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Standardized tests are often used for?

entry or placemet in specific programs and to diagnose learning problems or strengths

Where does the school accountability movement come from?

The public loss of confidence in education


relates to the accuracy with which skills & knowledge are measured

Valid reasons for assessing students-

inform decision makers about student behaviors, monitor student progress toward a goal, screen students for specific purposes

Why testing accommodations for students with disabilities are important-

help ensure that the results will be an accurate indication of student ability, enable most students to be tested, enable testing practices to be deemed fair to all students

Most critical problem that can result from standardized achievement test accommodation-

accommodation changes the nature of the measurement

Fair & ethical testing procedures-

research scores from individual minority populations to determine whether scores are comparable, provide non-English-speaking students the opportunity to take mathematics & science exams in their native language, grade essays without regard for who wrote

Misuses of state-mandated standardized achievement test scores-

assign students to remedial or accelerated tracks based solely on their scores, compute glass grades using standardized test scores, compare scores on the exam to in-class quizzes

Criterion-Referenced Tests-

assessments that rate how thoroughly students have mastered specific skills or areas of knowledge

Norm-Referenced Tests-

assessments that compare the performance of one student against the performance of others

Common benefit of standardized achievement tests-

scores are comparable across populations

Formative Assessment-

evaluations designed to determine whether additional instruction is needed

Formative Assessment-

continuous feedback to the teacher, test smaller units, monitor progress, informal

Summative Assessment-

final evaluations of students' achievement of an objective

Summative Assessment-

comprehensive measure of achievement

Selected Response-

test items in which respondents can select from one or more possible answers, without requiring the scorer to interpret their response

Selected Response-

limited to presented options, common on standardized achievement tests

Constructed Response-

requires student to supply rather than to select the answer

Constructed response-

difficulty scoring, requires students to support an argument with multiple lines of reasoning, depends on writing ability

Primary purpose of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Exam(WRM)-


Eraut's major criticism of using reflection

sometimes decision need to be made quickly, and there is not time for reflection


tendency to analyze oneself & one's own thoughts


help individuals self-correct behaviors and ideas, empower learners to take ownership of ideas


an adolescent's premature establishment of an identity based on parental choices, not on his or her own

Identity Diffusion-

inability to develop a clear direction or sense of self; adolescent has few commitments to goals and values, and seems apathetic about finding an identity; if an identity crisis has been experienced, it has not been resolved


adolescent experiments with goals and values by abandoning some of those set by parents and society; no definite commitments have been made to occupations or ideologies; the adolescent is in the midst of an identity crisis

Identity Achievement-

adolescent establishes an identity in which clear decisions about occupations and ideologies have been consciously made

Birth - Age 2-

body quadruples in weight and the brain triples in weight, neurons branch & grow into dense connective networks between the brain & the rest of the body

Ages 2 - 6-

child's body grows much more slowly relative to other periods of life; the brain continues to develop fast than any other part of the body, up to 90% of its adult weight;

Ages 7 - 11-

growth that occurs during these years usually proceeds from the extremities to the torso & may be uneven, the child's body grows much more slowly relative to other periods of life.

Ages 12 - 18-

increased in hormonal levels occur, resulting in a growth spurt, males generally become taller than females and develop deeper voices and characteristic patterns of facial and body hair; increased strength and heart and lung capacity give the child endura

Description of the way a child goes up & down steps at the end of early childhood-

takes coordinated, even steps, steps once on each step, alternating feet

When most girls begin their growth spurt

most girls begin their growth spurt by the start of 5th grade

Puberty in girls

almost all girls begin menstruation by age 13, most girls reach their adult stature by age 16

General Principles of Social Learning Theory

people can learn by observing the behaviors of others & the outcomes of those behaviors, learning can occur without a change in behavior, the consequences of behavior play a role in learning, cognition (to perceive or understand) plays a role in learning

Educational Implications of Social Learning Theory

students often learn a great deal simply by observing other people, describing the consequences of behaviors can effectively increase appropriate behaviors & decrease inappropriate ones

Educational Implications of Social Learning Theory

modeling provides an alternative to shaping for teaching new behaviors, teachers & parents must model appropriate behaviors and take care that they don't model inappropriate ones

Educational Implications of Social Learning Theory

teachers should expose students to a variety of other models, students must believe that they are capable of accomplishing school tasks

Educational Implications of Social Learning Theory

teachers should help students set realistic expectations for their academic accomplishments, self-regulation techniques provide effective methods for improving behavior

Attachment Theory

a close emotional relationship between two persons characterized by mutual affection and a desire to maintain proximity; attachments serve the purpose of keeping the child & primary caregiver physically and emotionally close

Psychoanalytic Theory

individual that are often unaware of many of the factors that determine their emotions and behaviors; these unconscious factors may create unhappiness, sometimes in the form of recognizable symptoms and at other times as troubling personality traits, diff


the study of animal behavior with emphasis on the behavioral patterns that occur in natural environments; animals are born with a set of fixed action patterns such as imprinting

Typical of 5 year olds

have a sense of pride in their accomplishments & enjoy demonstrating their achievements

Learning Disability

has difficulty with oral language (e.g., listening, speaking, and understanding); reading (e.g., decoding, comprehension); written language (e.g., spelling, written expression); mathematics (e.g., computation, problem solving); also may have difficulties

Emotional or Behavioral Disorder

a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time & to a marked degree that adversely affects educational performance

Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors (academically performing below grade level), inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers & teachers

Emotional or Behavioral Disorder

inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances, a general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression, a tendency to develop physical symptoms of fears associated with personal or school problems

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

refers to a pattern of ongoing, long-standing (chronic) behavior disorders that have 3 core symptoms:Inattention, Hyperactivity, and impulsivity


fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes, difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities


does not seem to listen when spoken to directly, does not follow through on instructions & fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions)


has difficulty organizing tasks & activities, avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort


loses things necessary for tasks or activities, easily distracted by extraneous stimuli, forgetful in daily activities


fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat, leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected


runs about or climbs excessively in situation in which it is inappropriate, has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly, talks excessively


blurts out answers before questions have been completed, has difficulty awaiting turn, interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations or games)

Speech and Language Disorder

refers to problems in communication and related areas such as oral motor function; inability to understand or use language or use the oral-motor mechanism for functional speech and feeding;

Speech Disorders

difficulties producing speech sounds or problems with voice quality; interruption in the flow of rhythm of speech (e.g., stuttering)

Language Disorders

an impairment in the ability to understand and/or use words in context, both verbally and nonverbally; improper use of words and their meanings, inability to express ideas, inappropriate grammatical patterns, reduced vocabulary and inability to follow directions

Legally Blind

a person is considered legally blind when the best corrected visual acuity is 20/200, or the person's visual field is 20 degrees or less; not all blind persons have absolutely no sight; most blind persons have some remaining vision; considered blind when

Visually Impaired

terms partially sighted, low vision, legally blind, and totally blind are used in the educational context to describe students with visual impairments

Partially Sighted

indicates some type of visual problem has resulted in a need for special education

Low Vision

refers to a severe visual impairment, not necessarily limited to distance vision; applies to all individuals with sight who are unable to read the newspaper at a normal viewing distance, even with the aid of eyeglasses or contact lens; they use a combinat

Legally Blind

indicates that a person has less than 20/200 vision in the better eye or a very limited field of vision (20 degrees at its widest point)

Intellectual Disability

presence of sub-average general intellectual functioning associated with or resulting in impairments in adaptive behavior; occurs before age of 18

Intellectual Disability

down syndrome, autism, developmental disability, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder (manic depression), anorexia, post traumatic stress disorder, print disability, hearing impairment, physical disability

Erik Erickson Foreclosure

Made an identity commitment, but not explored identity.

Erik Erickson Identity diffusion

Not explored identity, not made a commitment.

Erik Erickson Identity deferment


Erik Erickson moratorium

Explored identity, but not made a commitment.

John Joseph Hughes

Wanted public funding in 1840s for Catholic schools. Helped the secularization of American public schools.

Piaget's Theory of Moral Development Cognitive stuctures/abilities develop first

these determine the child's ability to reason about social situations. Development occurs in predictable. before age 6, child plays by her own idiosyncratic rules.


Belief that nature and human nature is constant. Most closely related to the Idealism and Realism schools of traditional philosophy.


Educational Implications (1)rigorous intellectual curriculum for all students. (2) Focus on math, science, and literature = logical thought/enduring ideas. (3) Goal = students develop intellectual skills in writing, speaking, computing, problem-solving.


Educational Goals Train students' intellect and moral development.


Curriculum Emphasis is on enduring ideas.


Teacher's Role Deliver clear lectures; increase students' understanding with critical questions.


Teaching Methods Lecture; questioning; coaching students in critical thinking skills.


Learning Environment High structure, high levels of time on task.


Assessment Frequent objective and essay tests.


belief that a critical core of information exists that all people should possess. Most closely related to the Idealism and Realism schools of philosophy.


Educational Implications (1) Emphasis on basic skills/certain academic subjects students must master. (2) the graduation of a literate/skilled workforce. (3) Curriculum must change to meet societal changes.


Educational Goals Help students acquire basic skills and knowledge needed to function in today's world.


Curriculum Emphasis is on basic skills.


Teacher's Role (Same as for Perennialism) Deliver clear lectures; increase students' understanding with critical questions


Teaching Methods Lecture, practice and feedback, questioning.


Learning Environment (Same as Perennialism) High structure; high levels of on task time.


Assessment Frequent objective, essay, and performance tests.


Emphasizes curriculum that focuses on real-world problem solving and individual development. Most closely related to the Pragmatism school of philosophy


Educational Implications (1) Learner-centered curricula. (2) hands-on learning activities where students collaborate. (3) Teacher guides students through learning process. (4) Constructivist in nature.


Educational Goals Students need to acquire the ability to function in the real world and to develop problem-solving skills.


Curriculum Emphasis is on problem-solving and the skills needed in today's world.


Teacher's Role Guide learning with questioning; develop and guide practical problem-solving activities.


Teaching Methods Problem-based learning, cooperative learning, guided discovery.


Learning Environment Collaborative, self-regulated, democratic.


Assessment Continuous feedback, informal monitoring of students' progress


Contends that many societal institutions, including schools, are used by those in power to control/marginalize those who lack power = education should focus on reversing this.


Educational Implications (1) Literature written by feminist/minority authors should be equal to that of others. (2) Historical events should be studied from the perspective of power, status, and marginalized people's struggle within these contexts.


Educational Goals Critically examine today's institutions; elevate the status of marginalized people.


Curriculum Emphasis placed on the works of marginalized people.


Teacher's Role Facilitate discussions that involve clarifying issues.


Teaching Methods Discussion; role-play; simulations; personal research


Learning Environment Community-oriented, self-regulated


Assessment Collaborative between teacher and student; emphasis is on the exposure of hidden assumptions.

In loco parentis "in the place of parents"

teachers required to use the same judgement/care as parents in protecting the children under their supervision.

Works Progress Administration (WPA)

1935 Provided economic relief during the Great Depression and training to adult males to prepare them for work in the needed sectors.

The Servicemen's Readjustment Act (G.I. Bill)

1944 Provided for college/vocational ed. for returning WWII veterans.

Life Adjustment Movement

1950s High schools expected to teach "life skills" - especially for students not planning to attend post high school training/education.

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

1954 U.S. Supreme Court rules that separate facilities for Black and White students are inherently unequal = called for integration of schools.

National Defense Act (NDEA)

1958 Passed in response to the Russian launch of Sputnik satellite; appropriated federal funds to improve education in areas considered crucial to national defense/security: math, foreign language, and science.

manpower Development and Training Act

1962 mandated funding to educate thousands of people unemployed because of automation/technological advances so they would be marketable in these fields.

Job Corps Established

1964 A no-cost educational/vocational training program administered by the U.S. Dept. of labor that helps people ages 16 - 24 get a better job, make more money, and take control of their lives. Part of the Economic Opportunity Act.

Project Head Start

1964 A federal compensatory preschool education program created to help disadvantaged 3 and 4 year old students enter elementary school "ready to learn.'

Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)

1965 part of Pres. Johnson's "War on Poverty.' Provides funding for special programs for children of low-income families in grades k through 12. has been reauthorized by Congress every 5 years since its inception.

San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez

1973 Supreme Court ruled that reliance on property taxes to fund public schools does not violate Equal Protection Clause, even if it causes inter-district expenditure disparities.

"A Nation at Risk"

1983 National Commission on Excellence in education report; called for greater federal support of education because the nation was threatened by "a rising tide of mediocrity: - calls for educational reform based on the development of standards-based curricula.

Education for All Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142)

1975 Requires all schools receiving federal funds to provide equal access to education for children whith physical and mental disabilities.

Gifted and Talented Act

1978 Schools required to provide services and activities to meet the needs of students identified as being gifted/talented.

Americans with Disabilities Act

1990 A wide-ranging civil rights law that prohibits discrimination based on disability; covers employment, transportation, building accessibility, transportation, etc.

Individuals with Disabilities Act

1990 Governs how states/public agencies provide early early intervention, special education, and related services to children with disabilities from birth to 21 years of age.

Bilingual Education Act of 1968 (Title VII of ESEA) provided schools with federal funds to establish educational programs for students w/ limited English

did not require bilingual ed.

New England Colonies

demographics Culturally/Religiously homogenous - Puritan

New England Colonies

livelihood Industry/Commerce = most lived in towns

New England Colonies

educational needs teach religion & 3 R's, have a literate citizenship that could read the bible

Middle Colonies (NY, NJ, Del., Penn.)

demographics Majority English, w/large populations of Dutch in New York, Swedes in Delaware, and Germans in Pennsylvania

Middle Colonies

religion Wide variety of religious beliefs practiced

Middle Colonies

Education Many students educated in parochial schools = taught in their native language & family's religious beliefs were an integral part of the curriculum

Southern Colonies (MD, Virginia, NC, SC, GA)

livelihood Life centered around agriculture/use of slaves to work plantations

Southern Colonies

Education Reserved for the sons of wealthy, White families

Southern Colonies

forms of education Private tutors, parochial (Church of England) schools, and boarding schools

First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution

Establishment Clause prohibits the establishment of a national religion.

First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution

Free Exercise Clause "Freedom of speech" - has been extend to freedom in religious practice

Dartmouth College Case

1819 Jurisdictional dispute between the college's president and board of trustees led to a Supreme Court ruling favoring the educational freedom of private institutions (which is what colleges are considered to be)

Common School Movement

History Industrialization, immigration, and westward expansion lead to many social problems. Solution? An educated, moral citizenry that could participate in democratic decision-making and contribute to the nation's economy.

Common School Movement

Contributions to Education Taxes to support public schools, increase in attendance of under-represented groups, created state education departments and appointing of state superintendents

Compulsory Education Act of 1852 (Mass.) mandatory school attendance for children, ages 8

14 years, for at least 3 months each year (with 6 weeks having to be consecutive).

Kalamazoo Case

1875 Court upheld Michigan school officials' attempts to collect public funds for the support of a village high school to provide a secondary education for all males = set precedent for public funding of high schools.

Chautauqua (NY) Institute

1874 Began as a training for Methodist Sunday-School teachers; gradually broadened in scope to include general education and popular entertainment.

George Counts

Concerned with the impact that SES and culture have on students' ability to learn; leader in the Progressive movement.

Noah Webster

Father of American Scholarship in Education

Benjamin Rush

Founding father; believed the security of the republic lay in proper education.

Know Nothing Party

Goal was to prevent Catholic schools from receiving state and tax-payer funding for schools and ensuring that only the Protestant bible was used in schools.

Bernard Bailyn

The idea of "public education" was created by historians who were "educational missionaries."

Lloyd P. Jorgensen

The fundamental assumption of the common school movement is "the public school would be an agent of moral/social redemption that resulted from nonsectarian religious instruction"; exposed evils associated with this movement.

Learning Disability (LD)

Disorder in one or more basic psychological processes involved in understanding/using spoken and/or written language = imperfect ability to listen, think, read, write, spell, or do math calculations.

Characteristics of LD (may not have all)

Normal intelligence; discrepancy between intelligence & performance; delays in achievement; poor motor coordination/spatial ability; perceptual anomalties; difficulty w/self-motivation; etc.

Working with students with learning disabilities

one-to-one tutoring for reading; early elementary = phonetic reading strategies; teach learning-to-learn skills (study skills, test-taking skills, etc.); give frequent feedback; break down large projects into smaller chunks; effective classroom management

Emotional and Behavior Disorders (EBD)

Serious/Persistent age-inappropriate behaviors resulting in social conflict, as well as problems in school and personal concept. Caused by make-up of the child, family disfunction/mistreatment, and/or underlying learning disability.

Characteristics of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

Educational performance markedly and adversely affected over a period of time by: inability to build/maintain satisfacory interpersonal relationships; inappropriate types of behavior/feelings; general unhappiness; etc.

Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (ADHD)

Difficulty in maintaining attention because of limited ability to concentrate accompanied by impulsive actions/hyperactive behavior = may have marked academic, behavior, and social problems stemming from inability to pay attention.

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