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IB Computer Science 2019 case study
Terms in this set (36)
TCP/IP protocol, as suggested by the name, is a set of rules that computer systems must follow when communicating on the internet. An example of an Internet Protocol would be HTTP. Socket is one endpoint of any bi-directional (two way) communication running between two programs on a network. It can be used by a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) to identify the final destination of certain data.
Application programming interface (API)
An application programming interface (API) is a set of protocols, routines, functions and/or commands that programmers use to develop software or facilitate interaction between distinct systems. APIs are available for both desktop and mobile use, and are typically useful for programming GUI (graphic user interface) components, as well as allowing a software program to request and accommodate services from another program.
Client side random
Refers to client initiated load balancing, where work is delegated over several things, such as computers, clusters, CPUs, etc. The word 'Client Side' refers to that part of a client-server architecture where users order information from servers.
A computer cluster is a single logical unit consisting of multiple computers that are linked through a LAN. The networked computers essentially act as a single, much more powerful machine. A computer cluster provides much faster processing speed, larger storage capacity, better data integrity, superior reliability and wider availability of resources.
Cluster of servers
A cluster, in the context of servers, is a group of computers that are connected with each other and operate closely to act as a single computer. Speedy local area networks enhance a cluster of computers' abilities to operate at an exceptionally rapid pace.
Commercial software is any software or program that is designed and developed for licensing or sale to end users or that serves a commercial purpose. Commercial software was once considered to be proprietary software, but now a number of free and open-source software applications are licensed or sold to end users. Off-the-shelf software programs, such as games or those sold in computer specialty stores or even music stores and grocery stores, are some examples of commercial software.
Microsoft products such as the Windows Operating System and MS Office are some of the most well-known examples of commercial software.
Computer aided dispatch (CAD)
Computer-aided dispatch (CAD), also called computer-assisted dispatch, is a method of dispatching taxicabs, couriers, field service technicians, mass transit vehicles or emergency services assisted by computer. It can either be used to send messages to the dispatchee via a mobile data terminal (MDT) and/or used to store and retrieve data (i.e. radio logs, field interviews, client information, schedules, etc.).
Cookies are small files which are stored on a user's computer. They are designed to hold a modest amount of data specific to a particular client and website, and can be accessed either by the web server or the client computer. This allows the server to deliver a page tailored to a particular user, or the page itself can contain some script which is aware of the data in the cookie and so is able to carry information from one visit to the website (or related site) to the next.
Custom software - is the solution that is specially developed for a specific user or organization, which is in contrast with broadly used mass-market software. The custom software definition also expands to include solutions that have been designed to run on specific hardware. For example, car manufacturers simply have nowhere to turn to purchase software for the vehicle on-board computer. Obviously, they have to develop these kinds of solutions by internal or external IT structures while heavily relying on hardware specifications.
Emergency control centre (ECC)
It is a physical location where control room operators attend to phone calls from citizens that are in need of assistance or are in an emergency.
Emergency management information system (EMIS)
It is a database created to assist responders during emergencies by providing them with real time situations such as aerial photography of an area/region/city so that the caller can take an informed decision as to what to do next.
These are short (usually 3 digit) numbers anyone can use to contact emergency service providers during times of need.
Failover is the constant capability to automatically and seamlessly switch to a highly reliable backup. This can be operated in a redundant manner or in a standby operational mode upon the failure of a primary server, application, system or other primary system component.
The main purpose of failover is to eliminate, or at least reduce, the impact on users when a system failure occurs.
Future proof is a product, service or technological system that will not need to be significantly updated as technology advances. In reality, very few things are truly future proof. In any field that depends heavily on technology, a regular cycle of replacing and updating appears to be the norm.
Global positioning system (GPS)
A system of satellites, computers, and receivers that is able to determine the latitude and longitude of a receiver on Earth by calculating the time difference for signals from different satellites to reach the receiver.
HTTP or HTTP/2
HTTP/2 is a replacement for how HTTP is expressed "on the wire." It is not a ground-up rewrite of the protocol; HTTP methods, status codes and semantics are the same, and it should be possible to use the same APIs as HTTP/1.x (possibly with some small additions) to represent the protocol.
The focus of the protocol is on performance; specifically, end-user perceived latency, network and server resource usage. One major goal is to allow the use of a single connection from browsers to a Web site.
Load balancing algorithm
This refers to an algorithm that has the knowledge of which device within a system is best suited to accept a particular packet of data. These algorithms help distribute data in a specific way.
Multitier applications or N-tier applications are present in any application that requires a middleware application, by logically breaking up and sorting application specific operations into layers. They are most commonly found in the form of a three-tier architecture.
A proxy server is a dedicated computer or a software system running on a computer that acts as an intermediary between an endpoint device, such as a computer, and another server from which a user or client is requesting a service. The proxy server may exist in the same machine as a firewall server or it may be on a separate server, which forwards requests through the firewall.
Real time is a level of computer responsiveness that a user senses as sufficiently immediate or that enables the computer to keep up with some external process (for example, to present visualizations of the weather as it constantly changes). Real-time is an adjective pertaining to computers or processes that operate in real time. Real time describes a human rather than a machine sense of time.
Redundancy is a system design in which a component is duplicated so if it fails there will be a backup.
Redundancy has a negative connotation when the duplication is unnecessary or is simply the result of poor planning.
Representational state transfer (REST)
Representational State Transfer (REST) refers to a system architecture, that uses web protocols and technologies to carry out user-server interactions on the basis of exchange of data/resources. The Internet (The Web) is the best example of a RESTful architecture.
Scalability / scalable architecture
This term refers to the ability of an existing software, along with its hardware combination to increase the work load it can manage, if its capacity increases all of a sudden.
In computer terms, a safety critical system refers to one wherein any failure or malfunction could lead to severe consequences such as, damage to equipment or in a medical case, death or serious injury.
In technological terms, a session refers to a time frame, in which two devices, two systems or two sub-systems can communicate. Sessions can be user-initiated or initiated by technology.
Session IP hash
Refers to the formation of a unique hash key, created from the IP addresses of a user and server, that can then be used by them. The user can always connect to a session that has been disconnected or reconnected by the same hashing algorithm.
: It is a set of rules that web servers and web browsers (users) are bound by whilst communicating over the Internet. These are important to connect authentication and authorization of functions of common web applications.
It is one endpoint of any bi-directional (two way) communication running between two programs on a network. It can be used by a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) to identify the final destination of certain data.
Source IP hash
It is an algorithm that takes the source and destination IP address of a user and server to create a unique hashing key. This key is used to designate the client to a particular server and the key can be regenerated if the session is broken, allowing it to be restarted.
Stateful / stateless / maintaining state
Statelessness refers to a situation where information is stored in such a way, that requests are self contained i.e They only depend on the data the user holds. Staefulness however is the exact opposite. It refers to situation where an output is given based on the inputs receives. It is important to note that 'state' refers to the condition of data in a computer system at a particular point in time, and the output is affected by these states.
Transaction processing system (TPS)
This is an information processing system used for business transactions involving everything, from collection to retrieval of data. Contrary to batch processing, TPS requires the interaction of the user. Also known as transaction processing or real time processing, its most prominent characteristic include performance, reliability and consistency.
Also known as URL manipulation, it is a term which refers to the operation of modifying a Uniform Resource Locator. It can be carried out legitimately by web server administrators or for malicious purposes by hackers.
Virtual private network (VPN)
A virtual private network (VPN) is a technology that creates a safe and encrypted connection over a less secure network, such as the internet. VPN technology was developed as a way to allow remote users and branch offices to securely access corporate applications and other resources. To ensure safety, data travels through secure tunnels and VPN users must use authentication methods -- including passwords, tokens and other unique identification methods -- to gain access to the VPN.
Voice over internet protocol (VoIP)
Voice over IP (VoIP) technology allows telephone calls to be made over digital computer networks including the Internet. VoIP converts analog voice signals into digital data packets and supports real-time, two-way transmission of conversations using Internet Protocol (IP).
Weighted round robin
This refers to a situation where there is a lot of traffic in high speed networks. It allocates sections of the network bandwidth and segments of processor time to jobs based on the speed required and the time at hand.
Zero downtime means your website stays online during the whole process. Usualy when you deploy without any strategy it implies downtime (restarting the server, updating composer packages, running migrations, etc...). Zero downtime means your website stays online during the whole process.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Computer Science IB Case Study 2019
IB Computer Science Case Study 2019
IB Computer Science Topic 1
IB Computer Science - Option C - Web Science
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