275 terms

Professional Education .Group - Medical Terminology

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Abduction
Movement away from the midline.
Ablation
Surgical removal of bodily tissue.
Abscess
Swollen area containing an accumulation of pus underneath the skin.
Adduction
Movement towards the midline.
Adenopathy
Enlarged lymph nodes.
Adnexa
Location of ovaries and fallopian tubes.
Advance Directives
Written statement of a person's wishes regarding medical treatment.
Afebrile
Without a fever. (Temperature of less than 100.4 F)
Aneurysm
Enlargement or widening of blood vessel.
Angina
Decreased blood flow to the heart muscle causing chest pain.
Anterior
Located towards the front of the body.
Anti-coagulant
Blood thinner.
Anti-emetic
Drug that alleviates nausea and vomiting.
Anti-hypertensive
Drug used to control high blood pressure.
Anuria
Failure of the kidneys to produce urine.
Aphasia
Speechlessness
Appendectomy
Surgical removal of the appendix.
Appendicitis
Inflammation of the appendix.
Arrhythmia
Abnormal or irregular heart rhythm.
Arthalgia
Joint pain.
Ascites
Accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity.
Asterixis
A tremor of the wrist when the wrist is extended. Liver flap.
Ataxia
Neurological sign consisting of unsteady/uncoordinated movements.
Atelectasis
Collapse of small airways in the lung (seen on X-ray or CT)
Atrial fibrillation
Irregular rhythm of the heart.
Atrial flutter
Fast irregular rhythm of the heart
Avulsion
A forcible separation, detachment, or tearing away.
Axilla
Armpit.
Biliary colic
Also known as a gallbladder attack.

Pain associated with cholelithiasis, when the gallstones temporarily block the bile duct. The pain can radiate from the RUQ up to the shoulder.
Bradycardia
Slow heart rate. (HR < 60 bpm)
Bradypnea
Slow rate of breathing.
Bruit
A murmur, abnormal sound, that blood makes when it rushes past a narrowing in the blood vessel.
Candidiasis
A fungal infection of any of the Candida species (all yeasts).
Carotid bruit
Murmur heard with stethoscope over a narrowing in carotid artery.
Clostridium difficile
Organism that causes a particular type of diarrhea.
Cellulitis
Infection of the skin with associated pain, redness, and warmth.
Cerumen
Earwax.
Cholecystectomy
Surgical removal of the gallbladder.
Cholecystitis
Inflammation of the gallbladder, resulting in abdominal pain.
Cholelithiasis
Stones in the gallbladder.
Cirrhosis
A slowly progessive disease where healthy liver tissue is replaced by scar tissue. The scars will block the flow of blood, and as a result will slow down the progression of nutrients, hormones, drugs, and naturally produced toxins. The scar tissue will also slow down the production of proteins and other substances.

Cirrhosis is the result of chronic liver disease and poor function of the liver. Hepatitis C and diabetes mellitus are also contributors.
Colectomy
Surgical removal of segment (or all) of the large intestine.
Colonoscopy
Visual examination of the colon.
Colostomy
Surgical procedure where the end of the large intestine is through the abdominal wall, allowing for an alternative route for feces.
Congenital
Present from birth.
Contusion
Bruise.
Convulsion
Sudden, violent, irregular movement of the body, caused by involuntary muscle contraction.
Conjunctiva
Lining of the inside of the eyelids.
Cornea
Transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.
Costovertebral Angle Tenderness
TTP posteriorly over the lower rib; method of assessing for kidney tenderness.
Crepitus
A crackling or poppling sounds and sensation under the skin and joints.
Cyanosis
Blue skin from lack of oxygen.
Cyanotic
Showing cyanosis; bluish or purplish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to inadequate oxygenation of blood.
Cystitis
Inflammation of the bladder.
Debridgement
Removal of skin that is dead or contaminated.
Decubitus
Commonly known as a bed sore, but can be referred to as a pressure sore or pressure ulcer.

Sores on the skin from prolonged pressure. Typically found where skin covers boney areas. The most common locations are the hips, ankles, back, and buttocks.
Deep Vein Thrombosis
Formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, predominantly in the legs.
Diaphoresis
Sweaty.
Diplopia
Double vision.
Distal
Away from the center of the body or from the point of attachment.
Diuresis
Excessive urine production as an aspect of fluid balance.
Diverticulitis
Infection of the pouches on the colon causing pain.
Diverticulosis
Pouching of the walls of the intestine.

Pouches may form when the high pressure pushes against weak spots in the colon where blood vessels pass through the muscle layer of the bowel wall to supply blood to the inner wall.

High fiber diet will prevent hard stool that applies pressure onto the colon as it travels through.
Dorsal
Back part of the body.
Dorsiflexion
Flexion of the foot upward at the ankle joint.
Dysarthria
Difficulty saying words due to issues with the muscles used for speech.
Dysmenorrhea
Painful menstruation
Dyspareunia
Painful intercourse.
Dysphagia
Condition in which swallowing is difficult or painful.
Dyspnea
Shortness of breath.
Dysuria
Painful urination.
Ecchymosis
Bruising
Ectopic Pregnancy
Pregnancy in which the fetus develops outside the uterus.
Eczema
Skin disorder that involves scaly and itchy rashes.
Edema
Swelling due to excess fluid collection in cavities or tissues of the body.
Edentulous
Lacking teeth.
Effusion
Increased intra-articular fluid in a joint.
Elective Surgery
Surgery that is not urgently required. Can be scheduled in advance due to lack of medical emergency.
Emesis
Vomiting
Endometriosis
Endometrial tissue growth outside the uterus, causing pain.
Endoscopy
Procedure to look inside the body with a scope.
Epistaxis
Nosebleed.
Erythema
Redness of the skin.
Etiology
The cause of a disease.
Eversion
Rolled outward (ex. at the ankle resulting in sprain).
Fistula
Abnormal connections between two hollow openings. Can result from injury, infection, or even surgery.

Can be surgically created to provide access points under the skin that are used to increase the efficiency and safety of dialysis treatments.
Flexion
Bending of a limb or joint.
Fluctuance
A wave-like motion when palpating the skin, indicative of the presence of liquid.
Fontanelle
Two areas of the head of an infant where the bones do not cover the brain.
Funduscopic
Examination of the back of the eye.
Guarding
Involuntary tightening of stomach muscle when pushed.
Hematemesis
Gross blood in vomit.
Hematochezia
(Bright red) Blood in stool.
Hematoma
Swelling as a result of blood collection in tissue.
Hematuria
Blood in urine.
Hemiparesis
Weakness on one side/half of the body.
Hemiplegia
Paralysis on one side/half of the body.
Hemoccult
Trademark name for Guaiac strip used to test for blood in stool.
Hemoptysis
Coughing up blood.
Hemorrhage
Excessive or profuse blood loss.
Hemorrhoid
A swollen vein or group of veins in rhe region of the anus.
Hemotympanum
Presence of blood behind the ear drum (blood in middle ear)
Hepatic
Pertaining to the liver.
Hyperglycemia
High blood sugar.
Hyperlipidemia
Elevation of blood cholesterol.
Hypertension
Elevated blood pressure.
Hyphema
Blood in the anterior chamber of the eye.
Hypoglycemia
Low blood sugar.
Hypotension
Low blood pressure.
Hyopxia
Deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching bodily tissue.
Hysterectomy
Surgical removal of the uterus.
Icterus
Yellow sclera (jaundice)
Incontinence
Involuntary urination or defecation.
Induration
Hardening of tissue, typically from infection.
Inferior
Lower.
Inguinal Hernia
Refers to protusion of intestine through the inguinal canal (groin area)
Inversion
Rolled inward (ex. at the ankle resulting in sprain)
Ischemia
Localized restriction of blood flow.
Jaundice
Yellowish pigmentation of the skin.
Lacrimal
Relates to tears.
Laparoscopic
A surgical procedure in which a fiber-optic instrument is inserted through the abdominal wall to view the organs in the abdomen or to permit a surgical procedure.

Minimally invasive surgical procedure.
Lateral
Away or further from the midline.
Ligament
Tissue that connects two bones together.
Lingual
Relates to the tongue.
Lymphadenopathy
Enlarged lymph nodes.
McBurney's Point
Pain in a particular spot in the RLQ signifying possible appendicitis.
Macule
Small spot seen on the skin.
Malaise
Generalized uneasiness, discomfort, or weakness.
Malleolus
The bony prominence on each side of the ankle.
Malocclusion
Misaligned teeth when jaws are closed.
Mandible
Jaw bone.
Mastectomy
Surgical removal of a breast.
Meatus
External opening of the penis.
Medial
Towards or near the midline.
Melena
Black, tarry stool.
Meningisimus
Stiff neck, sign of possible meningitis.
Metastasis
Development of secondary malignant growths at a distance from the primary site.
Murmur
Abnormal heart sound. Could be systolic or diastolic.
Murphy's Sign
A physician examination where the patient is instructed to take a deep breath and release as the physician palpates the RUQ of the abdomen.

If the patient stops breathing, signalling discomfort resulting from TTP, then there is a positive sign for cholecystitis.

Murphy's sign is negative for cholelithiasis, pyelonephritis, and ascending colangitis.
Myalgia
Muscle pain, "muscle aches"
Nares
Nostrils or nasal passage.
Nucal rigidity.
Stiff neck, sign of possible meningitis
Nystagmus
Involuntary eye movement.
Occiput
Back part of skull.
Olecranon
Boney part of the forearm that projects behind the elbow.
Oopherectomy
Surgical removal of the ovaries.
Orthopnea
SOB when lying down. Breathing is easier in an upright position.
Otalgia
Ear pain.
Otitis Externa
Inflammation of the external ear.
Otitis Interna
Inflammation of the middle ear.
Os
Opening, mostly referred to the cervical opening (cervical os).
Pallor
Pale skin.
Paracentesis
Procedure in which fluid from the abdomen is removed through a needle.
Parasthesia
Abnormal skin sensation of numbness, tingling, or burring.
Pedal Edema
Leg or ankle swelling from water retention.
Perineal
Pelvic area of the body.
Periorbital
Area around the eye.
Peripheral
Related to locations in the outer boundary or periphery.
Petechia
Pin point red spots on the skin.
Pharynx
Part of the neck and throat immediately behind the mouth.
Phonophobia
Excess sensitivity to sound.
Photophobia
Excess sensitivity to light.
Plantar
Sole side of the foot.
Plantar Flexion
Downward flexion of the foot at the ankle.
Polydispia
Excessive thirst.
Polyuria
Excessive urine production/out put.
Posterior
Towards the back.
Pronation
Rotation of the hands and forearms so that the palms face downwards.
Pronator Drift
Patient with eyes closed, arms extended and palms up (supination position), then one arm drifts down and palm start to face down (pronation).
Prone
Laying face down.
Proximal
Nearer to a point of origin of the limb. Closer to midline.
Purulent
Pus/Pus-like
Purulence
Condition of containing or discharging pus.
Pyelonephritis
Kidney infection.
Rales
Abnormal crackling, or wet crackling lung sound on auscultation.
Renal
Pertaining to the kidneys.
Retroorbital
Behind the eye.
Rhinorrhea
Runny nose.
Rhonchi
Abnormal rattling lung sound upon auscultation.
Romberg's Sign
Falling to one side when standing with eyes closed.
Sclera
White part of the eye.
Somnolent
Sleepy, drowsy.
Sputum
Mixture of saliva and mucous coughed up from the respiratory tract.
Stasis
Period of inactivity or no movement.
Status Epilepticus
Non-stop seizure activity.
Stridor
Abnormal breathing sound. High pitched respiratory sound.
Subcutaneous
Below the skin.
Sublingual
Below the tongue.
Superficial
Existing or occurring at the surface.
Superior
Situated above.
Supination
Rotation of the hands and forearms so that the palms face upwards.
Supine
Laying face up.
Supraventricular
Coming from the atrium of the heart.
Syncope
Temporary loss of consciousness or fainting.
Tachycardia
Fast heart rate.
Tachypnea
Fast rate of breathing.
Thyroid
Gland in front of the neck that makes the thyroid hormone.
Thyromegaly
Enlarged thyroid.
Tinea
Skin fungal infection.
Tinnitus
Ringing in the ear.
Turgor
A physician will pull on the skin of a person, generally on the back of the hand. The rigidity of the skin is observed; does the skin stay elevated or return to its original position?

A decrease in skin turgor is indicated when the skin (on the back of the hand for an adult or on the abdomen for a child) is pulled up for a few seconds and does not return to its original state

Skin turgor is a sign used to determine the degree of dehydration.
Tremor
Involuntary quivering movement.
Urinary Retention
Inability to completely or partially empty the bladder.
Urticaria
Hives or wheals on the skin, usually red and itchy.
Vertigo
Spinning sensation.
Wheal
A raised, itchy (pruitic) area of skin that is almost always a sign of allergy.
Wheezing
Abnormal lung sound. Whistling sound.
Pupil Assessment
Physical examination that tests the patient's neurological status as well as any potential drugs they are on.

First, assess the diameter of the pupil using a measured scale. A normal size ranges between 3-5mm.

Next, shine a light onto the pupil. A normal direct response is for the pupil to constrict
A normal consensual response is for both eyes to constrict simultaneously even though the light is shining onto one.

Lastly, have the patient focus on an object and slowly move it closer to their face. A normal accommodation response is for the eyes to follow the object and the pupils to constrict as the object gets closer.

If all signs normal, then document PERRLA.
Extracolular Movement Assessment
Have the patient look up, down, then to the sides.

If the patient is capable of doing so without the eyes drifting, then document EOMI.
Cranial Nerve Assessment
II - Test visual fields
III - Pupillary response
IV - Have patient look up and down
V - Ask patient to hold mouth open while you try to close it.
Cranial Nerve I
Olfactory Nerve
Cranial Nerve II
Optic Nerve
Cranial Nerve III
Oculomotor Nerve
Cranial Nerve IV
Trochlear Nerve
Cranial Nerve V
Trigeminal Nerve
Cranial Nerve VI
Abducens Nerve
Cranial Nerve VII
Facial Nerve
Cranial Nerve VIII
Vestibulocochlear Nerve
Cranial Nerve IX
Glossopharyngeal Nerve
Cranial Nerve X
Vagus Nerve
Cranial Nerve XI
Accessory Nerve

Controls movement of head and shoulders. Motor function of the sternocleidomastoid & upper traps are assessed.
Cranial Nerve XII
Hypoglossal Nerve


Controls tongue movement. Assessed by having patient stick out tongue, moving it from side to side, then up and down.
Cranial Nerve XIII
Vestibulocochlear Nerve
Lithotripsy
Medical procedure using sound waves to break up kidney stones into smaller pieces.
Tubal Ligitation
Surgical sterilization in females.
Nocturia
Excessive urination at night.
Somnambulism
Sleepwalking.
Dyspepsia
Pain or discomfort in digestion; also known as indigestion.
Palpitation
A trembling or shaking; irregular, rapid beating or pulsation of the heart.
Risk Factors for Abdominal Pain
1) Prior AAA
2) HTN
3) Primary relative
4) CTD
5) Marfan Syndrome
Risk Factors for Headache
1) Primary relative
2) CTD
3) Acute onset
4) HTN
5) Prior SAH
6) Numbness
7) Focal weakness
8) Speech difficulty
Risk Factors for Vaginal Bleeding
1) Infertility
2) Pelvic inflammatory disease
3) Intrauterine device
4) Recent abortion
5) Prior ectopic
6) Bilateral tubal ligitation
Risk Factors for Pediatric Fever
For infants under 30 days.
1) Maternal herpes
2) Maternal Gp B Strep
Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease
Presents with chest pain. Watch for:
1) Smoking
2) DM
3) Lipids
4) Family hx
5) HTN
Risk Factors for Pulmonary Embolism
Presents with chest pain. Watch for:
1) Immobilization
2) h/o DVT
3) h/o PE
4) Clotting Disorder
5) Recent surgery
6) Birth control pills
7) Morbid obesity
8) Malignancy
9) Pregnancy
10) Postpartum
11) Greenfield filter
Risk Factors for Transient Acantholytic Dermatosis
Presents with chest pain. Watch for:
1) Pregnancy
2) CTD
3) Marfan's Syndrome
4) Turner
5) h/o of TAD
6) Coarctation
Risk Factors for Pain in RUQ
1) Gallbladder removal
2) Vomiting
3) Cough
4) SOB
Risk Factors for Hematemesis
1) Motrin use
2) h/o alcohol
3) Liver disease
4) Anticoagulant use
Risk Factors for Pelvic Pain
1) Sexual activity
2) Abnormal discharge
3) Flank pain
4) UTI symptoms
5) Hematuria
6) LMP
7) Ectopic pregnancy
Risk Factors for Shortness of Breath
1) Cough
2) h/o asthma
3) h/o SOB
4) O2 use at home
5) Associated cough
6) Fever
7) CP
8) h/o CVD
9) h/o DVT or PE
10) Recent surgery
Risk Factors for General Chest Pain
1) SOB
2) Smoking
3) h/o CAD
4) Hyperlipidemia
5) HTN
6) DVT or PE
7) h/o CP
Marfan's Syndrome
A genetic disorder of connective tissue. It has a variable clinical presentation, ranging from mild to severe systemic disease. The most serious manifestations involve defects of the heart valves and aorta, which may lead to early death if not properly managed.
Turner Syndrome
A chromosomal condition that alters development in females. Women with this condition tend to be shorter than average and are usually unable to conceive a child (infertile) because of an absence of ovarian function.
Greenfield Filter
Treatment of choice for capturing emboli that arise from the pelvis or lower extremities; DVT treatment.

Filter stuck into blood vessels in lower extremities. Breaks up clots into smaller units.
Abrasion
Scrape of the skin due to something abrasive.
Antipyretic
Medication used to reduce a fever.
Acute
New, usually of rapid onset and of concern.

Opposite of chronic.
Auscultation
Listening to sounds arising within organs.
Bronchitis
Infection of the bronchi (upper airway)
Bronchiolitis
Infection of the bronchioles (smaller air-tubes in the lungs)
Catheter
Tube inserted into vessel or body cavities to permit injection or withdrawal of fluids, or to keep a passage patent.
Chronic
Long-standing, constant.

Opposite of acute.
Conjunctivitis
Infection of the outer later of the eye.
Dialysis
Process of removing wast from the blood for patients with renal failure.
Diffuse
Spread out (not localized)
Exudate (Tonsillar)
Collection of pus-pockets on the tonsils
Grossly
Obviously; a lot; thoroughly
Hepatomegaly
Enlarged liver.
Hernia
Protrusion of an organ through the wall of the cavity which normally contains it.
ICD-10
A system to classify and code diagnoses, symptoms, and procedures.
Infarct
Area of dead tissue due to lack of blood supply
Laceration
Splitting of the skin due to trauma.
Meningitis
Dangerous infection of the outer lining of the central nervous system.
Palpation
Examine by touch
Peritoneal signs
Guarding, rebound, and/or rigidity of the abdomen.

Indicates a possible rupture.
Pharyngitis
Infection of the throat.
Pneumonia
Bacterial infection of the lungs.
Sepsis
Dangerous infefction of the blood.
Sinusitis
Infection or inflammation of the nasal sinuses.
Streptococcal pharyngitis
Strep throat.
Trismus
Inability to open the jaw secondary to pain.
Ulcerations
Blisters or open sores.
Pneumothorax
Collapsed lung.
Pneumatosis
Abnormal accumulation of air or other gases in the body.
Pneumomediastinum
Pneumatosis in the mediastinum.

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