Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (49)
A movement in social psychology that began in the 1970's that focused on thoughts about people and about social relationships.
Why do we spend so much time thinking about other people?
People think about other people more than any other topic, and probably more than about all other topics combined.
Why do we say that people are cognitive misers?
A term used to describe people's reluctance to do much extra thinking. Researchers have found that often people seem lazy or careless about their thinking and try to avoid thinking too hard or too much. But people's capacity to think is limited so people must conserve their thinking.
A standard measure of effortful control over responses, requiring participants to identify the color of a word (which may name a different color)
Goals of Thinking
1) want to find the right answer to some problem or question
2) to confirm the desired answer to a problem
3) to reach a pretty good answer or decision quickly
Organized packets of information that are stored in memory. They form when a set of related concepts is frequently brought to mind or activated. Related concepts also become activated. Overtime, as related concepts are frequently activated together the set of related concepts becomes so strongly linked that activation of one part of the set automatically activates the whole set. These knowledge structures run their course and the result of automatic thinking.
Knowledge structures that represent substantial information about concept, its attributes, and its relationships to other concepts.
Knowledge structures that define situations and guide behavior. They contain information about how other people behave under varying circumstances. Scripts are schemas about certain events. They contain many types of info: motives, intentions, goals, situations, and causal sequence of events.
Planting or activating an idea in someone's head.
Whether messages stress potential gains (positively framed) or potential losses (negatively framed).
Organized beliefs we have about stimuli in our social world are known as_____.
During their first year of medical school, many medical students begin to think that they and other people they know are suffering from serious illness. This phenomenon, known as the medical student syndrome, is probably due to_____.
The "What the heck" effect that occurs when people indulge in a behavior they are trying to regulate after an initial regulation failure. "My diet it already blown for the day by drinking milkshakes, so what the heck, I might as well enjoy some ice cream too!"
The causal explanations people give for their own and others' behaviors, and for events in general; inferences people make in their lives. GOAL: determining "cause" of behavior.
Two-dimensional attribution theory
Internal VS External / Second Dimension: Stable VS Unstable
Internal, stable attributions involve ability. Ability attributions are important b/c they invoke relatively permanent aspects of the self. Internal, unstable attributions involve effort. Effort is unstable because it can change. People from collectivist cultures emphasize effort and people from individualistic cultures emphasize ability. External, stable attributions point to the difficulty of the task. External, unstable attributions involve luck.
The tendency to take credit for success but deny blame for failure. The main reason this occurs is simply that interpreting events in that way makes people feel good. An important feature of self-presentation.
The tendency for actors to make external attributions and observers to make internal attributions. This can produce many misunderstandings and disagreements.
Fundamental Attribution Error (Correspondence Bias)
The tendency for observers to attribute other people's behavior to internal or dispositional causes and to downplay situational causes.
Ultimate Attribution Error
The tendency for observers to make internal attributions (fundamental attribution error) about whole groups of people.
Error VS Bias
Error=random, individual lapse
BOTH are mistakes
Attribution Theory:Correspondent Inference Theory (Jones & Davis)
Can we infer that behavior corresponds to stable internal characteristics? yes/no
What the behavior freely chosen? yes>internal attribute no>just don't know
Was the behavior low in social desirability? yes> internal attribute no>just don't know
internal> intentional; on purpose
external> unintentional; unavoidable, not on purpose
Covariation Model (Kelly)
-Looking for evidence that supports either internal or external
1)Consistency: behavior similar across time?
low consistency>behavior is unusual for actor
high consistency>this is the way actor typically behaves
2)Distinctiveness: behavior similar across situations?
low distinctiveness>actor behaves this way on other situations
high distinctiveness>actor doesn't behave this way in other situations
3)Consensus: behavior of others in this situation similar?
low consensus>others in situation are NOT behaving like actor
high consensus>others in situation ARE behaving like actor
Gilbert's 2 Step Model of Attribution
Step1: Is automatic>make actor (internal) attribution
Step2: Is effortful>gather info to evaluate internal attribution
>available information may strengthen internal attribute
-->augmentation (add to)
>or may weaken internal attribute
-->discounting (take away from)
When will we skip #2?
1)when the results are expected therefore no need to think about why
2)when we don't know the actor therefore no reason to expend resources
Gilbert's view-->make internal attribution>gather info>adjust attribution
Consensus, Consistency, Distinctiveness
Attribution theories whether other people would do that same thing in the same situation, whether the person typically behaves this way in this situation, and whether the person would behave differently in a different situation.
Mental shortcuts that provide estimates about the likelihood of uncertain events.(a)representativeness (b)availability (c)stimulation (d)anchor and adjustment
Cost:possible loss of accuracy
The tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by the extent to which it resembles the typical case.
Ex: Tom is a 41yo who reads nonfictional books, listens to National Public Radio, and plays tennis.
(a) Tom is an Ivy League Professor. <--
(b)Tom is a truck driver.
The tendency to judge the frequency of likelihood of an event by the ease with which relevant instances come to mind.
Influenced by: (1)recency of event, (2)familiarity of event, (3)and vividness of event
The tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by the ease with which you can imagine (or mentally stimulate it)
Tendency to give extra weight to most salient stimulus in situation e.g." Hawaiian shirt study"
Anchoring and Adjustment
The tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by using a starting point (called an anchor) and then making adjustments up or down.
The strategy of judging the likelihood of things by how well they match particular prototypes constitutes the _____ heuristic.
Having too much information to comprehend or integrate. Information overload can result from a high rate of new information being added, contradictions in available information, a low signal-to-noise ratio (too much irrelevant information compared to the amount of relevant information), and lack of an efficient method for comparing and processing different types of information.
How are heuristics related to information overload?
The automatic system takes shortcuts, such as by using heuristics and this helps with dealing with information overload.
The tendency to notice and search for information that confirms one's beliefs and to ignore information that disconfirm beliefs. "It is peculiar and perpetual error of the human understanding to be more moved and excited by affirmatives than by negatives." Francis Bacon
The tendency to see and event as more likely as it becomes more specific because it is joined with elements that seem similar to events that are likely.
The tendency to overestimate the link between variables that are related only slightly or not at all.
Base Rate Fallacy
The tendency to ignore or under-use base rate information instead to be influenced by the distinctive features of the case being judged.
The tendency to believe that a particular chance event is affected by previous events and that chance events will "even out" in the short run. (coin tossing;always and equal chance)
False Consensus Effect
The tendency to overestimate the number of other people who share one's opinions, attitudes, values, and believes. (Eat at Joe's study)
False Uniqueness Effect (Better-than-average effect, Lake Wobegon effect)
The tendency to underestimate the number of other people who share one's most prized characteristics and abilities. (people who engage in regular exercise, check ups, and healthy eating underestimate the # of pple who engage in similar behaviors)
Statistical Regression (Regression to the Mean)
The statistical tendency for extreme score or extreme behavior to be followed by the others that are less extreme and close to average.
Illusion of Control
The false belief that one can influence certain events, especially random or chance ones. (rolling dice harder for higher numbers and softer for lower numbers)
Thinking based on assumptions that don't hold up to rational scrutiny. (Assuming that two objects that touch each other pass properties to one another)
When something becomes impure or unclean. (When pple think their food is contaminated they are disgusted)
Imagining alternatives to past or present events or circumstances.
First Instinct Fallacy
The false belief that is it better not to change one's first answer on a test even if one starts to think a different answer is correct.
Upward counterfactuals/Downward counterfactuals
Imagining alternatives that are better than actuality/Imagining alternatives that are worse than actuality.
Reducing errors and biases by getting people to use controlled processing rather than automatic processing.
Reflecting on one's own thought processes.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Emotion and Affect
Attitudes, Beliefs, and Consistency
Social Psychology Exam 4 Practice Questions
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Chapter 5: Social Cognition
Chapter 5 Social Psychology and Human Nature
uva social psyc 2600 exam #1
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
PERSONALITY Test 1
Science, Environment, and Society
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Week Two Psyc 339
Predator Prey Relationships
REVIEW QUESTIONS exotics midterm 2