th(T-helper) cells. Th cells are further subdivided into Th1 (inflammatory) cells and Th2 cells which aid B cell in antibody production
What major class of immune cells mediates an innate immune response? What additional type of immune cells is required for an adaptive immune response?
Dendritic cells, neutrophils, mast cells, natural killer cells and macrophages
T cells, B cells, plasma cells
2. What term is used to describe the unique molecules found on the surface of different pathogens?
3. Describe host tissue specificity for pathogens
Pathogens need to be able to adhere and infect at the site of exposure to initiate infection. Even if a pathogen can adhere at the site the organisms cannot colonize the host if the site is not compatible with the pathogens nutritional and metabolic needs
4. Identify physical and chemical barriers to pathogens. How might these barriers be compromised?
The tight junctions between epithelial cells in all body tissues inhibit invasion and infection. Mucosal surfaces are coated with a layer of protective mucus that traps foreign agents. Epithelial cells under the mucus layer have cilia on their surfaces that carry out movements to expel pathogens. Acid in the stomach prevent pathogenic bacteria from colonizing.
5. What other factors may control the outcome of an infectious disease?
Environment, ago, weather, virulence factors
6. Describe the circulation of a leukocyte from the blood to the lymph and back to the blood.
Blood is pumped by the heart through arteries and capillaries throughout the body and is returned through the veins. In capillary beds, leukocytes and solutes pass to and from the blood into the lymphatic system. Lymph drains from extravascular tissues into lymphatic capillaries and then into the lymph nodes throughout the lymphatic system. Lymph fluid with antibodies and immune cells empties into the blood circulatory system via the thoracic lymph duct
7. Where do all blood cells originate? What determines what they differentiate into?
Bone marrow. B cells originate and mature in the bone marrow. T cells originate in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus
8. What are examples of lymphoid tissue
Bone marrow and thymus
9. Although technically not part of the immune system, nonpathogenic normal microbiota plays a major role in preventing disease. Describe this role.
It competes against pathogenic microbes because they both want the space and resources
10. Describe the process of phagocytosis. What types of cells are phagocytic?
Phagocyte engulf pathogens upon recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by toll-like receptors, when engulfed the bacteria is held in a membrane boud vesicale called a phagosome which will fuse with lysozyme to form a phagolysome, eventually the cell will lyse and release everything
11. Describe several reasons why phagocytes are not always effective at removing pathogens from the body.
Capsule looks like a phagosome. Some have leukocidins that kill phagocytes.
12. Describe the inflammation reaction. What are some causes of inflammation?
Redness, heat, and swelling at the site of infection. Cytokines and chemokines draw white blood cells to the site of infection. Damage to healthy tissues.
13. Identify the major symptoms of localized inflammation and of septic shock.
Heat, swelling, and redness. Increased vascular permabilty decrease blood pressure causes damage to many organs at the same time
14. What is opsonization, and how does opsonization help fight bacterial infections?
The coating of pathogens with antimicrobial host proteins like antibodies resulting of enhanced phagocytosis and makes them much more likely to be identified, engulfed, and destroyed by phagocytes. This is because most phagocytes have antibody receptors on their surfaces which bind antibody and complement
15. What are complement and the complement pathway?
Serum protiens that lyse pathogens. Proteins bind in a cascade after antibody binds to antigen then forms the membrane attack complex which forms a pore thorugh the cytoplasmic membrane of the pathogen so the cell lyses
16. Identify and compare the targets and the recognition mechanisms used by T-cytotoxic cells and NK cells.
NK cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that seek out and destroy compromised cells infected with viruses or cancer cells. A NK cells engages an infected or otherwise diseased cell, granules in the cytoplasm of the NK cell migrate to the contact site and release contents. Perforin binds to the membrane of the target cell and forms a pore that granzymes enter which then cause apoptosis (programmed cell death)
17. Under what conditions are interferons produced, and how do they limit the transmission of viruses from one host cell to another?
Serve as a warning system and prevent viral replication by stimulating the production of antiviral proteins in uninfected cells once they receive the interferon signal from infected cells
18. Describe the relative importance of innate immunity compared to adaptive immunity. Is one more important than the other? Can we survive in a normal environment without immunity?
One is born with innate immunity; adaptive immunity is acquired through life. No. No.
20. What are MHCs and why are they important?
Major histocompatibility complex. MHC2 are expressed on APC's. MHC1 is on the surface of nucleated cells, it binds and present self-antigens
What is a direct Coombs test? 🔺
Where does the primary HSV infection occur?
How do we develop adaptive immunity?
What is apart of the First line of Defense?
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