313 terms


Study time excellent.

Terms in this set (...)

Length-tension relationship
The resting length of a muscle and the tension the muscle can produce at this resting length
Basic performance assessments
The push-up test, Davies test, shark skill test, bench press strength assessment, and squat strength assessment
Davies Test
Purpose: Measure upper extremity agility and stabilization. May not be suitable for clients who lack shoulder stability.

Procedure: 1) Place 2 pieces of tape on the floor, 36 inches apart.
2) Have clients assume push-up position, with one hand on each piece of tape.

Movement: 1) Instruct client to quickly move his or her right hand to touch the left hand.
2) Perform alternating touching on each side for 15 seconds.
3) Repeat for 3 trials.
4) Reassess in the future to measure improvement in the number of touches.
5) Record the number of lines touched by both hands.
Shark Skill Test
Purpose: Assess lower extremity agility and neuromuscular control
(Viewed as a progression from the single-leg squat; may not be suitable for all individuals)

Procedure: Position client in the center box of a grid, with hands on hips and standing on one leg.

Movement: 1) Instruct client to hop to each box in a designated pattern, always returning to the center box. Be consistent with patterns.
2) Perform one practice run through the boxes with each foot.
3) Perform test twice with each foot (4x total). Keep track of time.
4) Record the times.
5) Add 0.10 seconds for each of these faults:
i. Non-hopping leg touches ground
ii. Hands come off hips
iii. Foot goes into wrong square
iv. Foot does not return to center square
Upper Extremity Strength Assessment: Bench Press
Purpose: To estimate the one-rep maximum on overall upper body strength of the pressing musculature. Can also be used to determine training intensities of the bench press. (May not be suitable for all clients; not for clients with general fitness or weight-loss goals. Considered an advanced assessment for strength-specific goals).

Position: Client on bench, lying on his or her back. Feet pointed straight ahead, low back in a neutral position.

Movement: 1) Instruct the client to warm up with a light resistance that can easily be performed for 8-10 reps.
2) Take a 1-minute rest.
3) Add 10 to 20 lbs (5-10% of initial load) and perform 3 to 5 reps.
4) Take a 2-minute rest.
5) Repeat steps 4 and 5 until client achieves failure between 2 and 10 reps (3 to 5 reps for greater accuracy).
6) Use the one-rep maximum estimation chart in appendix to calculate one-rep max.
Lower Extremity Strength Assessment: Squat
Purpose: To estimate the one-rep squat maximum and overall lower body strength. Can also be used to determine training intensities for the squat exercise. (Advanced assessment for strength-specific goals. May not be suitable for many clients; not for general fitness or weight-loss goals).

Position: Feet shoulder-width apart and pointed straight ahead, knees in line with toes. Low back in neutral position.

Movement: 1) Instruct client to warm up with light resistance that can easily be performed for 8 to 10 reps.
2) Take a 1-minute rest.
3) Add 30 to 40 lbs (10-20% of initial load) and perform 3 to 5 reps.
4) Take a 2-minute rest.
5) Repeat steps 3 and 4 until the client achieves failure between 2 and 10 reps (use 3 to 5 reps for greater accuracy).
6) Use the one-rep maximum estimation chart in the appendix to calculate one-rep max.
Pronation distortion syndrome
A postural distortion syndrome characterized by foot pronation (flat feet) and adducted and internally rotated knees (knock knees).
Lower crossed syndrome
A postural distortion syndrome characterized by anterior tilt to the pelvis (arched lower back).
Upper crossed syndrome
A postural distortion syndrome characterized by a forward head and rounded shoulders.
Single-Leg Squat Assessment
Purpose: This transitional movement assessment also assesses dynamic flexibility, core strength, balance, and overall neuromuscular control. A reliable and valid measure of lower extremity movement patterns.
Knee valgus has shown to be influenced by decreased hip abductor and hip external rotation strength, increased hip adductor activity, and restricted ankle dorsiflexion. This suggests that movement impairments observed during the transitional movement assessment may be the result of alterations in available joint motion, muscle activation, and overall neuromuscular control.

Procedure: Client stands with hands on the hips, eyes focused on an object straight ahead. Foot pointed straight ahead. The foot, ankle, knee, and the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex in a neutral position.

Movement: 1) Have client squat to a comfortable level and return to starting position.
2) Perform up to 5 reps before switching sides.

Views: View the knee from the front. Knee should track in line with the foot (2nd and 3rd toes).

Compensation: Does the knee move inward (adduct and internally rotate)?

Record findings, then refer to Table on pg 146 to determine overactive and underactive muscles.
Stabilization Level Training
Phase 1: Stabilization Endurance Training

Main focus: increase muscular endurance and stability while developing optimal neuromuscular efficiency (coordination).

Proprioceptively based progression: difficulty is increased by introducing a greater challenge to the balance and stabilization systems of the body (instead of simply increasing the load).

-Must be done before strength and power training

-Stabilization Endurance Training not only addresses the existing structural deficiencies but also provides a superior way to alter body composition (reduce body fat) because all exercises are typically performed in a circuit fashion (short rest periods) with a high number of reps.

Body forced to recruit more muscles to stabilize itself-->more calories expended
Phase 1: Stabilization Endurance Training
-Improve muscular endurance
-Enhance joint stability
-Increase flexibility
-Enhance control of posture
-Improve neuromuscular efficiency (balance, stabilization, muscular coordination)

Training Strategies:
-Training in unstable yet controllable environments (proprioceptively enriched)
-Low loads, high repetitions
Strength Level Training
-Follows the successful completion of stabilization training

Emphasis: Maintain stabilization endurance while increasing prime mover strength

-This is the level an individual will progress to if goals are hypertrophy (increasing muscle size) or maximal strength (lifting heavy loads).

Consists of 3 phases:
-Phase 2: Strength Endurance Training (superset used)
-Phase 3: Hypertrophy Training (optional, depends on client goals)
-Phase 4: Maximum Strength Training (optional, depends on client goals)
Phase 2: Strength Endurance Training
-Enhance stabilization endurance while increasing prime mover strength (accomplished with a superset)
-Improve overall work capacity
-Enhance joint stabilization
-Increase lean body mass

Training Strategies:
-Moderate loads and repetitions (8-12)
-Superset: one traditional strength exercise and one stabilization exercise per body part in the resistance training portion of the program
Set of 2 exercises that are performed back-to-back without any rest time between them.

-1st exercise: traditional strength exercise performed in a stable environment (ex: bench press)

-2nd exercise: stabilization exercise performed in a less stable (yet controllable) environment (ex: stability ball push-up)

Principle behind this method: Work the prime movers predominantly in 1st exercise to elicit prime mover strength. Then, immediately follow with an exercise that challenges the stabilization muscles. This produces an increased ability to maintain postural stabilization and dynamic joint stabilization.
Phase 3: Hypertrophy Training
-One of 3 Phases in Strength Level Training
-Optional, depends on client's goals

Goal: Achieve optimal levels of muscular hypertrophy (increase muscle size)

Training Strategies: High volume, moderate to high loads, moderate or lower repetitions (6-12)
Phase 4: Maximum Strength Training
-One of 3 Phases in Strength Level Training
-Optional, depends on client's goals

-Increase motor unit recruitment
-Increase frequency of motor unit recruitment
-Improve peak force

Training Strategies:
-High loads, low repetitions (1-5), longer rest periods
Power Level Training
-Should only be entered after successful completion of the Stabilization and Strength Levels

-Emphasizes the development of speed and power
-Achieved through only one phase of training, Phase 5: Power Training

-Entails the execution of a traditional strength exercise (with a heavy load) superset with a power exercise (with a light load performed as fast as possible) of similar joint dynamics
-This is to enhance prime mover strength while also improving the rate of force production
Rate of force production
Ability of muscles to exert maximal force output in a minimal amount of time.
Phase 5: Power Training
-Enhance neuromuscular efficiency
-Enhance prime mover strength
-Increase rate of force production

Training Strategies:
-Superset: one strength and one power exercise per body part in the resistance training portion of the program
-Perform all power exercises as fast as can be controlled
Power Training
Sensory receptors responsible for sensing distortion in body tissues.

-Respond to outside forces (touch, pressure, stretching, sound waves, motion) and transmit impulses through sensory nerves, which enable us to detect touch, sounds, and motion of body. Also monitor position of muscles, bones, joints (proprioception)

-Located in muscles, tendons, ligaments, joint capsules; include muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs, and joint receptors
Sensory (afferent) neurons
Transmit nerve impulses from effector sites (such as muscles and organs) via receptors to the brain and spinal cord.

-Respond to touch, sound, light, and other environmental stimuli

Subdivided into 4 categories:
-mechanoreceptors (respond to mechanical forces, e.g. touch and pressure)*Most important for trainers to understand*
-nociceptors (respond to pain; pain receptors)
-chemoreceptors (respond to chemical interaction, e.g. smell and taste)
-photoreceptors (respond to light; e.g. vision)
Muscle spindles
Sensory receptors within muscles that run parallel to the muscle fibers; sensitive to change in LENGTH of the muscle and the rate of that change.

-Also help in regulating the contraction of muscles via the stretch reflex mechanism (a normal response by the body to a stretch stimulus in the muscle)
Golgi tendon organs
Specialized sensory receptors sensitive to change in TENSION of the muscle and the rate of that change

-Located at the point where skeletal muscle fibers insert into the tendons of skeletal muscle

-Activation will cause the muscle to relax, which prevents the muscle from excessive stress or possibility of injury
During an Overhead Squat assessment, what are the probable overactive muscles when there is an excessive forward lean?
Soleus, gastrocnemius, hip flexor complex, abdominal complex
The muscle that is responsible for concentrically accelerating hip extension and external rotation
Gluteus maximus
Sagittal plane
The imaginary bisector that divided the body into right and left halves.
The muscle action that develops tension while lengthening, and prevents resistance from accelerating in an uncontrolled manner
Systolic blood pressure
Represents the pressure within the arterial system after the heart contracts.

The first number (top number) of blood pressure measurement.
Diastolic blood pressure
Represents the blood pressure within the arterial system when the heart is resting and filling with blood.

The second number (bottom number) of blood pressure measurement.
Bioelectrical impedance
The method of measuring body fat percentages that conducts an electrical current through the body to measure fat
Primary connective tissue that connects bones together and provides stability, input to the nervous system, guidance, and the limitation of improper joint movement.

-Made up of the protein called collagen with varying amounts of 2nd protein, elastin
Connective tissues that attach muscle to bone.

Provides the anchor from which the muscle can exert force and control the bone and joint (provides an anchor for muscles to produce force)
Subjective information
Information gathered from a client that includes their occupation, lifestyle, and medical background
Left atrium
The chamber of the heart that gathers oxygenated blood coming to the heart from the lungs.
The muscle action that develops when a muscle exerts more force than is placed on it, resulting in shortening of the muscle.
Accelerates force.
Muscles that assist the prime movers.
Biceps, triceps, subscapular, iliac crest
The four skin-fold sites tested when using the Durnin-Womersley formula for body fat assessment.
Benefits of circumference measurements
Can be used on obese clients, good for comparisons and progressions, good for assessing fat patterns and distribution, inexpensive, easy to record
Synergistic dominance
The neuromuscular phenomenon that occurs when inappropriate muscles take over the function of a weak or inhibited prime mover.
Autogenic inhibition
The process in which neural impulses that sense tension are greater than the impulses that cause muscles to contract, providing an inhibitory effect to the muscle spindles.
Latissimus dorsi
The muscle responsible for concentrically accelerating shoulder extension, adduction, and internal rotation.
A layer of connective tissue that is underneath the fascia, and surrounds the muscle.
Sinoatrial (SA) node
A specialized area of cardiac tissue, located in the right atrium of the heart, which initiates the electrical impulses that determine the heart rate.
Often known as the "pacemaker" for the heart.
Atrioventricular (AV) node
A small mass of specialized cardiac muscle fibers, located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart, that receives heartbeat impulses from the sinoatrial node and directs them to the walls of the ventricles.
-Delays the impulse from the SA node before allowing it to move to the ventricles.
The superior chamber of the heart that receives blood from the veins and forces it into the ventricles.

-Located superiorly (on top) on either side of the heart. These act like a reservoir.

-The right one of these gathers deoxygenated blood returning to the heart from the entire body.

-The left one gathers oxygenated blood coming to the heart from the lungs.
The inferior chamber of the heart that receives blood from its corresponding atrium and, in turn, forces blood into the arteries.
Stroke volume (SV)
The amount of blood pumped out of the heart with each contraction.

-The difference between the ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV) and the end-systolic volume (ESV).
Average resting heart rate for untrained adult
70 bpm
Support mechanisms of blood
-Transports oxygen and nutrients to tissues
-Transports waste products from tissues
-Transports hormones to organs and tissues
-Carries heat throughout the body

-Regulates body temperature and acid balance in the body

-Protects the body from excessive bleeding by clotting
-Contains specialized immune cells to help fight disease or sickness
Blood vessels
Network of hollow tubes that circulates blood throughout the body.

3 major types:
Vessels that transport blood away from the heart.
The smallest blood vessels, and the site of exchange of chemicals and water between the blood and the tissues.
-Where substances such as oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products are exchanged between tissues.
Vessels that transport blood from the capillaries toward the heart.
The very small veins that connect capillaries to the larger veins.
-Progressively merge with others to form veins.
Small terminal branches of an artery, which end in capillaries.
Location of the heart.
Cardiac output
The combination of how many times the heart beats per minute and how much blood is being pumped out with each beat.
Respiratory system
-aka the pulmonary system

Function is to bring oxygen from the environment into the lungs and remove carbon dioxide from the lungs to the outside air.

Primary role is to ensure proper cellular function.
Respiratory pump
Composed of skeletal structures (bones) and soft tissues (muscles) that work together to allow proper respiratory mechanics to occur and help pump blood back to the heart during inspiration.

Muscles Inspiration:
-External intercostals
-Pectoralis minor
-Internal intercostals
Conducting airways
One of the two respiratory passages.

Consist of all structures that air travels through before entering the respiratory airways.

-Nasal cavity
-Oral cavity
-Right and left pulmonary bronchi
Respiratory airways
One of two respiratory passages.

Collect the channeled air coming from the conducting airways.

-Alveolar sacs
The process of getting oxygen from the environment to the tissues of the body.

-In the alveolar sacs, gases such as oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are transported in and out of the bloodstream through this process
-This is how oxygen gets from the outside environment to the tissues of the body
Fick equation
The equation for oxygen consumption.

According to this, oxygen consumption, VO2, is the product of cardiac output, Q, or (HR x SV), times the arterial-venous difference (difference in the O2 content between the blood in the arteries and the blood in the veins), a-v o2.

From this equation, it is easy to see how influential the cardiovascular system is on the body's ability to consume oxygen, and that heart rate plays a major factor in determining VO2.
Tests used to predict VO2 max
-The Rockport Walk Test
-The Step Test
-YMCA bike protocol test
ATP-PC System
This process is the simplest and fastest of the energy systems. Activated at the onset of activity, regardless of intensity, because of its ability to produce energy very rapidly in comparison with the other systems.

-Occurs without the presence of oxygen (anaerobic)

-Provides energy primarily for high-intensity, short-duration bouts of exercise or activity

-Seen in power and strength forms of training in which heavy loads are used with only a few repetitions, or during short sprinting events

-Ex: During a spring, this system could supply energy to all the working muscles for 10-15 seconds before complete exhaustion is reached
Another anaerobic means of producing ATP. Achieved through the chemical breakdown of glucose, a process referred to as anaerobic glycolysis.

-Can produce a significantly greater amount of energy than the ATP-PC system, but is limited to 30-50 seconds of duration.

-Most workouts place a greater stress on this system than the other systems because a typical repetition range of 8 to 12 repetitions falls within this timeframe.
The Oxidative System
The most complex of the 3 energy systems.
-Uses substrates with the aid of oxygen to generate ATP
-All 3 of the oxidative processes involved in the production of ATP involve oxygen and thus, are referred to as aerobic processes

The three oxidative or aerobic systems include:
1) Aerobic glycolysis
2) The Krebs cycle
3) The electron transport chain (ETC)
The Oxidative System
The three metabolic pathways in which cells can generate ATP
1) The ATP-PC system
2) The glycolytic system (glycolysis)
3) The oxidative system (oxidative phosphorylation)
The science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on the human body and the effects produced by these forces.
Positioned nearest the center of the body, or point of reference.
Positioned farthest from the center of the body, or point of reference.
Positioned on the opposite side of the body.
Positioned on the same side of the body.
Sagittal plane
An imaginary bisector that divides the body into left and right halves.


Ex: biceps curl, triceps pushdown, squat, front lunge, calf raise, walking, running, etc

Axis: Coronal
Frontal plane
An imaginary bisector that divides the body into front and back halves.

Ex: Side lateral raise, side lunge, side shuffle

Axis: Anterior-posterior
Transverse plane
An imaginary bisector that divides the body into top and bottom halves.

Internal rotation, external rotation, left/right rotation, horizontal adduction, horizontal abduction

Ex: Trunk rotation, throwing, golfing, swinging a bat

Axis: Longitudinal
Scapular motion
Scapular retraction--Adduction of scapula, shoulder blades move toward midline.

Scapular protraction--Abduction of scapula, shoulder blades move away from midline.

Scapular depression--Downward (inferior) motion of the scapula.

Scapular elevation--Upward (superior) motion of the scapula.
Muscle actions
3 primary types.

1) Isotonic--constant muscle tension

2) Isometric--constant muscle length

3) Isokinetic--constant velocity of motion
Isometric muscle action
When a muscle is exerting force equal to the force being placed on it, leading to no visible change in the muscle length.
Isokinetic muscle action
When a muscle shortens at a constant speed over a full range of motion.

This action requires the use of expensive and sophisticated equipment that measures the amount of force generated by the muscles and adjusts the resistance (load) so that no matter how much muscular tension is produced, movement remains constant.
In other words: the harder an individual pushes and pulls, the more resistance they feel.
The interaction between two entities or bodies that result in either the acceleration or deceleration of an object.
-Characterized by magnitude (how much) and direction (which way they are moving).
Length-tension relationship
The resting length of a muscle and the tension the muscle can produce at this resting length.
Muscle groups moving together to produce movement around a joint.
Common force-couples
Internal and external obliques--trunk rotation

Upper trapezius and the lower portion of the serratus anterior--upward rotation of scapula

Gluteus maximus, quadriceps, and calf muscles--produce hip and knee extension during walking, running, stair climbing, etc

Gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, and tibialis posterior--performing plantarflexion at the foot and ankle complex

Deltoid and rotator cuff--performing shoulder abduction
Rotary motion
Movement of the bones around the joints.
A force that produces rotation. Common unit of this is the newton-meter or Nm.
The muscle motion that decelerates force.
Increases muscle tension as it lengthens.
The muscle action that stabilizes.
Joint angle and muscle length do not change during contraction.
Motor behavior
Motor response to internal and external environmental stimuli.
The collective study of motor control, motor learning, and motor development.
Motor control
How the CNS integrates internal and external sensory information (posture, movements, etc) with previous experiences to produce a motor response.
Concerned with what CNS structures are involved with motor behavior to produce movement.
Motor learning
The integration of motor control processes through practice and experience, leading to a relatively permanent change in the capacity to produce skilled movements.
Motor development
The change in motor behavior over time throughout the lifespan.
Sensorimotor integration
The ability of the nervous system to gather and interpret sensory information, and to select and execute the proper motor response.
-Implied that the nervous system ultimately dictates movement.
Comprehensive fitness test
Provides a variety of subjective and objective information including a preparticipation health screening, resting physiologic measurements (e.g. heart rate, blood pressure, height, weight) and a series of measurements to help determine the fitness level of a client (health-related fitness tests).
Subjective information
General and medical history, occupation, lifestyle, medical and personal information.
Objective information
-physiological assessments/measurements
-body composition testing
-cardiorespiratory assessments
-static and dynamic postural assessments
-performance assessments
Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q)
Designed to determine the safety or possible risk of exercising for a client based on the answers to specific health history questions.
Primarily aimed at identifying individuals who require further medical evaluation before being allowed to exercise because they are at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD).
When clients answer yes to one or more questions on the PAR-Q, refer them to a physician for further medical screening before starting an exercise program.
Ankle sprain
Shown to decrease the neural control to the gluteus medius and gluteus maximus muscles.
Low-back injuries
Can cause decreased neural control to stabilizing muscles of the cord, resulting in poor stabilization of the spine. This can further lead to dysfunction in the upper and lower extremities.
Posterior tibialis tendonitis
Shin splints.
Generally used as antihypertensive (high blood pressure), may also be prescribed for arrhythmias (irregular heart rate).
Calcium-channel blockers
Generally prescribed for hypertension and angina (chest pain).
Generally prescribed for hypertension, congestive heart failure.
Generally prescribed for hypertension, congestive heart failure, and peripheral edema.
Generally prescribed to correct or prevent bronchial smooth muscle constriction in individuals with asthma and other pulmonary diseases.
Used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure.
Used in the treatment of various psychiatric and emotional disorders.
Created by blood moving or pulsating through arteries each time the heart contracts.
Pulse rate is known as the heart rate.
Pulse points
Where arteries come close enough to the skin to be able to have a pulse (heart rate) felt.
There are 7 of these.
Radial pulse
Preferred method of recording heart rate. Located on the inside of the wrist.

To find this, lightly place 2 fingers along the right side of the arm in line and just above he thumb.
Once a pulse is felt, count the pulses for 60 seconds. Record the 60-second pulse rate and average over the course of 3 days.

-Touch should be gentle
-The test must be taken when the client is calm
-All 3 tests must be taken at the same time to ensure accuracy
Carotid pulse
Use with caution.
Located on the neck to the side of the windpipe.

To find this, lightly place 2 fingers on the neck, just to the side of the larynx. Once a pulse is identified, count the pulses for 60 seconds. Record the 60-second pulse rate and average over the course of 3 days.

-The touch should be gentle
-Excessive pressure can decrease HR and blood pressure, leading to an inaccurate reading, possible dizziness, and fainting.
-The test must be taken when the client is calm
-All 3 tests should be taken at the same time to ensure accuracy
Average resting heart rate
Between 70 and 80 beats per minute
Average heart rate for men
70 beats per minute
Average heart rate for women
75 beats per minute
Target Heart Rate Training Zones
Zone one: Builds aerobic base and aids in recovery
Zone two: Increases aerobic and anaerobic endurance
Zone three: Builds high-end work capacity
Heart Rate Reserve Method
One of the two common ways to calculate THR (target heart rate).
Also known as the Karvonen method; a way of establishing training intensity on the basis of the difference between a client's predicted maximal heart rate and their resting heart rate.

THR=[(HRmax - HRrest) x desired intensity] + HRrest
Straight percentage method
One of the two common ways to calculate target heart rate (THR).

A client's estimated maximal heart rate (HRmax) is found by subtracting their age from the number 220 (220-age).

Once the client's HRmax is determined, multiply the estimated HRmax by the appropriate intensity (65-95%) at which the client should work while performing cardio exercise to calculate THR.
Blood pressure
the pressure of the circulating blood against the walls of the blood vessels after blood is ejected from the heart.
There are 2 parts to measuring this.
Acceptable systolic blood pressure
≤120 millimetres (mm) of mercury (Hg) or mm Hg.
Acceptable diastolic blood pressure
≤80 mm HG
aneroid sphygmomanometer
Device used to measure blood pressure.
Consists of an inflatable cuff, a pressure dial, a bulb with a valve, and a stethoscope.
body composition
The relative percentage of body weight that is fat versus fat-free tissue, or more commonly reported as "Percent Body Fat".
Recommended body fat for men
Essential body fat: 3-5%
Athletic: 5-13%
(34 years or less): 8-22%
(35-55 years): 10-25%
(More than 56 years): 10-25%
Recommended body fat for women
Essential body fat: 8-12%
Athletic: 12-22%
(34 years or less): 20-35%
(35-55 years): 23-38%
(More than 56 years): 25-38%
Body composition assessments
There are a variety of methods used to estimate this, which vary according to cost, accuracy, and skill needed to perform them.

1) Skinfold measurement: uses a caliper to estimate the amount of subcutaneous fat beneath the skin

2) Bioelectrical impedance: uses a portable instrument to conduct an electrical current through the body to estimate fat

3) Underwater weighing (often referred to as hydrostatic weighing)
The Durnin-Womersley formula
Calculates a client's percentage of body fat using a caliper. The four sites of skinfold measurement:

-Biceps: A vertical fold on the front of the arm over the biceps muscle, halfway between the shoulder and the elbow.
-Triceps: A vertical fold on the back of the upper arm, with the arm relaxed and held freely at the side. The skinfold should also be taken halfway between the shoulder and the elbow.
-Subscapular: A 45-degree angle fold of 1 to 2 cm, below the inferior angle of the scapula.
-Iliac crest: A 45-degree angle fold, taken just above the iliac crest and medial to the axillary line.

All skinfold measurements should be taken on the right side of the body.

*Consistency (in location and administration) is vital when measuring skinfolds*
How to calculate one's fat mass and lean body mass
1) Body fat % x scale weight= fat mass

2) Scale weight - fat mass= lean body mas
Circumference measurement
A measure of the girth of body segments (e.g. arm, thigh, waist, hip).
Affected by both fat and muscle, and therefore do not provide accurate estimates of fatness in the general population.

Designed to assess girth changes in the body.

**The most important factor to consider when taking these measurements is consistency. Remember when taking measurements that the tape measure is taut and level around the area being measured.
Circumference measurement locations
-Neck: across the Adam's apple

-Chest: across the nipple line

-Waist: measure the narrowest point of the waist, below the ribcage and just above the top of the hip bones. If there is no apparent narrowing of the waist, measure at the navel.

-Hips: with feet together, measure circumference at the widest portion of the buttocks.

-Thighs: measure 10 inches above the top of the patella for standardization.

-Calves: at the maximal circumference between the ankle and the knee, measure the calves.

-Biceps: at the maximal circumference of the biceps, measure with arm extended, palm facing forward.
Waist-to-Hip Ratio
One of the most used clinical applications of girth measurements.
This assessment is important because there is a correlation between chronic diseases and fat stored in the midsection.

Can be computed by dividing the waist measurement by the hip measurement.

*A ratio greater than 0.80 for women and greater than 0.95 for men may put them at risk for a number of diseases*
Body Mass Index (BMI)
A rough assessment based on the concept that a person's weight should be proportional to their height.

-This assessment is not designed to assess body fat, but is a quick and easy method for determining whether client's weight is appropriate for their height.

-Calculated by either dividing the weight in kilograms by the square of the height in meters, OR by dividing body weight in pounds by square of height in inches and multiplying by 703.

*Lowest risk for diseases lies within a range of 22 to 24.9*
BMI of 25 or greater
Risk for disease increases with this BMI.
Greater than 0.80 for women and greater than 0.95 for men
Waist-to-hip ratio that puts women, and men, at greater risk for disease.
Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (CPET)
Aka maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max).

The most valid measurement for functional capacity of the cardiopulmonary (heart and lungs) system.

-Not always practical to measure this because of equipment requirements, time involved, and willingness of clients to perform at maximal physical capacity.
Therefore, submaximal tests are often the preferred method for determining the cardiorespiratory functional capacity and fitness.
Submaximal testing
Allows for the prediction or estimation of VO2max.

-Similar to VO2 tests, but they differ in that they are terminated at a predetermined heart rate intensity or time frame.

-There are multiple tests of these, and are often categorized by type (run/walk tests, cycle ergometer tests, and step tests).

Two common tests: YMCA 3-minute step test and the Rockport Walk Test
YMCA 3-minute step test
This test is designed to estimate an individual's cardiorespiratory fitness level on the basis of a submaximal bout of stair climbing at a set pace for 3 minutes.

Step one: Perform a 3-minute step test by having a client perform 96 steps per minute on a 12-inch step for a total of 3 minutes. It is important that the client performs the step test with the correct cadence. A metronome or simply stating out loud, "up, up, down, down" can help keep the client stepping at the correct pace.

Step two: Within 5 seconds of completing the exercise, the client's resting heart rate is measured for a period of 60 seconds and recorded as the recovery pulse.

Step three: Locate the recovery pulse number in one of the following categories (pg 130).

Follow rest of steps in picture.
Rockport Walk Test
Designed to estimate a cardiovascular starting point.
Do a bunch of other shit on page 132.
Lower crossed syndrome
A postural distortion syndrome characterized by an anterior tilt to the pelvis (arched lower back)
Upper crossed syndrome
A postural distortion syndrome characterized by a forward head and rounded shoulders.
Kinetic Chain Checkpoints
Postural assessments require observation of the human movement system.

NASM uses these checkpoints to systematically view the body in an organized fashion. These refer to major joint regions of the body including the:

1) Foot and ankle
2) Knee
3) Lumbo-pelvic-hip complex (LPHC)
4) Shoulders
5) Head and cervical spine
Overhead squat assessment
Designed to assess dynamic flexibility, core strength, balance, and overall neuromuscular control.

One of the recommended transitional movement assessment.

These assessments appear to be reliable and valid measures of lower extremity movement pattens when standard protocols are applied; this test reflects lower extremity movement patterns during jump-landing tasks.
Performance assessments
Used for clients looking to improve athletic performance. These measure upper extremity stability and muscular endurance, lower extremity agility, and overall strength.

-Push-Up Test
-Davies Test
-Shark Skill Test
-Bench Press Strength Assessment
-Squat Strength Assessment
neuromuscular efficiency
The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow agonists, antagonists, and stabilizers to work synergistically to produce, reduce, and dynamically stabilize the entire kinetic chain in all 3 planes of motion.
Postural distortion patterns
Predictable patterns of muscle imbalances
Reciprocal inhibition
The simultaneous contraction of one muscle and the relaxation of its antagonist to allow movement to take place.
Altered reciprocal inhibition
The concept of muscle inhibition, caused by a tight agonist, which inhibits its functional antagonist.
Synergistic dominance
The neuromuscular phenomenon that occurs when inappropriate muscles take over the function of a weak or inhibited prime mover.
The motions of joints in the body.
Arthrokinematic dysfunction
Altered forces at a joint that result in abnormal muscular activity and impaired neuromuscular communication at the joint.
Autogenic inhibition
The process by which neural impulses that sense tension are greater than the impulses that cause muscles to contract, providing an inhibitory effect to the muscle spindles.
Pattern overload
Consistently repeating the same pattern of motion, which may place abnormal stresses on the body.
Relative flexibility
The tendency of the body to seek the path of least resistance during functional movement patterns.
Corrective flexibility
Type of stretching:
-self-myofascial release (SMR)
-static stretching

Designed to increased joint ROM, improve muscle imbalances, and correct altered joint motion.

Appropriate at the stabilization level (phase 1) of the OPT model.
Static stretching
The process of passively taking a muscle to the point of tension and holding the stretch for a minimum of 30 seconds.

Can use either autogenic inhibition or reciprocal inhibition to increase muscle length depending on how the stretch is performed.

Acute variables:
-1-3 sets
-Hold each stretch 30 seconds

-Gastrocnemius stretch
-Kneeling hip flexor stretch
-Standing adductor stretch
-Pectoral wall stretch
Self-myofascial release (SMR)
This type of stretching uses the principle of autogenic inhibition to cause muscle relaxation.
Focuses on the neural system and fascial system in the body (or the fibrous tissue that surrounds and separates muscle tissue).
Active flexibility
Type of stretching:
-Self-myofascial release (SMR)
-Active-isolated stretching

Uses self-myofascial release and active-isolated stretching techniques.

Designed to improve the extensibility of soft tissue and increase neuromuscular efficiency by using reciprocal inhibition.

This would be appropriate at the strength level (phases 2, 3, and 4) of the OPT model.
Functional flexibility
Uses self myofascial release and dynamic stretching. Phase 5 of opt

Dynamic stretching requires integrated, multiplanar soft tissue extensibility, with optimal neuromuscular control, through the full range of motion, or essentially movement without compensations.

Appropriate at the power level (phase 5) of the OPT model or before athletic competition.
Active-isolated stretching
The process of using agonists and synergists to dynamically move the joint into a range of motion.

Mechanism of action:
-Reciprocal inhibition

Acute variables:
-1-2 sets
-Hold each stretch 1-2 seconds for 5-10 repetitions

-Active supine biceps femoris stretch
-Active kneeling quadriceps stretch
-Active standing adductor stretch
-Active pectoral wall stretch

Suggested for preactivity warm-up (such as before sports competition or high-intensity exercise), as long as no postural distortion patterns are present. If client has muscle imbalances, save this stretching for after self-myofascial release and static stretching.

Allows for agonists and synergist muscles to move a limb through a full range of motion while the functional antagonists are being stretched.
Ex: a supine straight-leg raise uses the hip flexors and quadriceps to raise the leg and hold it unsupported, while the antagonist hamstring complex is stretched
Dynamic stretching
Uses the force production of a muscle and the body's momentum to take a joint through the full range of motion.

Mechanism of action:
-Reciprocal inhibition

Acute variables:
-1-2 sets
-10-15 reps
-3-10 exercises

-hip swings
-medicine ball rotations
-walking lunges
-prisoner squats
-multiplanar lunges
-single-leg squat touchdowns
-tube walking
-medicine ball lift and chop
Controversial stretches
1) Inverted hurdler's stretch

2) Plow

3) Shoulder stand

4) Straight-leg toe touch

5) Arching quadriceps
Cardiorespiratory fitness
The ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen-rich blood to skeletal muscles during sustained physical activity.

-One of the five components to health-related physical fitness
Physical fitness components
There are 5:

-Cardiorespiratory fitness
-Muscular strength
-Muscular endurance
-Body composition
General warm-up
Low-intensity exercise consisting of movements that do not necessarily relate to the more intense exercise that is to follow.
Specific warm-up
Low-intensity exercise consisting of movements that mimic those that will be included in the more intense exercise that is to follow.
Integrated cardiorespiratory training
Cardiorespiratory training programs that systematically progress clients through various stages to achieve optimal levels of physiologic, physical, and performance adaptations by placing stress on the cardiorespiratory system.
FITTE principle
All exercise training recommendations, including cardio exercise, must be individually determined and should always use this principle.

Stands for frequency, intensity, type, time, and enjoyment.
The level of demand that a given activity places on the body.
Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max)
The highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximal physical exertion.
Oxygen uptake reserve (VO2R)
The difference between resting and maximal or peak oxygen consumption.
Ventilatory threshold (T vent)
The point during graded exercise in which ventilation increases disproportionately to oxygen uptake, signifying a switch from predominantly aerobic energy production to anaerobic energy production.

Correlation between this, the talk test, and heart rate during both cycle ergometer and treadmill exercise.
One metabolic equivalent or MET
Equal to 3.5 mL O2 x ᵏᵍ⁻¹ x ᵐᶦⁿ⁻¹
or the equivalent of the average resting metabolic rate (RMR) for adults.

Used to describe the energy cost of physical activity as multiples of resting metabolic rate.

These values are used to relate exercise intensity with energy expenditure.
Heart Rate Reserve (HRR) Method
A method of establishing training intensity based on the difference between a client's predicted maximal heart rate and their resting heart rate.

Aka the Karvonen method.
Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE)
A technique used to express or validate how hard a client feels he or she is working during exercise; a person is subjectively rating the perceived difficulty of exercise.

Based on the physical sensations a person experiences during physical activity, including increased heart rate, increased respiration rate, increased sweating, and muscle fatigue. Should be rated based on OVERALL fatigue, not just isolated area.
Methods for prescribing exercise intensity
-Peak Vₒ₂

-Vₒ₂ reserve (Vₒ₂R)

-Peak MET x (% MET)

-Peak heart rate (HR)

-Heart rate reserve (HRR)

-Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)

-Talk Test
For a mode of exercise to be considered ____, it should:

-be rhythmic in nature
-use large muscle groups
-be continuous in nature
Principle of specificity
According to this, the body will adapt to the level of stress placed on it and will then require more or varied amounts of stress to produce a higher level of adaptation in the future.
Zone one
Heart rate percentages:

Rating of perceived exertion:

Sample activities:
Walking or jogging

Stage I, is designed to help improve cardiorespiratory fitness in apparently healthy sedentary clients *using a target heart rate of 65 to 75% of HRmax or approximately 12 to 13 on the rating of perceived exertion scale.*

Talk test: client should be able to hold a conversation during activity duration.

Clients who can maintain this zone's heart rate for at least 30 minutes two to three times per week will be ready for the next stage.
Zone two
Heart rate percentages:

Rating of perceived exertion:

Sample activities:
Group exercise class, spinning

The intro to interval training in which intensities are varied throughout the workout.
Zone three
Heart rate percentages:

Rating of perceived exertion:

Sample activities:
Circuit training
Allows for comparable fitness results without spending extended periods of time to achieve them; time-efficient.

These training programs can consist of a series of strength-training exercises that an individual performs, one after the other, with minimal rest.

See pic for examples of this routine in different levels.
Stage training
A three-stage programming system that uses different heart rate training zones.
The core
Where the body's center of gravity (COG) is located and where all movement originates.

Composed of the structures that make up the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex (LPHC), including the lumbar spine, the pelvic girdle, abdomen, and hip joint.
The core
This musculature is divided into the local stabilization system, global stabilization system, and the movement system.
Local Stabilization System
Composed of muscles that attach directly to the vertebrae:
-Transversus abdominis
-Internal oblique
-Lumbar multifidus
-Pelvic floor muscles

These muscles consist primarily of type I (slow twitch) muscle fibers with a high density of muscle spindles.

-Primarily responsible for intervertebral and intersegmental stability

-These muscles work to limit excessive compressive, shear, and rotational forces between spinal segments

-Provide support from vertebra to vertebra

-Aid in proprioception and postural control (high density muscle spindles)
Global Stabilization System
Composed of muscles that attach from the pelvis to the spine:
-Quadratus lumborum
-Psoas major
-External oblique
-Portions of internal oblique
-Rectus abdominis
-Gluteus medius
-Adductor complex (adductor magnus, adductor longus, adductor brevis, gracilis, pectineus)

These muscles transfer loads between the upper and lower extremity, provide stability between the pelvis and the spine, and provide stabilization and eccentric control of the core during functional movements.
Movement System
Includes muscles that attach the spine and/or pelvis to the extremities:
-Latissimus dorsi
-Hip flexors
-Hamstring complex

These muscles are primarily responsible for concentric force production and eccentric deceleration during dynamic activities.
Occurs when you have contracted both the abdominal, lower back, and buttock muscles at the same time.
-The co-contraction of global muscles, such as the rectus abdominis, external obliques, and quadratus lumborum

Also commonly referred to as "bearing down" or tightening of the global muscles by consciously contracting them.
Core Training Levels
-3 levels of this training within the OPT model: stabilization, strength, and power. A proper core training program follows same systematic progression.

1) Core-Stabilization
-Exercises involve little motion through the spine and pelvis. These exercises are designed to improve neuromuscular efficiency and intervertebral stability, focusing on drawing-in and then bracing during the exercise.
Spend about 4 weeks at this level.
-Floor bridge
-Floor prone cobra
-Prone iso-ab

2) Core Strength
-Exercises involve more dynamic eccentric and concentric movements of the spine throughout a full range of motion while clients perform the activation techniques learned in core-stabilization training (drawing-in and bracing).
These exercises are designed to improve dynamic stabilization, concentric strength (force production), eccentric strength (force reduction), and neuromuscular efficiency of the entire kinetic chain.
-Ball crunch
-Back extensions
-Reverse crunch
-Cable rotations

3) Core Power
-Exercises are designed to improve the rate of force production of the core musculature. This prepares client to dynamically stabilize and generate force at more functionally applicable speeds.
-Rotation chest pass
-Ball medicine ball (MB) pullover throw
-Front MB oblique throw
-Soccer throw
When the body is in equilibrium and stationary, meaning no linear or angular movement.
Dynamic balance
The ability to move and change directions under various conditions without falling.

-e.g. Running on uneven surfaces
Effects of joint dysfunction
Checkpoints for the Overhead Squat
-Upper Body

These type of exercises improve high levels of eccentric strength, dynamic neuromuscular efficiency, and reactivate joint stabilization.

These do not involve much joint motion; they improve joint stability.

During this, the balancing leg moves dynamically through a full range of motion.
Rate of force production
Ability of muscles to exert maximal force output in a minimal amount of time.

Plyometric training emphasizes this.
Plyometric (reactive) training
Exercises that generate quick, powerful movements involving an explosive concentric muscle contraction preceded by an eccentric muscle action.

Goal of this training: to decrease the reaction time of muscle action (or increase the rate of force production)

-Generally not appropriate training for individuals with chronic disease or health limitations

-This training uses the stimulation of the body's proprioceptive mechanism and elastic properties to generate maximal force output in the minimal amount of time.
Integrated performance paradigm
To move with efficiency, forces must be dampened (eccentrically), stabilized (isometrically) and then accelerated (concentrically).
Three Phases of Plyometric Training
1) the eccentric (or loading) phase

2) the amortization phase (or transition) phase

3) the concentric (or unloading) phase
eccentric phase
The first stage of a plyometric movement can be classified as this.
-also called the deceleration, loading, yielding, counter movement, or cocking phase

This phase increases muscle spindle activity by pre-stretching the muscle before activation. Potential energy is stored in the elastic components of the muscle during this loading phase much like stretching a rubber band.
amortization phase
The 2nd phase in plyometric training.

Involves dynamic stabilization and is the time between the end of the eccentric muscle action (the loading or deceleration phase) and the initiation of the concentric contraction (the unloading or force production phase).

-This phase, sometimes referred to as the transition phase, is also referred to as the electromechanical delay between the eccentric and concentric contraction during which the muscle must switch from overcoming force to imparting force in the intended direction.

A prolonged _____ phase results in less than optimal neuromuscular efficiency from a loss of elastic potential energy.

A rapid switch from an eccentric loading phase to a concentric contraction leads to a more powerful response.
concentric phase
The 3rd phase in plyometric training, also called the unloading phase.

Occurs immediately after the 2nd phase and involves a concentric contraction resulting in enhanced muscular performance after the eccentric phase of muscle contraction.

This is synonymous with releasing a rubber band after it was stretched.
Plyometric training
The ultimate goal of this training is to decrease the reaction time of the muscle action spectrum (eccentric deceleration, isometric stabilization, and concentric acceleration) or to increase the rate of force production.
Plyometric Training Levels
Three levels of training: stabilization, strength, power

-Exercises do not involve much joint motion
-Exercises improve landing mechanics, postural alignment, and reactive neuromuscular efficiency

Exercise examples: Squat jump with stabilization, Box jump-up with stabilization, Box jump-down with stabilization, Multiplanar jump with stabilization

**When performing these, hold the landing for 3 to 5 seconds and make necessary adjustments to correct any faulty postures before repeating the exercise

-Exercises involve more movement through a full range of motion, requiring greater specificity, speed, and neural demand
-These movements further improve dynamic joint stabilization, the rate of force production, and eccentric neuromuscular efficiency.

Exercise examples: Squat jump, Tuck jump, Butt kick, Power step-up
**These exercises should utilize a repeating (medium) tempo

-Exercises are performed as fast and explosively as possible
-They improve rate of force production, reactive strength, dynamic neuromuscular efficiency, and optimal force production

Exercise examples: Ice skaters (aka skater jumps), single-leg power step-up, proprioceptive plyometrics
SAQ training
This type of training allows clients to enhance their ability to accelerate, decelerate, and dynamically stabilize their entire body during higher-velocity acceleration ad deceleration movements in all planes of motion (e.g. running, cutting, changing direction).
-This training may also help the nervous system to respond or react more efficiently to demands placed on it and enhance muscular recruitment and coordination when performed with correct mechanics.
The ability to move the body in one intended direction as fast as possible.

The product of stride rate and stride length.
Stride rate
The number of strides taken in a given amount of time (or distance).
Stride length
The distance covered with each stride.
Frontside mechanics
One of two important aspects of sprint technique. Involves triple flexion of the ankle, knee, and hip in appropriate synchrony.

Defined as: Proper alignment of the lead leg and pelvis during sprinting, which includes ankle dorsiflexion, knee flexion, hip flexion, and neutral pelvis.

Improvement of this is associated with better stability, less braking forces, and increased forward diving forces.
Backside mechanics
One of two important aspects of sprint technique. Involves triple extension of the ankle, knee, and hip in appropriate synchrony.

Defined as: Proper alignment of the rear leg and pelvis during sprinting, which includes ankle plantarflexion, knee extension, hip extension, and neutral pelvis.

Improvement of this is associated with a stronger push phase, including hip-knee extension, gluteal contraction, and backside arm drive.
The ability to accelerate, decelerate, stabilize, and change direction quickly while maintaining proper posture.
(Aka reaction time)

The ability to react and change body position with maximal rate of force production, in all planes of motion and from all body positions, during functional activities.
Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass.

Resistance training as well as SAQ-based interventions has been found to help slow and reverse this process.
-Interventions requiring increased speed of movement and rate of force production similar to those in SAQ protocols are especially effective in slowing down and reversing sarcopenia
Resistance training principle of adaptation
Adaptation is a function of:

General adaptation syndrome
Principle of specificity
General adaptation syndrome (GAS)
A term used to describe how the body responds and adapts to stress.
Three stages of response to stress
1) Alarm reaction
2) Resistance development
3) Exhaustion
Adaptive Benefits of Resistence Training:
-Improved cardiovascular efficiency
-Beneficial endocrine (hormone) and serum lipid (cholesterol) adaptations
-Increased bone density
-Increased metabolic efficiency (metabolism)

-Increased tissue (muscle, tendons, ligaments) tensile strength
-Increased cross-sectional area of muscle fibers
-Decreased body fat

-Increased neuromuscular control (coordination)
-Increased endurance
-Increased strength
-Increased power
Alarm reaction
The initial reaction to a stressor.

When this occurs during resistance training, numerous physiologic responses occur:
-an increase in oxygen and blood supply as well as neural recruitment to the working muscles
Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS)
Pain or discomfort often felt 24-72 hours after intense exercise or unaccustomed physical activity.
Could be considered an "alarm reaction"
Resistance development
The body increases its functional capacity to adapt to the stressor.

Ex: For an unaccustomed exerciser, once the DOMS (Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness) subsides, further work will be met with less an less soreness so that performance may gradually advance.
Prolonged stress that is intolerable and will produce exhaustion or distress to the system.

Can lead to a breakdown or injury such as:
-Stress fractures
-Muscle strains
-Joint pain
-Emotional fatigue
Division of a training program into smaller, progressive stages.
Principle of specificity
aka Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands (SAID principle)

Principle that states the body will adapt to the specific demands placed on it.

Ex: If Jeff repeatedly lifts heavy weights, Jeff will produce higher levels of maximal strength.
If Tina repeatedly lifts lighter weights for many repetitions, Tina will develop higher levels of muscular endurance.
Mechanical specificity
Refers to the weight and movements placed on the body.

-To develop muscular endurance of the legs requires light weights and high repetitions when performing leg-related exercises.
-To develop maximal strength in the chest, heavy weights must be used during chest-related exercises.
Neuromuscular specificity
Refers to the speed of contraction and exercise selection.

-To develop higher levels of stability while pushing, chest exercises will need to be performed with controlled, unstable exercises at slower speeds.
-To develop higher levels of strength, exercises should be performed in a more stable environment with heavier loads to place more of an emphasis on the prime movers.
-To develop higher levels of power, low-weight, high-velocity contractions must be performed in a plyometric manner.
Metabolic specificity
Refers to the energy demand placed on the body.

-To develop endurance, training will require prolonged bouts of exercise, with minimal rest periods between sets.
**Endurance training primarily uses aerobic pathways

-To develop maximal strength or power, training will require longer rest periods.
**Energy supplied primarily via the anaerobic pathways
The main adaptations that occur from this type of training include:

-Muscular endurance
Muscular endurance
The ability to produce and maintain force production for prolonged periods of time.

-Resistance training using high repetitions are the most effective way to improve this
Muscular hypertrophy
Enlargement of skeletal muscle fibers in response to overcoming force from high volumes of tension.

This is characterized by an increase in myofibril proteins (myofilaments).

Progressive resistance training programs using moderate to low repetitions with progressively higher loads will increase this.
The ability of the neuromuscular system to produce internal tension to overcome an external load (or external force).
Ability of the neuromuscular system to produce the greatest force in the shortest time.

Represented by the simple equation of force multiplied by velocity.

The focus of this type of resistance-training is getting the neuromuscular system to generate force as quickly as possible (rate of force production).
Resistance Training Systems
~Circuit training
~Peripheral heart action
~Vertical loading
~Horizontal loading
Single-set system
This system uses 1 set per exercise.

Beneficial for beginning-level clients.
Multiple-set system
This system consists of performing multiple numbers of sets for each exercise.
-The resistance (load), sets, and repetitions performed are selected according to the goals and needs of the client.

Appropriate for both novice and advanced clients, but superior to single-set training for more advanced clients.
Pyramid system
Involves a progressive or regressive step approach that either increases weight with each set or decreases weight with each set.

In the light-to-heavy system, client performs 10 to 12 repetitions with a light load and increases the resistance for each following set, until client can perform 1 to 2 repetitions, usually in 4 to 6 sets.

The heavy-to-light system works in the opposite direction, in which client starts with a heavy load (after sufficient warm-up) for 1 to 2 repetitions, then decreases the load and increases the repetitions for 4 to 6 sets.
Superset System
Uses two exercises performed in rapid succession of one another. There are multiple variations of this system.

Popular among bodybuilders and may be beneficial for muscular hypertrophy and muscular endurance.

The first variation:
-Perform two exercises for the same muscle group back to back
Ex: Perform the bench press exercise immediately followed by push-ups to fatigue the chest musculature. This improves muscular endurance and hypertrophy because the volume of work is relatively high.
This variation can use two, three (a tri-set), or more exercises (a giant set) for the target muscle group.

The second variation:
-Perform two exercises back to back that involves antagonist muscle groups (e.g. chest and back or quadriceps and hamstring complex).
Performing in this manner allows a significant load to be placed on the target muscle during each set. This is possible because the agonist is working, the antagonist is recovering, and vice-versa.

This system typically involves sets of 8 to 12 repetitions with no rest between sets or exercises; however, any number of repetitions can be used.
A resistance training system that is popular among bodybuilders; it is a technique that allows a client to continue a set past the point at which it would usually terminate.

Considered an advanced form of resistance training suitable for experienced lifters.

These involving performing a set to failure, then removing a small percentage of the load (5-20%) and continuing with the set, completing a small number of repetitions (usually 2 to 3 drops per set).

A set to failure followed by three successive load decrements performed with no rest would be referred to as a triple drop.
Circuit-Training System
Consists of a series of exercises that a client performs one after the other, with minimal rest between each exercise.

The typical acute variables for this system include low to moderate number of sets (1-3), with moderate to high repetitions (8-20) and short rest periods (15-60 seconds).

A great training system for clients with limited time and for those who want to alter body composition.
Peripheral Heart Action System
Another variation of circuit training that alternates upper body and lower body exercises throughout the circuit.

This training system distributes blood flow between the upper and lower extremities, potentially improving circulation.

This system is very beneficial for incorporating an integrated, multidimensional program and for altering body composition.
Split-Routine System
Involves breaking the body up into parts to be trained on separate days.

Many bodybuilders and mass-dominant and strength athletes (football, shot put, etc.) use this system.

Bodybuilders typically perform numerous exercises on the same day for the same body part to bring about optimal muscular hypertrophy.
Vertical loading
A resistance training system that alternates body parts trained from set to set, starting from the upper extremity and moving to the lower extremity.

Involves the following exercises:
1) Total Body
2) Chest
3) Back
4) Shoulders
5) Biceps
6) Triceps
7) Legs

-Can also be done in a circuit style, by minimizing the rest periods between exercises.

This system of training can be very beneficial for allowing maximal recovery to each body part while minimizing the amount of time wasted on rest.
Ex: If it takes 1 minute to perform each exercise, by the time the client returns to chest exercise, 7 to 10 minutes could have passed, which should be sufficient time to allow for full adenosine triphosphate (ATP)/phosphocreatine (PC) recovery.
Horizontal loading
Performing all sets of an exercise or body part before moving on to the next exercise or body part.

Involves the following exercises:
1) Total Body
2) Chest
3) Back
4) Shoulders
5) Biceps
6) Triceps
7) Legs

Ex: If performing 3 sets of a chest exercise and 3 sets of a back exercise, the client would perform all 3 sets of the chest exercise before moving on to the back exercise.

This is the method most commonly used in health club environments and is appropriate for maximal strength and power training when longer rest periods are required between sets.

Drawback to this method: the amount of time typically spent resting, which can be more time than the actual workout itself.

This system can be a metabolic progression if rest periods are monitored and limited to 30 to 90 seconds between sets. If the same muscle groups are forced to work with minimal recovery it can lead to faster development of metabolic and hypertrophy-related adaptations in the muscle.
Program design
A purposeful system or plan put together to help an individual achieve a specific goal.
Acute variables
Important components that specify how each exercise is to be performed; the most fundamental components of designing a training program.

These determine the amount of stress placed on the body and ultimately, what adaptations the body will incur.
One complete movement of a single exercise.
A group of consecutive repetitions.
Training intensity
An individual's level of effort, compared with their maximal effort, which is usually expressed as a percentage.

-One of the most acute variables to consider when designing an integrated training program
Repetition tempo
The speed with which each repetition is performed.
Rest interval
The time taken to recuperate between sets.
Training volume
Amount of physical training performed within a specified period.
Training frequency
The number of training sessions performed during a specified period (usually 1 week).
Training duration
Has two prominent meanings:

1) The timeframe from the start of the workout to the finish of the workout.
2) The length of time (number of weeks) spent in one phase--or period--of training.
Exercise selection
The process of choosing appropriate exercises for a client's program.
The Exercise Selection Continuum
Training level: Stabilization level
Exercise selection:
-total body
-single joint
-controlled unstable

Training level: Strength level
Exercise selection:
-total body
-single joint

Training level: Power Level
Exercise selection:
-total body
-multi-joint (explosive)
Lower body progression
Two legs stable -->
Staggered-stance stable -->
Single-leg stable -->
Two-leg unstable -->
Staggered stance unstable -->
Single-leg unstable
Upper body progression
Two-arm -->
Alternating arms -->
Single-arm -->
Single-arm with trunk rotation
Stabilization continuum
Floor -->
Sport beam -->
Half foam roll -->
Foam pad -->
Balance disc -->
Wobble board -->
Acute variables in program design
-Training intensity
-Repetition tempo
-Rest interval
-Training volume
-Training frequency
-Training duration
-Exercise selection
A systematic approach to program design that uses the general adaptation syndrome and principle of specificity to vary the amount and type of stress placed on the body.

Involves two primary objectives:
1) Dividing the training program into distinct periods (or phases) of training
2) Training different forms of strength in each period (or phase) to control the volume of training and to prevent injury
Training plan
The specific outline, created by a fitness professional to meet a client's goals, that details the form of training, length of time, future changes, and specific exercises to be performed.
Proprioception (controlled unstable)
Stabilization Level method of progression used in the OPT model.
Strength Level method of progression used in the OPT model.
Power Level method of progression used in the OPT model.
Maximal intensity
The main component of Strength Training Level, Phase 4.

This improves:
-Recruitment of more motor units
-Rate of force production
-Motor unit synchronization
This level of training is designed to increase the rate of force production.

Power=Force x Velocity
-Therefore, any increase in either force or velocity will produce an increase in power
-Either increasing the load (or force) as in progressive strength training, or increase the speed with which you move a load (or velocity). Combined effect creates a better rate of force production.

**In this training type, the above is accomplished by combining a strength exercise with a power exercise for each body part (such as performing a barbell bench press superset with a medicine ball chest pass).
Phase 4: Maximal Strength
This phase of the OPT model is used to increase the strength capacity to allow the client to train with heavier weights in the future.

(This will equate to higher volumes of training and increase hypertrophy)
Phase 3: Hypertrophy
This phase of the OPT model is specific for maximal hypertrophy and will place larger volumes of stress through the body to force cellular changes that result in muscle hypertrophy.
Undulating periodization
Allows the client to train at various intensities during the course of a week, eliciting multiple adaptations once a certain level of fitness is achieved.
The five kinetic chain checkpoints of this exercise modality:

approximately shoulders-width apart and pointing straight ahead
in line with the 2nd and 3rd toes (avoid valgus or varus motions)
level with lumbar spine in a neutral position
depressed and slightly retracted to activate scapulae stabilizers
cervical spine in a neutral position (chin tuck)
Closed-chain exercises
Involve movements in which the distal extremities (hands or feet) are in a constant fixed position and thus the force applied by an individual is not great enough to overcome the resistance (such as the ground or immovable object).

Exercise examples: push-ups, pull-ups, squats
Open-chain exercises
Involve movements in which the distal extremities (hands or feet) are not in a fixed position and the force applied by the body is great enough to overcome the resistance (such as barbells or dumbbells).

Exercise examples: bench press, lat pulldown, machine leg extension exercise
Proprioceptive modalities
-stability balls
-BOSU balls
-whole-body vibration platforms

All of these modalities can easily be implemented into the OPT model.
A general term that refers to hardening (and loss of elasticity) of arteries.

-A normal physiologic process of aging that results in arteries that are less elastic and pliable, which in turn leads to greater resistance to blood flow and thus, higher blood pressure
Buildup of fatty plaques in arteries that leads to narrowing and reduced blood flow.

Caused largely by poor lifestyle choices (smoking, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, etc).

Leads to increased resistance and blood pressure.
peripheral vascular disease
A group of diseases in which blood vessels become restricted or blocked, typically as a result of atherosclerosis.

Refers to plaques that form in any peripheral artery, typically those of the lower leg.
Individuals with blood pressure levels between 120/80 mm HG and 139/89 mm Hg are considered ________ and should be carefully monitored (refer to physician if blood pressure increases)
Healthy BMI
18.5 to 24.9
BMI 25 to 29.9
At least 30 pounds over recommended weight for their height.
BMI 30 or greater
At least 30 pounds over their recommended weight for their height.
High blood pressure, a common medical disorder.
-Consistently elevated arterial blood pressure, which, if sustained at a high enough level, is likely to induce cardiovascular or end-organ damage.

A client is considered to have this if they have had two or more resting blood pressure assessments made on separate days that are ≥140 or ≥90 mm Hg, OR if they are currently taking medication to control blood pressure.

Most common causes of this: smoking, a diet high in fat (particularly saturated fat), and excess weight.

Health risks of this include: increased risk for stroke, cardiovascular disease, chronic heart failure, and kidney failure
High blood pressure
Blood pressure: systolic ≥140 or diastolic ≥90 mm Hg
Normal blood pressure
Training considerations for clients with ________ (this medical disorder)

-A program of continuous, lower-intensity (50-80% of work capacity) aerobic exercise is initially recommended. Minimum 3-5 days/week, 20-45 min/day.

-Avoid supine exercises when possible.

-Phase 1 and 2 of the OPT model are recommended for this population, but should be progressed slowly.

-Programs should be performed in a circuit-style or Peripheral Heart Action (PHA) training system to distribute blood flow between the upper and lower extremities.

-Clients with this disorder should try to breathe normally and avoid the Valsalva maneuver or overgripping (squeezing too tightly) when using exercise equipment as this can dramatically increase blood pressure.
Chronic inflammation of the joints.
Caused by degeneration of cartilage within joints.

Arthritis in which cartilage becomes soft, frayed, or thins out, as a result of trauma or other conditions.

Most commonly affected joints: hands, knees, hip, spine
Rheumatoid arthritis
A degenerative joint disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own tissue (in this case, the joint or organ).

Arthritis primarily affecting connective tissues, in which there is a thickening of articular soft tissue, and extension of synovial tissue over articular cartilages that have become eroded.

Joints most commonly affected include: hands, feet, wrists, knees

Usually characterized by morning stiffness, lasting more than half an hour, which can be both acute and chronic, with eventual loss of joint integrity.
A unit of energy; the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1°C
Total energy expenditure (TEE)
Also referred to as total daily energy expenditure (TDEE).

Defined as the amount of energy (calories) spent, on average, in a typical day.

This is actually the sum total of 3 different energy components:
1) Resting metabolic rate
2) Thermic effect of food
3) Energy expended during physical activity
Resting metabolic rate (RMR)
The amount of energy expended while at rest; represents the minimal amount of energy required to sustain vital bodily functions such as blood circulation, respiration, and temperature regulation.
This accounts for about 70% of total daily energy expenditure in the sedentary person, although it may vary.
Thermic Effect of Food (TEF)
The amount of energy expended above RMR as a result of the processing of food (digestion) for storage and use.
This typically accounts for about 6-10% of total energy expenditure (TEE).
Energy expended during physical activity
The amount of energy expended above RMR and TEF associated with physical activity. Physical activity accounts for about 20% of TEE.
Amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
Limiting factor
The essential amino acid that is missing or present in the smallest amount is called the _____ factor of that protein.
Terms used to rate dietary protein
-protein efficiency ratio (PER)
-'net protein utilization (NPU)
-biologic value (BV)
Protein recommendations
The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for average person is 0.8 g/kg per day (0.4 g/lb).

For athletes and exercisers: 1.2-1.7 (0.5-0.8 g/lb)

The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for adult protein intake is 10% to 35% of total caloric intake.
negative energy balance
aka caloric deficit

During this, amino acids are used to assist in energy production (or gluconeogenesis), wherein protein requirements may dramatically increase.
Neutral compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (such as sugars, starches, and cellulose), which make up a large portion of animal foods.

Generally classified as sugars (simple), starches (complex), and fiber.

This macronutrient is a chief source of energy for all body functions and muscular exertion. Also helps regulate the digestion and utilization of protein and fat.
Glycemic Index
The rate at which ingested carbohydrate raises blood sugar and its accompanying effect on insulin release is referred to as this.
A single sugar unit, many of which are connected to make starches (the storage form of carbohydrates in plants) and glycogen (the storage form of carbohydrates in humans).

Include glucose (aka blood sugar), fructose (fruit sugar), and galactose.
Two sugar units.

Include sucrose (or common sugar), lactose (or milk sugar), and maltose.
Long chains of monosaccharide units linked together and found in foods that include starch and fiber. These foods are often called complex carbohydrates.

-Include starch found in plants, seed, and roots
A group of compounds that includes triglycerides (fats and oils), phospholipids, and sterols.
The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for intake of this for an adult is 20 to 35% of total caloric intake (20 to 25% for athletes).
Recommended water intake
Men should consume 3.0 L (13 cups) and women 2.2 L (9 cups) of this per day.
A legal supplement common among strength athletes and bodybuilders.
Banned stimulants
-drugs designed to mimic the effects of testosterone

The four P's of marketing
-Place (distribution)
Postural Assessment Kinetic Chain Checkpoints
1) Foot and ankle
2) Knee
3) Lumbo-pelvic-hip complex (LPHC)
4) Shoulders
5) Head and cervical spine
Behavioral strategies
Aim to change a client's behavior and actions to improve exercise adherence and maintain a physically active lifestyle.

-Goal Setting (SMART goals)
Cognitive strategies
Aim to change a client's thoughts and attitudes toward exercise and physical activity.

-Positive Self-Talk
-Psyching Up
Exercise imagery
The process created to produce internalized experiences to support or enhance exercise participation.