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its on a plateau which hurts trade and waterfalls that are located around the edge.

Worlds largest desert

it covers most of the northern Africa and measures about 3.5 million square miles.

Critical Rain

its where people tend to live where raiin falls the most and where Africa consists of several vegetation zones.

Rain forest zones

it is the most common along the equator, even some of the rain forests have been cut down.

The Savanna

its a broad grass land with scattered trees and supports herds of animals.

North and South

they are deserts such as the Sanahra, where few people live.

the Northern Tip of Africa

it is the Mediterranean Zone, where their summers are warm and dry, and winters are rainy.


it puts an affect on the oceans local climates with cooler highland regions.

2 Largest rivers

the niger and the . where early civilizations formed nears these rivers.

Natural Materials

Such as trees provide fuel or building materials.

Natural resources

it prized items like gold along with agricultural wealth. trade brought africans into contact with one another.

Working with metals

metal tools and weapons were stronger than those made of stone.

Making iron

By 350 B.C. West Africans began making iron tools in a place called Nok.

Population growth

the Soninke people found a kingdom between the niger and the senegal, as food supplying grew, not everyone had to grow food.

Families of Ghana

the sisse clan, formed the ruling class while other clans specialized in trades such as fishing, cloth makers, or cattle raising.

The Soninke

this benefited from the use of iron.these people had iron swords and spears while their enemies still used wooden clubs.

Arab and Muslim Traders

The Arab and Berber traders traveled across the Sahara.These people traded salt, horses, cloth, swords and book for gold and ivory.


The North Africans wanted gold to make into coins. The west Africans were rich in gold.

Wealthy rulers

Kings of Ghana grew rich from the gold-salt trade.

Kings Court

Behind the kin stand 10 pages holding shields and gold-mounted swords.

Invasion and decline

the rulers welcomed North African traders.

Ghana's decline

they were among the reasons are over populated, food shortage and over dependence on trade.

Almoravid Invasion

They eventually failed in the end. They brought with them large flocks of animals that took over much of Almoravid.


Western and northern Africans traded in gold and ______.


Early civilizations formed around the Niger and _____ rivers. They let farmers grow crops and travel and trade.

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