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746 terms

WGU FOT STUDY

STUDY
PLAY
Standardized tests are often used for?
entry or placemet in specific programs and to diagnose learning problems or strengths
Where does the school accountability movement come from?
The public loss of confidence in education
Reliability-
relates to the accuracy with which skills & knowledge are measured
Valid reasons for assessing students-
inform decision makers about student behaviors, monitor student progress toward a goal, screen students for specific purposes
Why testing accommodations for students with disabilities are important-
help ensure that the results will be an accurate indication of student ability, enable most students to be tested, enable testing practices to be deemed fair to all students
Most critical problem that can result from standardized achievement test accommodation-
accommodation changes the nature of the measurement
Fair & ethical testing procedures-
research scores from individual minority populations to determine whether scores are comparable, provide non-English-speaking students the opportunity to take mathematics & science exams in their native language, grade essays without regard for who wrote
Misuses of state-mandated standardized achievement test scores-
assign students to remedial or accelerated tracks based solely on their scores, compute glass grades using standardized test scores, compare scores on the exam to in-class quizzes
Criterion-Referenced Tests-
assessments that rate how thoroughly students have mastered specific skills or areas of knowledge
Norm-Referenced Tests-
assessments that compare the performance of one student against the performance of others
Common benefit of standardized achievement tests-
scores are comparable across populations
Formative Assessment-
evaluations designed to determine whether additional instruction is needed
Formative Assessment-
continuous feedback to the teacher, test smaller units, monitor progress, informal
Summative Assessment-
final evaluations of students' achievement of an objective
Summative Assessment-
comprehensive measure of achievement
Selected Response-
test items in which respondents can select from one or more possible answers, without requiring the scorer to interpret their response
Selected Response-
limited to presented options, common on standardized achievement tests
Constructed Response-
requires student to supply rather than to select the answer
Constructed response-
difficulty scoring, requires students to support an argument with multiple lines of reasoning, depends on writing ability
Primary purpose of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Exam(WRM)-
achievement
Eraut's major criticism of using reflection
sometimes decision need to be made quickly, and there is not time for reflection
Reflectivity-
tendency to analyze oneself & one's own thoughts
Reflectivity-
help individuals self-correct behaviors and ideas, empower learners to take ownership of ideas
Foreclosure-
an adolescent's premature establishment of an identity based on parental choices, not on his or her own
Identity Diffusion-
inability to develop a clear direction or sense of self; adolescent has few commitments to goals and values, and seems apathetic about finding an identity; if an identity crisis has been experienced, it has not been resolved
Moratorium-
adolescent experiments with goals and values by abandoning some of those set by parents and society; no definite commitments have been made to occupations or ideologies; the adolescent is in the midst of an identity crisis
Identity Achievement-
adolescent establishes an identity in which clear decisions about occupations and ideologies have been consciously made
Birth - Age 2-
body quadruples in weight and the brain triples in weight, neurons branch & grow into dense connective networks between the brain & the rest of the body
Ages 2 - 6-
child's body grows much more slowly relative to other periods of life; the brain continues to develop fast than any other part of the body, up to 90% of its adult weight;
Ages 7 - 11-
growth that occurs during these years usually proceeds from the extremities to the torso & may be uneven, the child's body grows much more slowly relative to other periods of life.
Ages 12 - 18-
increased in hormonal levels occur, resulting in a growth spurt, males generally become taller than females and develop deeper voices and characteristic patterns of facial and body hair; increased strength and heart and lung capacity give the child endura
Description of the way a child goes up & down steps at the end of early childhood-
takes coordinated, even steps, steps once on each step, alternating feet
When most girls begin their growth spurt
most girls begin their growth spurt by the start of 5th grade
Puberty in girls
almost all girls begin menstruation by age 13, most girls reach their adult stature by age 16
General Principles of Social Learning Theory
people can learn by observing the behaviors of others & the outcomes of those behaviors, learning can occur without a change in behavior, the consequences of behavior play a role in learning, cognition (to perceive or understand) plays a role in learning
Educational Implications of Social Learning Theory
students often learn a great deal simply by observing other people, describing the consequences of behaviors can effectively increase appropriate behaviors & decrease inappropriate ones
Educational Implications of Social Learning Theory
modeling provides an alternative to shaping for teaching new behaviors, teachers & parents must model appropriate behaviors and take care that they don't model inappropriate ones
Educational Implications of Social Learning Theory
teachers should expose students to a variety of other models, students must believe that they are capable of accomplishing school tasks
Educational Implications of Social Learning Theory
teachers should help students set realistic expectations for their academic accomplishments, self-regulation techniques provide effective methods for improving behavior
Attachment Theory
a close emotional relationship between two persons characterized by mutual affection and a desire to maintain proximity; attachments serve the purpose of keeping the child & primary caregiver physically and emotionally close
Psychoanalytic Theory
individual that are often unaware of many of the factors that determine their emotions and behaviors; these unconscious factors may create unhappiness, sometimes in the form of recognizable symptoms and at other times as troubling personality traits, diff
Ethology
the study of animal behavior with emphasis on the behavioral patterns that occur in natural environments; animals are born with a set of fixed action patterns such as imprinting
Typical of 5 year olds
have a sense of pride in their accomplishments & enjoy demonstrating their achievements
Learning Disability
has difficulty with oral language (e.g., listening, speaking, and understanding); reading (e.g., decoding, comprehension); written language (e.g., spelling, written expression); mathematics (e.g., computation, problem solving); also may have difficulties
Emotional or Behavioral Disorder
a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time & to a marked degree that adversely affects educational performance
Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors (academically performing below grade level), inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers & teachers
Emotional or Behavioral Disorder
inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances, a general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression, a tendency to develop physical symptoms of fears associated with personal or school problems
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
refers to a pattern of ongoing, long-standing (chronic) behavior disorders that have 3 core symptoms:Inattention, Hyperactivity, and impulsivity
Inattention
fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes, difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
Inattention
does not seem to listen when spoken to directly, does not follow through on instructions & fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions)
Inattention
has difficulty organizing tasks & activities, avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort
Inattention
loses things necessary for tasks or activities, easily distracted by extraneous stimuli, forgetful in daily activities
Hyperactivity
fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat, leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected
Hyperactivity
runs about or climbs excessively in situation in which it is inappropriate, has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly, talks excessively
Impulsivity
blurts out answers before questions have been completed, has difficulty awaiting turn, interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations or games)
Speech and Language Disorder
refers to problems in communication and related areas such as oral motor function; inability to understand or use language or use the oral-motor mechanism for functional speech and feeding;
Speech Disorders
difficulties producing speech sounds or problems with voice quality; interruption in the flow of rhythm of speech (e.g., stuttering)
Language Disorders
an impairment in the ability to understand and/or use words in context, both verbally and nonverbally; improper use of words and their meanings, inability to express ideas, inappropriate grammatical patterns, reduced vocabulary and inability to follow directions
Legally Blind
a person is considered legally blind when the best corrected visual acuity is 20/200, or the person's visual field is 20 degrees or less; not all blind persons have absolutely no sight; most blind persons have some remaining vision; considered blind when
Visually Impaired
terms partially sighted, low vision, legally blind, and totally blind are used in the educational context to describe students with visual impairments
Partially Sighted
indicates some type of visual problem has resulted in a need for special education
Low Vision
refers to a severe visual impairment, not necessarily limited to distance vision; applies to all individuals with sight who are unable to read the newspaper at a normal viewing distance, even with the aid of eyeglasses or contact lens; they use a combinat
Legally Blind
indicates that a person has less than 20/200 vision in the better eye or a very limited field of vision (20 degrees at its widest point)
Intellectual Disability
presence of sub-average general intellectual functioning associated with or resulting in impairments in adaptive behavior; occurs before age of 18
Intellectual Disability
down syndrome, autism, developmental disability, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder (manic depression), anorexia, post traumatic stress disorder, print disability, hearing impairment, physical disability
Erik Erickson Foreclosure
Made an identity commitment, but not explored identity.
Erik Erickson Identity diffusion
Not explored identity, not made a commitment.
Erik Erickson Identity deferment
NA
Erik Erickson moratorium
Explored identity, but not made a commitment.
John Joseph Hughes
Wanted public funding in 1840s for Catholic schools. Helped the secularization of American public schools.
Piaget's Theory of Moral Development Cognitive stuctures/abilities develop first
these determine the child's ability to reason about social situations. Development occurs in predictable. before age 6, child plays by her own idiosyncratic rules.
Perennialism
Belief that nature and human nature is constant. Most closely related to the Idealism and Realism schools of traditional philosophy.
Perennialism
Educational Implications (1)rigorous intellectual curriculum for all students. (2) Focus on math, science, and literature = logical thought/enduring ideas. (3) Goal = students develop intellectual skills in writing, speaking, computing, problem-solving.
Perennialism
Educational Goals Train students' intellect and moral development.
Perennialism
Curriculum Emphasis is on enduring ideas.
Perennialism
Teacher's Role Deliver clear lectures; increase students' understanding with critical questions.
Perennialism
Teaching Methods Lecture; questioning; coaching students in critical thinking skills.
Perennialism
Learning Environment High structure, high levels of time on task.
Perennialism
Assessment Frequent objective and essay tests.
Essentialism
belief that a critical core of information exists that all people should possess. Most closely related to the Idealism and Realism schools of philosophy.
Essentialism
Educational Implications (1) Emphasis on basic skills/certain academic subjects students must master. (2) the graduation of a literate/skilled workforce. (3) Curriculum must change to meet societal changes.
Essentialism
Educational Goals Help students acquire basic skills and knowledge needed to function in today's world.
Essentialism
Curriculum Emphasis is on basic skills.
Essentialism
Teacher's Role (Same as for Perennialism) Deliver clear lectures; increase students' understanding with critical questions
Essentialism
Teaching Methods Lecture, practice and feedback, questioning.
Essentialism
Learning Environment (Same as Perennialism) High structure; high levels of on task time.
Essentialism
Assessment Frequent objective, essay, and performance tests.
Progressivism
Emphasizes curriculum that focuses on real-world problem solving and individual development. Most closely related to the Pragmatism school of philosophy
Progressivism
Educational Implications (1) Learner-centered curricula. (2) hands-on learning activities where students collaborate. (3) Teacher guides students through learning process. (4) Constructivist in nature.
Progressivism
Educational Goals Students need to acquire the ability to function in the real world and to develop problem-solving skills.
Progressivism
Curriculum Emphasis is on problem-solving and the skills needed in today's world.
Progressivism
Teacher's Role Guide learning with questioning; develop and guide practical problem-solving activities.
Progressivism
Teaching Methods Problem-based learning, cooperative learning, guided discovery.
Progressivism
Learning Environment Collaborative, self-regulated, democratic.
Progressivism
Assessment Continuous feedback, informal monitoring of students' progress
Postmodernism
Contends that many societal institutions, including schools, are used by those in power to control/marginalize those who lack power = education should focus on reversing this.
Postmodernism
Educational Implications (1) Literature written by feminist/minority authors should be equal to that of others. (2) Historical events should be studied from the perspective of power, status, and marginalized people's struggle within these contexts.
Postmodernism
Educational Goals Critically examine today's institutions; elevate the status of marginalized people.
Postmodernism
Curriculum Emphasis placed on the works of marginalized people.
Postmodernism
Teacher's Role Facilitate discussions that involve clarifying issues.
Postmodernism
Teaching Methods Discussion; role-play; simulations; personal research
Postmodernism
Learning Environment Community-oriented, self-regulated
Postmodernism
Assessment Collaborative between teacher and student; emphasis is on the exposure of hidden assumptions.
In loco parentis "in the place of parents"
teachers required to use the same judgement/care as parents in protecting the children under their supervision.
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
1935 Provided economic relief during the Great Depression and training to adult males to prepare them for work in the needed sectors.
The Servicemen's Readjustment Act (G.I. Bill)
1944 Provided for college/vocational ed. for returning WWII veterans.
Life Adjustment Movement
1950s High schools expected to teach "life skills" - especially for students not planning to attend post high school training/education.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
1954 U.S. Supreme Court rules that separate facilities for Black and White students are inherently unequal = called for integration of schools.
National Defense Act (NDEA)
1958 Passed in response to the Russian launch of Sputnik satellite; appropriated federal funds to improve education in areas considered crucial to national defense/security: math, foreign language, and science.
manpower Development and Training Act
1962 mandated funding to educate thousands of people unemployed because of automation/technological advances so they would be marketable in these fields.
Job Corps Established
1964 A no-cost educational/vocational training program administered by the U.S. Dept. of labor that helps people ages 16 - 24 get a better job, make more money, and take control of their lives. Part of the Economic Opportunity Act.
Project Head Start
1964 A federal compensatory preschool education program created to help disadvantaged 3 and 4 year old students enter elementary school "ready to learn.'
Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)
1965 part of Pres. Johnson's "War on Poverty.' Provides funding for special programs for children of low-income families in grades k through 12. has been reauthorized by Congress every 5 years since its inception.
San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez
1973 Supreme Court ruled that reliance on property taxes to fund public schools does not violate Equal Protection Clause, even if it causes inter-district expenditure disparities.
"A Nation at Risk"
1983 National Commission on Excellence in education report; called for greater federal support of education because the nation was threatened by "a rising tide of mediocrity: - calls for educational reform based on the development of standards-based curricula.
Education for All Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142)
1975 Requires all schools receiving federal funds to provide equal access to education for children whith physical and mental disabilities.
Gifted and Talented Act
1978 Schools required to provide services and activities to meet the needs of students identified as being gifted/talented.
Americans with Disabilities Act
1990 A wide-ranging civil rights law that prohibits discrimination based on disability; covers employment, transportation, building accessibility, transportation, etc.
Individuals with Disabilities Act
1990 Governs how states/public agencies provide early early intervention, special education, and related services to children with disabilities from birth to 21 years of age.
Bilingual Education Act of 1968 (Title VII of ESEA) provided schools with federal funds to establish educational programs for students w/ limited English
did not require bilingual ed.
New England Colonies
demographics Culturally/Religiously homogenous - Puritan
New England Colonies
livelihood Industry/Commerce = most lived in towns
New England Colonies
educational needs teach religion & 3 R's, have a literate citizenship that could read the bible
Middle Colonies (NY, NJ, Del., Penn.)
demographics Majority English, w/large populations of Dutch in New York, Swedes in Delaware, and Germans in Pennsylvania
Middle Colonies
religion Wide variety of religious beliefs practiced
Middle Colonies
Education Many students educated in parochial schools = taught in their native language & family's religious beliefs were an integral part of the curriculum
Southern Colonies (MD, Virginia, NC, SC, GA)
livelihood Life centered around agriculture/use of slaves to work plantations
Southern Colonies
Education Reserved for the sons of wealthy, White families
Southern Colonies
forms of education Private tutors, parochial (Church of England) schools, and boarding schools
First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
Establishment Clause prohibits the establishment of a national religion.
First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
Free Exercise Clause "Freedom of speech" - has been extend to freedom in religious practice
Dartmouth College Case
1819 Jurisdictional dispute between the college's president and board of trustees led to a Supreme Court ruling favoring the educational freedom of private institutions (which is what colleges are considered to be)
Common School Movement
History Industrialization, immigration, and westward expansion lead to many social problems. Solution? An educated, moral citizenry that could participate in democratic decision-making and contribute to the nation's economy.
Common School Movement
Contributions to Education Taxes to support public schools, increase in attendance of under-represented groups, created state education departments and appointing of state superintendents
Compulsory Education Act of 1852 (Mass.) mandatory school attendance for children, ages 8
14 years, for at least 3 months each year (with 6 weeks having to be consecutive).
Kalamazoo Case
1875 Court upheld Michigan school officials' attempts to collect public funds for the support of a village high school to provide a secondary education for all males = set precedent for public funding of high schools.
Chautauqua (NY) Institute
1874 Began as a training for Methodist Sunday-School teachers; gradually broadened in scope to include general education and popular entertainment.
George Counts
Concerned with the impact that SES and culture have on students' ability to learn; leader in the Progressive movement.
Noah Webster
Father of American Scholarship in Education
Benjamin Rush
Founding father; believed the security of the republic lay in proper education.
Know Nothing Party
Goal was to prevent Catholic schools from receiving state and tax-payer funding for schools and ensuring that only the Protestant bible was used in schools.
Bernard Bailyn
The idea of "public education" was created by historians who were "educational missionaries."
Lloyd P. Jorgensen
The fundamental assumption of the common school movement is "the public school would be an agent of moral/social redemption that resulted from nonsectarian religious instruction"; exposed evils associated with this movement.
Learning Disability (LD)
Disorder in one or more basic psychological processes involved in understanding/using spoken and/or written language = imperfect ability to listen, think, read, write, spell, or do math calculations.
Characteristics of LD (may not have all)
Normal intelligence; discrepancy between intelligence & performance; delays in achievement; poor motor coordination/spatial ability; perceptual anomalties; difficulty w/self-motivation; etc.
Working with students with learning disabilities
one-to-one tutoring for reading; early elementary = phonetic reading strategies; teach learning-to-learn skills (study skills, test-taking skills, etc.); give frequent feedback; break down large projects into smaller chunks; effective classroom management
Emotional and Behavior Disorders (EBD)
Serious/Persistent age-inappropriate behaviors resulting in social conflict, as well as problems in school and personal concept. Caused by make-up of the child, family disfunction/mistreatment, and/or underlying learning disability.
Characteristics of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
Educational performance markedly and adversely affected over a period of time by: inability to build/maintain satisfacory interpersonal relationships; inappropriate types of behavior/feelings; general unhappiness; etc.
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (ADHD)
Difficulty in maintaining attention because of limited ability to concentrate accompanied by impulsive actions/hyperactive behavior = may have marked academic, behavior, and social problems stemming from inability to pay attention.
Working with students with ADHD
make sure student understands classroom rules/procedures; seat ADHD students in close proximity to you; understand student may not be able to control her behavior (not defiant); allow student opportunities to be active; use daily report cards
Autism
Developmental disability affecting social interactions, verbal/nonverbal communication, and educational performance. Generally evident before the age of 3 years.
Characteristics of Autism
(those a child exhibits depends on form/severity of autism) extremely withdrawn; engage in self-stimulating activities (rocking, etc.); might have normal/outstanding abilitities in some areas; resistant to changes in the environment/routine; more prevalent among boys
Language Disorders
Impairment in student's ability to understand language (receptive language disorder) or to express ideas (expressive language disorder) in one's native language. If not result of physical problem/lack of experience, indicates a LD or mental retardation.
Speech Disorders
Oral articulation problems; occur most frequently among children in early elementary grades.
Working with students with speech disorders
display acceptance of student; never finish student's sentence or allow others to do so; don't put student in high-pressure situation in which they must respond quickly in a verbal manner.
Vision Impairments
Degree of uncorrectable inability to see 1 out of every 1,000 children are blind (vision = 20/200 or worse in the better eye) or visually imapired between 20/70 and 20/200 in the better eye).
Possible signs of vision loss
Child often tilts head/rubs eyes; has eyes that are red, inflamed, crusty, or water excessively; has trouble reading small print/can't discriminate letters; complains of dizziness/headaches after reading.
Asperger's Syndrome
Mild form of autism; may have concomitant learning disabilities and/or poor motor skills.
Characteristics of Asperger's Syndrome
easily memorize facts but has limited understanding of them; highly verbal with poor verbal/nonverbal communication skills; have a set way of doing things; experience extreme anxiety when routine is changed/expectations are not met; sensitive to sounds
Mental Retardation
Refers to substantial limitations in present functioning manifests before the age of 18.
Characteristics of Mental Retardation
sub-average intellectual functioning existing concurrently with related limitations in 2 or more of the following: communication; self-care; home living; social skills; community use; self-direction; health/safety; functional academics; leisure; work.
Down Syndrome Chromosomal
have 47 chromosomes instead of 46; TRISOMY 21 - the extra chromosome attaches to the 21st pair
Characteristics of Down Syndrome
Mild to moderate mental retardation (some exceptions); may have heart defects, hearing loss, intestinal malformation, vision problems; increased risk for thyroid problems, leukemia, & Alzheimer disease
Physical Characteristics of Down Syndrome
upper-slant eyes; short stature; flat nose; somewhat smaller ears/nose; enlarged, sometimes protruding tongue; short fingers; reduced muscle tones; single (Simean) crease across palm of the hand
Fragile X Syndrome Chromosomal
deficiency in the structure of the X chromosome; affects one in 750 males and one in 1,250 females; appears to be associated with autism/disorders of attention
Physical Characteristics of Fragile X Syndrome
long, narrow face; large ears' prominent forehead; large head circumference; testicles enlarged at puberty in males
Characteristics of Fragile X Syndrome
about 1/3 of affected girls have mild retardation/learning disability; may exhibit attention disorders, self-stimulatory behaviors, and speech/language problems
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
estimated one in 500-700 babies born each year with some degree of alcohol-related damage/defect- alcohol can damage the central nervous system of fetus and brain damage is not uncommon.
Physical characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
facial abnormalities; heart defects; low birth weight; motor dysfunctions
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome could result in . . .
mild to moderate mental retardation; attention disorders; behavioral problems
Fetal Alcohol Effect (FAE)
Less severe, more subtle forms of alcohol-related damage.
Orthopedic Impairments
Can be a congenital anomaly (e.g., club foot, etc.); an impairment caused by disease (e.g., polio, etc.); or impairments from other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputation, etc.) that adversely affects a student's educational performance.
Other Health Impairments
Student has limited strength, vitality, or alertness that results in limited alertness due to chronic/acute health problems (e.g., heart condition, diabetes, etc.) that can adversely affect student's academic performance
Deafness and Hard of Hearing
Hearing ability is of little use, even with the use of a hearing aid = cannot use hearing as primary source for accessing information.
Deaf-Blindness
Concomitant hearing and visual impairments which cause severe communication & other developmental/learning needs that student can't be educated in special education programs for students with hearing impairmenets/severe disabilities effectively.
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
An acquired injury to the brain caused by external physical force, resulting in a total/partialfunctional disability, psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a student's educational performance.
Psychosocial Crisis
Critical issue accompanying each of Erickson's 8 stages of development that a person must address as they pass through the stage. Failure to do so may keep person from being successful in later stages.
Trust v. Mistrust Stage
Birth to 18 mo.; Goal is to develop a basic sense of trust in others and a sense of one's own trustworthiness. failure to reach this goal results in a sense of mistrust in others/the world.
Autonomy v. Doubt and Shame Stage
18 mo to 3 yrs.; Goal is to gain the ability to do things for oneself. failure to gain a sense of autonomy leads to a sense of powerlessness/incompetence. Child may begin to doubt her abilities & feel guilty when she tries to show some independence.
Initiative v. Guilt Stage
3 to 6 yrs.; Goal is for child to explore her world so she can understand who she is within this context. Failure to reach this leads child to experience a sense of guilt about her desires to explore, which could limit her willingness to take chances.
Industry v. Inferiority Stage
Goal is for the child to be successful in whatever she does, as success brings a positive sense of self/one's abilities. failure creates a negative self-image.
Identity v. Role Confusion Stage
12 to 18 yrs.; Goal is for teen to experiment with different roles, personality traits, etc. so as to develop a sense of who she is & what is personally important to her. failure to reach goal leads to a state of confusion which can interfere with life.
Intimacy v. Isolation Stage Young Adulthood
Goal is to create and maintain long-term friendships & sexual relationships. Failure may cause person to shy away from future relationships.
Generativity v. Self-Absorption Stage Middle Adulthood
Goal is to establish and guide the "next" generation and help others. Failure to do so may lead to stagnation, self-indulgence, and selfishness.
Integrity v. Despair Stage Late Adulthood
Goal is to accept one's accomplishments and life as having been worthwhile & come to terms with one's impending death. Failure to do so results in an overwhelming feeling of despair.
Marcia's Theory of Four Adolescent Identity Statuses
Status reflects the degree to which teens have made a firm commitment to religious and political values and future occupation.
Foreclosure Status
Teen's premature establishment of an identity based on parental choice instead of her own. A pseudo-identity that is too fixed/rigid to serve as a foundation for meeting life's challenges.
Identity Diffusion Status
Teen is not able to develop a clear direction or sense of self. May have experienced an identity crises but was unable to resolve it.
Moratorium Status
Teen experiments with occupational and ideological choices without a commitment to any. Teen is currently in the midst of an identity crisis.
Identity Achievement Status
teen has made her own conscious, autonomous, clear-cut decisions about an occupation and ideology that reflects who she is & a deep commitment to these decisions
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
(Cognitive) a developmental view of how moral reasoning evolves from a low to a high level. Argues that people with low moral level are unable to conceive acts of aggression as being immoral.
Moral Dilemmas
hypothetical situations that require a person to consider values of right and wrong.
Preconventional level of moral development
Rules are set down by others.
Stage 1: Punishment and Obedience Orientation
Physical consequences of an action is determine whether the action is "good" or "bad".
Stage 2: Instrumental Relativist Orientation
What is right is whatever satisfies one's own needs (occasionally the needs of others). Fairness/Reciprocity seen in terms of "you scratch my back, I'll scratch yours".
Conventional Level
Person adopts rules and will sometimes subordinate her own needs to those of the group. Expectations of family, group, or nation are seen as valuable in their own right, regardless of immediate/obvious consequences.
Stage 3: Good-Boy/Good-Girl Orientation
Good behavior is what pleases/helps others and is approved of by them = can earn approval by being nice.
Stage 4: Law and Order Orientation
Right = doing your duty, showing respect for authority, and maintaining social order for its own sake.
Post-Conventional Level
Person defines her own values in terms of the ethical principles she has elected to follow.
Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation
Right is defined in terms of individual rights/standards that have been agreed upon by society. Laws are not "frozen" but can be changed for society's good.
Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principle Orientation
Right is defined by decisions of conscience according to ethical principles chosen by the person. The principles are abstract and not moral prescriptions.
Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Defines intelligence as "the capacity to solve problems or fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural settings." 8 intelligences, everyone has all 8, but in different proportions. You can strengthen your weaker areas.
Logical-Mathematical Intelligence
Sensitivity to and capacity to discern logical or number patterns; ability to handle long bits of reasoning.
Linguistic Intelligence
Sensitivity to the sounds, rhythms, and meanings of words; sensitivity to the different functions of language.
Musical Intelligence
Ability to produce and appreciate rhythm, pitch, and timbre; appreciation of the forms of musical expression
Naturalist Intelligence
Sensitivity to natural objects, like plants/animals; making fine sensory discrimination.
Visual-Spatial Intelligence
Capacity to accurately perceive the visual-spatial world; ability to perform transformations on one's initial perceptions.
Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
Ability to control one's body movements and handle objects skillfully.
Interpersonal Intelligence
capacity to discern and respond appropriately to the moods, temperaments, motivations, and desires of others.
Intrapersonal Intelligence
Ability to access one's own feelings/abilities to discriminate among them and draw on them to guide behavior; knowledge of one's own strengths, weaknesses, desires and intelligences.
unconditioned stimulus
a stimulus that naturally evokes a particular responce
unconditioned responce
a behavior that is prompted automatically by stimuli
operant conditioning
uling consequences to control the occurenc of behavior
positive reinforcer
conequence given to strengthen behavior
negative reinforcer
release from an unpleasant situation to strengthen behavior
punishment
using unpleasant consequences to weaken a behavior
aversive stimulus
a consequence that a person tries to avoid or escape
shaping
using small steps combined with feedback to help learners reach goals
extinction
elemenating or decreasing a behaviour by removing reinforcement
culture
way of perceiving, believing evaluating and behaving
new age religion
movement is particularly concerned with spiritual exploration, holistic medicine, and mysticism, yet no rigid boundaries actually exist
Sikhism
The Guru Granth Sahib is a sacred text
Bahai Faith
Has three interlocking unities: the oneness of God (monotheism); the oneness of his prophets or messengers (religious perennialism); and the oneness of humanity (equality, globalism).
Copying computer programs
A teacher or school can make one backup copy of
Copying an article
Can make a copy for the class, but not personal use
Corpal Punishment
Deiceded by state law. Used in Mississippi and other places still!
Land Law of 1785
Provided for the rectangular land survey of the Old Northwest.
accommodation
A term used by Piaget to describe how children change existing schemes by altering old ways of thinking or acting to fit new information in their environment; contrast with assimilation.
adaptation
One of two basic principles referred to by Piaget as invariant functions; the ability of all organisms to adapt their mental representations or behavior to fit environmental demands; contrast with organization.
animism
According to Piaget, children's inclination during the preoperational stage to attribute intentional states and human characteristics to inanimate objects.
assimilation
A term used by Piaget to describe how children mold new information to fit their existing schemes in order to better adapt to their environment; contrast with accommodation.
circular reactions
Piaget's term for patterns of behavior during the sensorimotor stage that are repeated over and over again as goal-directed actions.
centration
A developmental limitation present during the preoperational stage that makes young children focus their attention on only one aspect, usually the most salient, of a stimulus.
cognitive behavior modification
Meichenbaum's developmental program that helps children control and regulate their behavior; children are taught self-regulatory strategies to use as a verbal tool to inhibit impulses, control impulses and frustration, and promote reflection.
collective monologue
A characteristic conversational pattern of preschoolers who are unable to take the perspective of others and thus make little effort to modify their speech for their listener so that remarks to each other seem unrelated.
concrete operational stage
The period of life from 7 to 11 years old when, Piaget believed, children's thinking becomes less rigid, and they begin to use mental operations, such as classification, conservation, and seriation to think about events and objects in their environment.
conservation
A mental operation in the concrete operational stage that involves the understanding that an entity remains the same despite superficial changes in its form or physical appearance.
constructivist approach
An approach to learning which purports that children must construct their own understandings of the world in which they live. Teachers guide this process through focusing attention, posing questions, and stretching children's thinking; information must be mentally acted on, manipulated, and transformed by learners in order to have meaning.
egocentrism
The tendency to think about, see, and understand the world from one's own perspective; an inability to see objects or situations from another's perspective.
egocentric speech
One of three stages of children's use of language identified by Vygotsky during which children begin to use speech to regulate their behavior and thinking through spoken aloud self-verbalizations; contrast with social speech and inner speech.
equilibration
Piaget's concept that refers to our innate tendency of self-regulation to keep our mental representations in balance by adjusting them to maintain organization and stability in our environment through the processes of accommodation and*assimilation.
formal operational stage
During the period of life between 11 and 12 years of age and onward during which, Piaget believed, children begin to apply formal rules of logic and to gain the ability to think abstractly and reflectively; thinking shifts from the real to the possible; see formal logic.
guided participation
Rogoff's term used to describe transferring responsibility for a task from the skilled partner to the child in a mutual involvement between the child and the partner in a collective activity. Steps include choosing and structuring activities to fit the child's skills and interests; supporting and monitoring the child's participation; and adjusting the level of support provided as the child begins to perform the activity independently.
hierarchial classification
A mental operation learned during the concrete operational stage that allows children to organize concepts and objects according to how they relate to one another in a building-block fashion. For example, all matter is composed of molecules and molecules are made up of atoms, which in turn are made up of protons, electrons, and neutrons.
horizontal decalage
Piaget's term for children's inconsistency in thinking within a developmental stage; explains why, for instance, children do not learn conservation tasks about numbers and volume at the same time.
hypothetico-deductive thinking
A form of formal logic achieved during the formal operational stage Piaget identified as the ability to generate and test hypotheses in a logical and systematic matter.
internalization
Vygotsky's term for the process of constructing a mental representation of external physical actions or cognitive operations that first occur through social interaction.
Logico-mathematical knowledge
In Piaget's theory, the type of knowledge as the mental construction of relationships involved in the concrete operations of seriation, classification, and conservation, as well as various formal operations that emerge in adolescence.
matrix classification
In Piaget's theory, a concept achieved during the concrete operational stage that involves ordering items by two or more attributes, such as by both size and color.
metacognition
Knowledge about one's own thinking; involves an understanding of how memory works, what tasks require more cognitive effort, and what strategies facilitate learning; plays an important role in children's cognitive development during the middle childhood years and in the development of self-regulated learning.
object permanence
Piaget's term for an infant's understanding during the sensorimotor stage that objects continue to exist even when they can no longer be seen or acted on.
physical knowledge
One of three types of knowledge as described by Piaget; knowing the attributes of objects such as their number, color, size, and shape; knowledge is acquired by acting on objects, experimenting, and observing reactions.
preoperational stage
The period of life from 2 to 7 years old when, Piaget believed, children demonstrate an increased ability to use symbols (gestures, words, numbers) to represent real objects in their environment.
propositional logic
A form of formal logic achieved during the formal operational stage that Piaget identified as the ability to draw a logical inference between two statements or premises in an "if-then" relationship.
realism
According to Piaget, children's inclination during the preoperational stage to confuse physical and psychological events in their attempts to develop theories of the internal world of the mind.
reflective abstraction
A concept which allows children to use information they already have acquired to form new knowledge that begins to emerge during the concrete operational stage but more characteristic of adolescent thinking.
representational thinking
A Piagetian concept that develops during the preoperational stage in which children gain the ability to use words to stand for real objects.
scheme
Also referred to as schema (pl. schemata) in some research areas; in Piaget's theory, the physical actions, mental operations, concepts, or theories people use to organize and acquire information about their world.
sensorimotor stage
The period of life from birth to 2 years old when children acquire what Piaget believed are the building blocks of symbolic thinking and human intelligence-schemes for two basic competencies, goal-directed behavior and object permanence.
seriation
In Piaget's theory, the understanding which develops during the concrete operational stage that involves the ability to order objects in a logical progression, such as from shortest to tallest; important for understanding the concepts of number, time, and measurement.
social knowledge
In Piaget's theory, this type of knowledge is derived in part through interactions with others.*Examples of this knowledge include mathematical words and signs, languages, musical notations, as well as social and moral conventions.
social speech
One of three stages of children's use of language identified by Vygotsky that is used primarily for communicative purposes in which thought and language have separate functions; contrast with egocentric speech and inner speech.
zone of proximal development
A concept in Vygotsky's theory regarding children's potential for intellectual growth rather than their actual level of development; the gap between what children can do on their own and what they can do with the assistance of others.
attention deficit hyperactive disorders
Behavior, diagnosed by a qualified professional, characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and unusual or excessive activity.
autism
A lifelong developmental disability that is neurologically based and affects the functioning of the brain; disabilities vary from mild to severe and include deficits in verbal and nonverbal communication, problems with reciprocal social interaction, and a restrictive set of activities and interests.
collaborative consultation
A teaching partnership that often accompanies cooperative or team teaching and is characterized by a consultative relationship in which both special and general educators discuss academic and social behavior problems in the general classroom to meet the needs of all children.
communication disorders
Individuals characterized by specific impairments in speech and/or language
curriculum casualty
A school situation in which a child's needs clash with the learning and behavioral expectations of the educational system.
emotional or behavior disorders
Characterized by significantly different psychosocial development from one's peers, including hyperactivity, aggression, withdrawal, immaturity, and learning difficulties.
exceptionality
An umbrella term to describe all who receive special education-children with disabilities as well as children who are gifted.
external locus of control
A pattern of attributing events to factors outside one's control; a characteristic of children with learning disabilities; see locus of causality.
externalizing problems
The kinds of difficulties a majority of children with emotional and behavioral disorders experience, including argumentative, aggressive, antisocial, and destructive actions; contrast with internalizing problems.
giftedness
Individuals identified with a minimal IQ score of about 130 and above-average academic achievement, usually 2 years above grade level.
interindividual variation
Differences in developmental needs from one child to the next; see intraindividual variation.
internalizing problems
The kinds of problems some children with emotional and behavioral disorders experience, including depression, withdrawal, anxiety, and obsession; contrast with externalizing problems.
intraindividual variation
The unique pattern of strengths and needs related to each child's physical, cognitive, social, and emotional growth; see interindividual variation.
mental retardation
Characterized by a lower than normal level of intelligence and developmental delays in specific adaptive behavior.
multimodal approach
A teaching method effective with children having an attention deficit disorder that combines educational support, psychological counseling, behavioral management at school and home, and medical management using a psychostimulant.
self-evaluation
A cognitive strategy that encourages children to record their performance and compare it to their target goals.
self-instruction
A cognitive strategy that encourages children to use internal speech to guide them through a task in a step-by-step manner; see inner speech.
specific learning disabilities .
A wide range and varying degrees of characteristics children exhibit that classify them as exceptional and require special accommodations for learning situations
Acceleration programs
Rapid promotion through advanced studies for students who are gifted or talented.
Accommodation
Modifying existing schemes to fit new situations.
Accountability
The degree to which people are held responsible for their task performances or decision outcomes.
Achievement batteries
Standardized tests that include several subtests designed to measure knowledge of particular subjects.
Achievement batteries
Standardized tests that include several subtests designed to measure knowledge of particular subjects.
Achievement motivation
The desire to experience success and to participate in activities in which success is dependent on personal effort and abilities.
Achievement tests
Standardized tests measuring how much students have learned in a given context.
Adaptation
The process of adjusting schemes in response to the environment by means of assimilation.
Advance organizers
Activities and techniques that orient students to the material before reading or class presentations.
Allocated time
Time during which students have the opportunity to learn.
Analogies
Relating new concepts to information students already understand.
Antecedent stimulus
Event that comes before a behavior.
Applied behavior analysis
The application of behavioral learning principles to understand and change behavior.
Aptitude test
A test designed to measure general abilities and to predict future performance.
Aptitude test
A test designed to measure general abilities and to predict future performance.
Aptitude-Treatment interaction
Interaction of individual differences in learning with particular teaching methods.
Assertive Discipline
Giving a clear, firm, unhostile response to student misbehavior.
Assessment
A measure of the degree to which instructional objectives have been attained.
Assimilation
Interpreting new experiences in relation to existing schemes.
Associative play
Much like parallel play but with increased levels of interaction in the form of sharing, turn-taking, and general interest in what others are doing.
Attention deficit disorder (ADD)
The inability to concentrate for long periods of time.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
A disorder characterized by difficulties maintaining attention because of a limited ability to concentrate; includes impulsive actions and hyperactive behavior.
Attention
The process of focusing on certain stimuli while screening others out.
Attribution theory
An explanation of motivation that focuses on how people explain the causes of their own successes and failures.
Authentic assessment
Measurement of important abilities using procedures that simulate the application of these abilities to real-life problems.
Authoritarian parents
Parents who strictly enforce their authority over their children.
Authoritative parents
Parents who mix firm guidance with respect and warmth toward their children.
Autism
A category of disability that significantly affects social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and educational performance.
Automaticity
Process by which thoroughly learned tasks can be performed with little mental effort.
Autonomous morality
stage at which a person understands that people make rules and that punishments are not automatic.
Aversive stimulus
A condition that a person tries to avoid or escape.
Backward planning
Planning instruction by first setting long-range goals, then setting unit objectives, and finally planning daily lessons.
Behavior content matrix
A chart that classifies lesson objectives according to cognitive level.
Behavior modification
Systematic application of antecedents and consequences to change behavior.
Behavioral learning theory
Explanation of learning that emphasizes observable changes in behavior.
Between-class ability grouping
The practice of grouping students by ability level in separate classes within-class ability
Bilingual education
Instructional program for students who speak little or no English in which some instruction is provided in the native language.
Calling order
The order in which students are called on by the teacher to answer questions asked during the course of a lesson.
Centration
Paying attention to only one aspect of an object or a situation.
Cerebral palsy
Disorder in ability to control movements caused by damage to the motor area of the brain
Choral response
A response to a question made by an entire class in unison.
Chronological age
The age of an individual in years.
Class inclusion
A skill learned during the concrete operational stage of cognitive development in which individuals can think simultaneously about a whole class of objects as well as relationships among its subordinate classes.
Classical conditioning
Associating a previously neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus to evoke a conditioned response.
Classroom management
Methods used to organize classtoom activities, instruction, physical structure, and other features to make effective use of time, to create a happy and productive learning environment, and to minimize behavior problmes and other disruptions.
Closure
The mental tendency to organize perceptions so they make sense.
Cognitive apprenticeship
The process by which a learner gradually acquires expertise in interaction with an expert, either an adult or an older or more advanced peer.
Cognitive behavior modification
Procedures based on both behavioral and cognitive learning principles for changing your own behavior by using self-talk and self-instruction.
Cognitive development
Gradual, orderly changes by which mental processes become more complex and sophisticated.
Cognitive dissonance theory
An explanation of the discomfort people feel when new perceptions or behaviors clash with long-held beliefs.
Cognitive learning theory
Explanation of learning that focuses on mental processes.
Collaboration
Professionals working cooperatively to provide educational services.
Compensatory education
A program that is designed to prevent or remediate learning problems for students who are from lower socioeconomic status communities.
Compensatory preschool programs
Programs designed to prepare disadvantaged children for entry into kindergarten and first grade.
Completion items
Fill-in-the-blank items on tests.
Computer-based instruction(CBA)
Individualized instruction administered by a computer.
Concept
An abstract idea that is generalized from specific examples.
Concrete operational stage
Stage at which children develop skills of logical reasoning and conservation but can use theses kills only when dealing with familiar situations.
Conditioned stimulus
A stimulus that naturally evokes a particular response.
Conduct disorders
Socioemotional and behavioral disorders indicated in individuals who, for example, are chronically disobedient or disruptive.
Connectionist models
Theories that knowledge is stored in the brain in a network of connections, not in systems of rules or individual bits of information.
Consequence
A condition that follows a behavior and affects the frequency of future behavior.
Conservation
The concept that certain properties of an object (such as weight) remain the same regardless of changes in other properties (such as length).
Construct validity
Degree to which test scores reflect what the test is intended to measure.
Constructivism
Theories of cognitive development that emphasize the active role of learners in building their own understanding of reality.
Constructivist theories of learning
State that learners must individually discover and transform complex information, checking new information against old rules and revising them when they no longer work.
Content validity
A measure of the match between the content of a test and the content of the instruction that preceded it.
Contingent praise
Praise that is effective because it refers directly to specific task performances.
Continuous theory of development
Theory based on the belief that human development progresses smoothly and gradually from infancy to adulthood.
Control Group
Group that receives no special treatment during an experiment.
Conventional level of morality
Stages 3 and 4 in Kohlberg's model of moral development, in which individuals make moral judgments in consideration of others.
Convulsive disorders
Forms of epilepsy.
Cooperative play
Play in which children join together to achieve a common goal.
Cooperative scripts
A study method in which students work in pairs and take turns orally summarizing sections of material to be learned.
Corrective instruction
Educational activities that are given to students who initially fail to master an objective; designed to increase the number of students who master educational objectives.
Correlational Study
Research into the relationships between variables as they naturally occur.
Criterion-referenced evaluations
Assessments that rate how thoroughly students have mastered specific skills or areas of knowledge.
Critical thinking
Ability to make rational decisions about what to do or what to believe.
Critical Thinking
Evaluating conclusions by logically and systematically examining the problem, the evidence, and the solution.
Cross-age tutoring
Peer tutoring between an older and a younger student.
Cue
Signal as to what behavior(s) will be reinforced or punished.
Culture
The language, attitudes, ways of behaving, and other aspects of life that characterize a group of people.
Cutoff score
Score designated as the minimum necessary to demonstrate mastery of a subject.
Deficiency needs
Basic requirements for physical and psychological well-being as identified by Maslow.
Derived scores
Values computed from raw scores that relate students1 performances to those of a norming group; examples are percentiles and grade equivalents.
Descriptive Research
Study aimed at identifying and gathering detailed information about something of interest.
Developmentally appropriate education
Instruction felt to be adapted to the current developmental status of children (rather than their age alone).
Development
Orderly and lasting growth, adaptation, and change over the course of a lifetime.
Diagnostic tests
Tests of specific skills used to identify students1 needs and to guide instruction.
Direct instruction
Approach to teaching in which lessons are goal-oriented and structured by the teacher.
Disability
The inability to do something specific such as walk or hear.
Discipline
Methods used to prevent behavior problems from occurring or to respond to behavior problems so as to reduce their occurrence in the future.
Discontinuous theory of development
Theory based on the belief that human development occurs through a series of distinct stages.
Discovery learning
Teaching methods in which students are encouraged to discover principles for themselves.
Discrimination
Perception of and response to differences in stimuli.
Distractors
Incorrect responses offered as alternative answers to a multiple-choice question.
Distributed practice
Technique in which items to be learned are repeated at intervals over a period of time.
Distributed practice
Technique in which items to be learned are repeated at intervals over a period of time.
Drill and practice
Applications of microcomputers that provide students with practice of skills and knowledge.
Dual code theory of memory
Theory suggesting that information coded both visually and verbally is remembered better than information coded in only one of those two ways.
Early intervention programs
Compensatory preschool programs that target very young children at the greatest risk of school failure.
Early intervention
Programs that target at-risk infants and toddlers to prevent possible later need for remediation.
Educational Psychology
The study of learning and teaching.
Egocentric
Believing that everyone views the world as you do.
Elaboration
Connecting new material to information or ideas already in the learner's mind.
Emergent literacy
Knowledge and skills relating to reading that children usually develop from experience with books and other print media before the beginning of formal reading instruction in school.
Emotional and behavioral disorders
Category of exceptionality characterized by problems with learning, interpersonal relationships, and control of feelings and behavior.
Enactment
Learning process in which individuals physically carry out tasks.
Engaged time
Time students spend actually learning; same as time on-task.
English as a second language
Designation for programs and classes to teach English to students who are not native speakers of English.
Enrichment activities
Assignments or activities designed to broaden or deepen the knowledge of students who master classroom lessons quickly.
Enrichment programs
Programs in which assignments or activities are designed to broaden or deepen the knowledge of students who master classroom lessons quickly.
Episodic memory
A part of long-term memory that stores images of our personal experiences.
Equilibration
The process of restoring balance between present understanding and new experiences.
Ethnic group
A group within a larger society that sees itself as having a common history, social and cultural heritage, and traditions, often based on race, religion, language, or national identity.
Ethnicity
A history, culture, and sense of identity shared by a group of people.
Evaluation
Decision making about student performance and about appropriate teaching strategies.
Events of instruction
A model of instruction developed by Gagné that matches instructional strategies with the cognitive processes involved in learning.
Exceptional learners
Students who have abilities or problems so significant that the students require special education or other services to reach their potential.
Expectancy theory
Theory of motivation based on the belief that people1s efforts to achieve depend on their expectations of reward.
Expectancy-valence model
A theory that relates the probability and incentive of success to motivation.
Experimental Group
Group that receives treatment during an experiment.
Experiment
Procedure used to test the effects of a treatment.
External Validity
Degree to which results of an experiment can be applied to real-life situations.
Extinction burst
The increase in levels of behavior in the early stages of extinction.
Extinction
Eliminating or decreasing a behavior by removing reinforcement for it.
Extrinsic incentive
A reward that is external to the activity, such as recognition or a good grade.
Extrinsic reinforcer
Praise or rewards given to motivate people to engage in behavior that they might not engage in without it.
Feedback
Information on the results of one1s efforts.
Field dependence
Cognitive style in which patterns are perceived as whole.
Field independence
Cognitive style in which separate parts of a pattern are perceived and analyzed.
Figure-ground relationship
Perceiving selected parts of a stimulus to stand out (figure) from other parts (background).
Fixed-interval schedule
Reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following a constant amount of time.
Fixed-ratio (FR) schedule
Reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following a fixed number of behaviors.
Flashbulb memory
Important events that are fixed mainly in visual and auditory memory.
Foreclosure
An individual's premature establishment of an identity based on parental choices rather than their own.
Formal operational thought
Deals abstractly with hypothetical situations and reason.
Formative evaluation
Tests or assessments administered during units of instruction that measure progress and guide the content and pace of lessons.
Formative quiz
Evaluation designed to determine whether additional instruction is needed.
Free-recall learning
A task requiring recall of a list of items in any order.
Full inclusion
Policy or practice of placing all students in regular classes with appropriate assistance.
Functional fixedness
Block to solving problems caused by an inability to see new uses for familiar objects or ideas.
Gender bias
Different views of males and females, often favoring one gender over the other.
Generalization
Carryover of behaviors, skills, or concepts from one setting or task to another.
Generative learning
A theory that emphasizes the active integration of new material with existing schemata.
Gestalt psychology
A psychological movement, started in Germany, that advanced the understanding of perception.
Giftedness
Category of exceptionality characterized by being very bright, creative, or talented.
Goal structure
The degree to which students are placed in competitive or cooperative relationships in earning classroom rewards.
Grade-equivalent scores
Standard scores that relate students1 raw scores to the average scores obtained by norming groups a t different grade levels.
Group alerting
Methods of questioning that encourage students to pay attention during lectures and discussions.
Group contingencies
Class rewards that depend on the behavior of all students.
Group contingency program
Program in which rewards or punishments are given to a class as a whole for adhering to or violating rules of conduct.
Group Investigating
A cooperative learning model that involves small groups in which students work using cooperative inquiry, planning, project, and group discussion, then make a presentation on their findings to the class.
Growth needs
Needs for knowing, appreciating, and understanding, which people try to satisfy after their basic needs are met.
Handicap
A condition imposed on a person with disabilities by society, the physical environment, or the person1s attitude.
Hearing loss
Degree of deafness; uncorrectable inability to hear well.
Heteronomous morality
Stage at which children think that rules are unchangeable and that breaking them leads automatically to punishment.
Home-based reinforcement strategies
Behavior modification strategies in which a student1s school behavior is reported to parents, who supply rewards.
Hyperactivity
Condition characterized by extreme restlessness and short attention spans relative to peers.
Identity diffusion
The adolescent's inability to develop a clear sense of self.
Identity foreclosure
The premature choice of a role, often done to reinforce self-concept.
Imagery
Use of mental images to improve memory.
Impulsivity
Cognitive style of responding quickly but often without regard for accuracy.
Independent practice
Component of instruction in which students work by themselves to demonstrate and rehearse new knowledge.
Individual Learning Expectation (ILE)
A teaching method that includes evaluation of students improvement relative to past achievement.
Individualized Education Program (IEP)
Program tailored to the needs of an exceptional child.
Individualized instruction
Teaching approach in which each student works at his or her own level and rate.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
Federal law P.L. 101-476 enacted in 1990 changing the name of P.L. 94-142 and broadening services to adolescents with disabilities.
Inert knowledge
Learned information that can be applied to only a restricted, often artificial set of circumstances.
Inferred reality
The meaning of stimuli in the context of relevant information.
Inferred reality
The meaning of stimuli in the context of relevant information.
Information-processing theory
Cognitive theory of learning that describes the processing, storage, and retrieval of knowledge from the mind.
Initial-letter strategy
Strategy for memorization in which initial letters of a list to be memorized are taken to make a word or phrase that is more easily remembered.
Instructional objective
A statement of information or tasks that students should master after one or more lessons.
Instrumental Enrichment
A thinking-skills program in which students work through a series of paper-and-pencil exercises designed to develop various intellectual abilities.
Integrated learning system
A comprehensive, multipurpose set of instructional software developed by one company.
Intelligence quotient (IQ)
An intelligence test score that for people of average intelligence should be near 100.
Intelligence quotient
An intelligence test score that for people of average intelligence should be near 100.
Intelligence quotient
An intelligence test score that for people of average intelligence should be near 100.
Intelligence
General aptitude for learning, often measured by ability to deal with abstractions and to solve problems.
Intelligence
General aptitude for learning, often measured by ability to deal with abstractions and to solve problems.
Interference
A process that occurs when recall of certain information is inhibited by the presence of other information in memory.
Internal Validity
The degree to which an experiment's results can be attributed to the treatment in question, not to other factors.
Intrinsic incentive
An aspect of an activity that people enjoy and, therefore, find motivating.
Intrinsic reinforcer
The pleasure that is inherent in simply engaging in the behavior.
Jigsaw
A cooperative learning model in which students are assigned to six-member teams to work on academic material that has been broken down into sections for each member.
Joplin Plan
A regrouping method in which students are assigned to groups for reading instruction across grade lines.
Keller Plan
A form of mastery learning in which students advance through the curriculum by passing mastery tests.
Keyword method
Strategy for improving memory by using images to link pairs of items.
Laboratory Experiment
Experiment in which conditions are highly controlled.
Language disorders
Impairments in the ability to understand language or to express ideas in one1s native language.
Language minority
Term for native speakers of any language other than English.
Large muscle development
Movements, such as running or throwing, that involve the limbs and large muscles.
Law of Effect
An act that is followed by a favorable effect is more likely to be repeated in similar situations; an act that is followed by an unfavorable effect is less likely to be repeated.
Learned helplessness
The expectation, based on experience, that one1s actions will ultimately lead to failure.
Learning disabilities (LD)
Disorders that impede academic progress of people who are not mentally retarded or emotionally disturbed.
Learning goals
A motivational orientation of students who place primary emphasis on knowledge acquisition and self-improvement.
Learning objectives
Specific behaviors students are expected to exhibit at the end of a series of lessons.
Learning probe
Methods, such as questions, that help teachers find out if students understand a lesson.
Learning styles
Orientation for approaching learning tasks and processing information in certain ways.
Learning together
A cooperative learning model that involves students with four- or five-member heterogenous groups on assignments.
Learning
A change in an individual that results from experience.
Least restrictive environment
Provisions in the law (IDEA) that requires students with disabilities to be educated to the maximum extent appropriate with their nondisabled peers.
Lesson planning
Involves stating learning objectives; thinking through what the students will know or be able to do after the lesson; what information, activities, and experiences the teacher will provide; the time needed to reach the objective; what books, materials, and media support will be provided by the teacher; and the method(s) of instruction.
Levels-of-processing theory
Explanation of memory that links recall of a stimulus with the amount of mental processing it receives.
Limited English proficiency (LEP)
Descriptive term for students who have limited mastery of English.
Loci method
Strategy for remembering lists by picturing items in familiar locations.
Locus of control
A personality trait that concerns whether people attribute responsibility for their own failure or success to internal factors or to external factors.
Long-term memory
Components of memory where large amounts of information can be stored for long periods of time.
Mainstreaming
The placement, for all or part of the school day, of disabled children in regular classes.
Maintenance
Continuation of behavior.
Mapping
Diagramming main ideas and connections between them.
Massed practice
Technique in which facts or skills to be learned are repeated many times over a concentrated period of time.
Mastery criterion
A standard students must meet to be considered proficient in a skill.
Mastery goals
The goals students must reach to be considered proficient in a skill.
Mastery grading
Absolute grading based on criteria for mastery.
Mastery learning
System of instruction that emphasizes the achievement of instructional objectives by all students by allowing learning time to vary.
Matching items
Given two lists, each item in one list will match with one item in the other list.
Meaningful learning
Mental processing of new information leading to its linkage with previously learned knowledge.
Means-end analysis
A problem-solving technique that encourages identifying the goal (ends) of a problem, the current situation, and what needs to be done (means) to reduce the difference between the two conditions.
Mediated learning
A teaching method in which the teacher guides instruction so that students will master and internalize the skills that permit higher cognitive functioning.
Mental age
the average test score received by individuals of a given chronological age.
Mental retardation
Condition, usually present at birth, that results in below-average intellectual skills and poor adaptive behavior.
Mental set
Students' readiness to begin a lesson.
Metacognition
Knowing about one's own learning ("thinking about thinking").
Metacognitive skills
Methods for learning. studying. or solving problems.
Minimum competency tests
Criterion-referenced tests focusing on important skills students are expected to have mastered to qualify for promotion or graduation.
Minority group
An ethnic or racial group that is a minority within a broader society.
Mnemonics
Methods for aiding the memory.
Mock participation
Situation in which students appear to be on task but are not engaged with learning.
Modeling
Learning by observing others' behavior.
Moral dilemmas
Hypothetical situations that require a person to consider values of right and wrong.
Moratorium
Experimentation with occupational and idelogical choices without definite commitment.
Motivation
The influence of needs and desires on the intensity and direction of behavior.
Multicultural education
Education that teaches the value of cultural diversity.
Multifactor aptitude battery
Test that predicts ability to learn a variety of specific skills and types of knowledge.
Multiple intelligences
In Gardner's theory of intelligence, a person's seven separate
Multiple-choice item
Test item usually consisting of a stem followed by choices, or alternatives.
Negative Correlation
Relationship in which high scores on one variable correspond to low scores on another.
Negative reinforcer
Release from an unpleasant situation to strengthen behavior.
Neutral stimuli
Stimuli that do not naturally prompt a particular response.
Nongraded programs (cross-age grouping programs)
Programs that combine children of different ages in the same class, generally at the primary level.
Nonverbal cues
Eye contact, gestures, physical proximity, or touching used to communicate without interrupting verbal discourse.
Normal curve equivalent
Set of standardized scores ranging from 1 to 99, having a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of about 21.
Normal curve
Bell-shaped symmetrical distribution of scores in which most scores fall near the mean, with progressively fewer occurring as distance from the mean increases.
Normal distribution
Bell-shaped symmetrical distribution of scores in which most scores fall near the mean, with progressively fewer occurring as distance from the mean increases.
Norm-referenced evaluations
Assessments that compare the performance of one student against the performance of others.
Norms
Standards derived from giving a test to a sample of people similar to those who will take the test and that can be used to interpret scores of future test takers.
Note-taking
A study strategy that requires decisions about what to write.
Object permanence
Knowing an object exists when it is out of sight.
Observational learning
Learning by observation and imitation of others.
Operant conditioning
Using consequences to control the occurrence of behavior.
Outcomes-based education
An approach to instruction and school organization that clearly specifies what students should know and be able to do at the end of a course of study.
Outlining
Representing the main points of material in heirarchical format.
Overlapping
A teacher1s ability to respond to behavior problems without interrupting a classroom lesson.
Overlearning
Method of improving retention by practicing new knowledge or behaviors after mastery is achieved.
Paired-associate learning
A task involving the linkage of two items in a pair so that when one is presented the other can be recalled.serial learning--A task requiring recall of a list of items.
Parallel distributed processing
A model based on the idea that information is processed simultaneously in the sensory register, short-term memory, and long-term memory.
Parallel play
Play in which children engage in the same activity side by side but with very little interaction or mutual influence.
Parenting styles
General patterns of behavior used by parents when dealing with their children.
Part learning
Mastering new material by learning it one part or subskill at a time.
Pedagogy
The study of teaching and learning with applications to the instructional process.
Peer tutoring
One student teaching another.
Peers
People who are equal in age or status.
Pegword method
Strategy for memorization in which images are used to link lists of facts to a familiar set of words or numbers.
Percentile score
Derived score that designates what percent of the norming group earned raw scores lower than a particular score.
Perception
A person's interpretation of stimuli.
Performance assessment
Assessment of a student's ability to perform tasks, not just knowledge.
Performance goals
A motivational orientation of students who place primary emphasis on gaining recognition from others and earning good grades.
Permissive parents
Parents who give their children great freedom.
Portfolio assessment
Assessment of a collection of the students work in an area showing growth, self-reflection, and achievement.
Positive Correlation
Relationship in which high scores on one variable correspond to high scores on another.
Positive reinforcer
Consequence given to strengthen behavior.
Postconventional level of morality
Stages 5 and 6 in Kohlberg's model of moral development, in which individuals make moral judgements in relation to abstract principles.
PQ4R method
A study stategy that has students preview, question, read, reflect, recite, and review material.
Preconventional level of morality
Stages 1 and 2 in Kohlberg's model of moral development, in which individuals make moral judgments in their own interests.
Predictive validity-
A measure of the ability of a test to predict future behavior.
Premack Principle
Using favored activities to reinforce participation in less desired activities.
Preoperational stage
Stage at which children learn mentally to represent things.
Presentation punishment
Decreasing the chances that a behavior will occur again by presenting an aversive stimulus following the behavior.
Primacy effect
The tendency for items that appear at the beginning of a list to be more easily recalled than other items.
Primary reinforcer
Food, water, or other consequence that satisfies basic needs.
Principle
Explanation of the relationship between factors such as the effects of alternative grading systems on student motivation.
Private speech
Children's self-talk, which guides their thinking and action. Eventually these verbalizations are internalized as silent inner speech.
Proactive facilitation
Increased ability to learn new information due to previously acquired information.
Proactive inhibition
Decreased ability to learn new information because of interference of present knowledge.
Problem solving
The application of knowledge and skills to achieve certain goals.
Problem-solving assessment
Involves organizing, selecting, and applying complex procedures that have at least several important steps or components.
Procedural memory
A part of long-term memory that stores information about how to do things.
Process-product studies
Research approach in which the teaching practices of effective teachers are recorded through classroom observation.
Programmed instruction
Structured lessons that students can work on individually, at their own pace.
Prosocial behaviors
Actions that show respect and caring for others.
Psychosocial crisis
A set of critical issues that individuals must address as they pass through eight life stages, according to Erikson.
Psychosocial theory
A set of principles that relates social environment to psychological development.
Puberty
Developmental stage at which a person becomes capable of reproduction.
Public Law 94142
1975 federal law requiring provision of special education services to eligible students.
Pull-out programs
Compensatory education programs in which students are placed in separate classes for remediation.
Punishment
Using unpleasant consequences to weaken a behavior.
QAIT model
A model of effective instruction that focuses on elements that teachers can directly control.
Race
Visible, genetic characteristics of individuals that cause them to be seen as members of the same broad group (e.g. , African, Asian, Caucasian).
Random Assignment
Selection by chance into different treatment groups to try to ensure equality of the groups.
Randomized Field Experiment
Experiment conducted under realistic conditions in which individuals are assigned by chance to receive different practical treatments or programs.
Readiness tests
Tests to assess the student1s level of skills and knowledge necessary for a given activity.
Readiness training
Teaching the skills and knowledge necessary for a given activity.
Reading Recovery
A program that provides one-to-one tutoring from specially trained teachers to first-graders who are not reading adequately.
Recency effect
The tendency for items that appear at the end of a list to be more easily recalled than other items.
Reciprocal teaching
A teaching method based on the principles of question generation, in which metacognitive skills are taught through instruction and teacher modeling to improve the reading performance of students who have poor comprehension.
Reflectivity
The act of analyzing oneself and one's own thoughts.
Reflectivity
The act of analyzing oneself and one's own thoughts.
Reflexes
Inborn, automatic responses to stimuli (e.g., eyeblinking in response to bright light.
Regrouping
A method of ability grouping in which students in mixed-ability classes are assigned to reading or math classes on the basis of their performance levels.
Rehearsal
Mental repetition of information, which can improve its retention.
Reinforcer
A pleasurable consequence that maintains or increases a behavior.
Relative grading standard
Grading on the basis of how well other students performed on the same test rather than in terms of preestablished absolute standards.
Reliability
A measure of the consistency of test scores obtained from the same students at different times.
Reliability
A measure of the consistency of test scores obtained from the same students at different times.
Remediation
Instruction given to students having difficulty learning.
Removal punishment
Decreasing the chances that a behavior will occur again by removing a pleasant stimulus following the behavior.
Retroactive facilitation
Increased comprehension of previously learned information due to the acquisition of new information.
Retroactive inhibition
Decreased ability to recall previously learned information causedby learning of new information.
Reversibility
The ability to perform a mental operation and then reverse one's thinking to return to the starting point.
Rote learning
Memorization of facts or associations.
Rule-example-rule
Pattern of teaching concepts by presenting a rule or definition, giving examples, and then showing how examples illustrate the rule.
Scaffolding
Support for learning and problem solving. The support could be clues, reminders, encouragement, breaking the problem down into steps, providing an example, or anything else that allows the student to grow in independence as a learner.
Schedule of reinforcement
The frequency and predictability of reinforcement.
Schema theory
Theory that information is stored in long-term memory in networks of connected facts and concepts that provide a structure for making sense of new information.
Schemata
Mental networks of related concepts that influence understanding of new information.
Schemes
Mental patterns that guide behavior.
Seatwork
Work that students are assigned to do independently during class.
Secondary reinforcer
A consequence that people learn to value through its association with a primary reinforcer.
Self-actualization
A person1s desire to develop to his or her full potential.
Self-concept
A person's perception of his or her own strengths and weaknesses.
Self-esteem
The value each of us places on our own characteristics, abilities, and behaviors.
Self-regulated learners
Students who have knowledge of effective learning strategies and how and when to use them.
Self-regulation
Rewarding or punishing one's own behavior.
Self-regulation
The ability to think and solve problems without the help of others.
Semantic memory
A part of long-term memory that stores facts and general knowledge.
Sensorimotor stage
Stage during which infants learn about their surroundings by using their sensesand motor skills.
Sensory impairments
Problems with the ability to receive information through the body1s senses.
Sensory register
Component of the memory system where information is received and held for very short periods of time.
Seriation
Arranging objects in sequential order according to one aspect, such as size, weight, or volume.
Sex-role behavior
Behavior associated with one sex as opposed to the other.
Shaping
Using small steps combined with feedback to help learners reach goals.
Short essay item
Test item that includes a question for the student to answer, which may range from a sentence or two to a page of, say, 100 to 150 words.
Short-term memory
Component of memory where limited amounts of information can be stored for a few seconds.
Sign systems
Symbols that cultures create to help people think, communicate, and solve problems.
Simulation software
Computer programs that model real-life phenomena to promote problem solving and motivate interest in the areas concerned.
Single-Case Experiment
Study of a treatment's effect on one person or one group by contrasting behavior before, during, and after the treatment is applied.
Skinner box
An apparatus developed by B. F. Skinner for observing animal behavior in experiments in operant conditioning.
Small muscle development
Movements of the fine muscles of the hand.
Small-group discussion
A discussion among four to six students in a group working independently of a teacher.
Social comparison
The process of comparing one's self to others to gather information and to evaluate and judge one's abilities.
Social learning theory
Theory that emphasizes learning through observation of others.
Socioeconomic status (SES)
A measure of prestige within a social group most often based on income and education.
Solitary play
Play that occurs alone.
Special education
Programs that address the needs of students with mental, emotional, or physical disabilities.
Speech disorders
Articulation problems occurring most frequently among children in the early elementary school grades.
Standard deviation
A statistical measure of the degree of dispersion in a distribution of scores.
Standardized tests
Tests that are usually commercially prepared for nationwide use to provide accurate and meaningful information on student's level of performance relative to others at their age or grade levels.
Stanine scores
A type of standardized score ranging from 1 to 9, having a mean of 5 and a standard deviation of 2.
Stem
A question or a partial statement in a test item that is completed by one of several choices.
Stimuli
Environmental conditions that activate the senses.
Student Teams-Achievement Divisions(STAD
A cooperative learning method for mixed-ability groupings involving team recognition and group responsibility for individual learning.
Students at risk
Students who are likely to be low-achieving or 3at risk2 for school failure.
Students at risk
Students who are subject to school failure because of characteristics of the student or inadequate responses to their needs by school, family, or community.
Success for All
A comprehensive approach to prevention and early intervention for preschool, kindergarten, and grades 1 through 5, with one-to-one tutoring, family support services, and changes in instruction that might be needed to prevent students from falling behind.
Summarization
Brief statements that represent the main idea of the information being read.
Summative evaluation
Assessments that follow instruction and evaluate knowledge or skills.
Summative quiz
Final test of an objective.
Table of specifications
List of instructional objectives and expected levels of understanding that guide test development.
Task analysis
Breaking down tasks into fundamental subskills.
Taxonomy of educational objectives
Bloom's ordering of objectives from simple learning tasks to more complex ones.
Teaching objectives
Clear statement of what students are intended to learn through instruction.
Test bias
An undesirable characteristic of tests in which item content discriminates against certain students on the basis of socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, or gender.
Theory
A set of principles that explain and relate certain phenomena.
Time on-task
Time spent actively engaged in learning the task at hand.
Time out
Removing a student from a situation in which misbehavior was reinforced.
Time out
Removing a student from a situation in which misbehavior was reinforced.
Title I
Formerly Chapter 1, compensatory programs that were reauthorized as Title 1 of the Improving America's Schools Act (IASA) in 1994.
Tracks
Classes or curricula targeted for students of a specified achievement or ability level.
Transfer of learning
The application of knowledge acquired in one situation to new situations.
Transfer-appropriate processing
A theory that proposes that memory is stronger and lasts longer when the conditions of performance are similar to those under which learning occurred.
Transitvity
A skill learned during the concrete operational stage of cognitive development in which individuals can mentally arrange and compare objects.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI)
Direct injury to the brain, such as a tearing of nerve fibers, bruising of the brain tissues against the skull, brain stem trauma, or swelling.
Treatment
A special program that is the subject of an experiment.
True-false item
One form of multiple-choice test item, most useful when a comparison of two alternatives is called for.
Tutorial programs
Computer programs that teach lessons by varying their content and pace according to student responses.
Unconditioned response (UR)
A behavior prompted automatically by stimuli.
Unconditioned stimulus (US)
A stimulus that naturally evokes a particular response.
Uncorrelated Variables
Lack of relationship between two variables.
Untracking
A focus on having students in mixed-ability groups and holding them to high standards but providing many way to reach those standards.
Validity
A measure of the degree to which a test is appropriate for its intended use.
Variable-interval schedule
Dispensing reinforcement for behavior emitted following an unpredictable amount of time.
Variable-ratio schedule (VR)
Dispensing reinforcement following an unpredictable number of correct behaviors.
Variable
Something that can have more than one value.
Verbal learning
Learning of words or facts under various conditions.
Vicarious learning
Learning from observation the consequences of others1 behavior.
Videodisc
Interactive programs that include videos. films. still pictures, and music.
Vision Loss
Degree of uncorrectable inability to see well.
Volition
The motivation or will to make something happen, to reach one's goal.
Wait time
Length of time that a teacher allows a student to take to answer a question. Calling order--The order in which students are called by the teacher to answer questions asked during the course of a lesson.
Whole language
An educational philosophy that emphasizes the integration of reading, writing, and language and communication skills across the curriculum in the context of authentic or real-life materials, problems, and tasks.
Whole-class discussion
A discussion among all the students in a class with the teacher as moderator.
Within-class ability grouping
A system of accommodating student differences by dividing a class of students into two or more ability groups for instruction in certain subjects.
Withitness
The degree to which the teacher is aware of and responsive to student performance.
Word processing
A computer application for writing compositions that lends itself to revising and editing.
Working memory
Another term for short-term memory.
Zone of proximal development
Level of development immediately above a person's present level.
Z-score
Standard score having a mean of zero and a standard deviation of 1.
Edward C. Cubberley
supported complete state control of democratic school systems
Robert J. Breckenridge
wrote anti-papism literature influencing exclusion of Catholic schools from public funding
Lloyd P. Jorgenson
revealed prejudicial side of common school movement
Berard Bailyn
described educators of the early 20th century as educational missionaries
Pedro Ponce de Leon
Spanish monk; successful in teaching a small group of pupils who were deaf to speak, read, and write
Juan Bonet
developed an early version of finger spelling for individuals who were deaf
Abbe de I'Epee
opened a school in Paris for individuals who were deaf
Valentine Huay
established a school for individuals who were blind in Paris
Phillipe Pinel
renowned scientist who founded wild boy
Jean Marc Gaspard Itard
obtained custody of wild boy and launched an involved program to civilize and educate him; important classic in the education of individuals with mental retardation
Alexander Graham Bell
suggested forming an annex to the public schools to provide special classes for individuals with hearing impairment, visual impairment, and mental retardation
The first special classes were established in 1869 in Boston for
deaf students.
The first special classes were established in 1896 in Chicago for
for blind students.
The normalization principle was a major factor in the development of community-based services for individuals with
mental retardation.
In 1975, Congress enacted a federal law known as Public Law (P.L.) 94-142 or the
Education of All Handicapped Children Act.
Starting in 1983, this was amended several times and expanded its range of programs to include early intervention programs for infants/toddlers with disabilities and transition programs.
P.L. 94-142
In 1990, P.L. 94-142 was renamed to the
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).
Refers to a condition that a person has.
Disability
Describes the consequences of having the disability.
Handicap
Defines special education as specially designed instruction.
IDEA
Under IDEA, a student is eligible for special education services if he/she has a disability and because of the disability, the student has
exceptional learning needs.
There are this many categories of exceptionality in which students aged 6-21 are served under IDEA?
12
academic competence
The ability to use language to learn academic content. (Including using spoken & written English to do assignments, interact with teachers, and communicate with native-English-speaking peers.)
active listening
Having students listen for specific information.
affective filter hypothesis
Hypothesis that language acquisition is related directly to the student's attitude about learning. (Krashen's Theory)
BICS/CALP
The distinction between conversational fluency (basic interpersonal communication skills, or BICS), and academic language (cognitive/academic language proficiency, or CALP).
bottom-up processing
Moving from the physical characteristics of language (e.g., letter-sounds) that are interpreted into successively more symbolic and meaningful levels (syntax and semantics). Often contrasted with top-down processing.
buy-in
Inducement of students to go along with the instructional goals of the teacher, usually fostered by helping students realize how a particular type of learning will help them.
change agents
Teachers' role in advocating for the interests of the students they teach. ELL students and their families often do not have the skills or knowledge of the schooling system to make their voices heard in the school and community.
communicative competence
The ability to use language to communicate orally or in writing.
comprehensible input hypothesis
Hypothesis that successful acquisition of meaningful language occurs when a student is exposed to input that is just a little above the learner's present level.
contrastive analysis
A systematic linguistic analysis of the structures of the learners' native and target languages. Contrastive analysis can be performed at different levels of language--sound, lexicon, grammar, meaning, and rhetoric.
error correction
Using standard English to correct a learner's speech errors.
error fossilization
When a learner makes the same error repeatedly, without explicit outside correction, they reach the point where they never "hear" the error. The speaker assumes his or her way of speaking is correct.
formative assessment
Assessment used throughout teaching of a lesson and/or unit to gauge students' understanding and inform and guide teaching
inside-outside circle
A strategy that allows students to practice speaking and listening by sharing information with a variety of partners.
interlanguage
The language produced by learners in the period before they reach native-like proficiency.
intrinsic motivation
Motivation that stems from one's own needs or desires, not requiring extrinsic incentives.
knowledge of students
An understanding and appreciation of students' personal attributes, experiences, their cultures and communities, and how all this fits in with their learning.
language acquisition hypothesis
A subconscious process in which learners develop competence by using language for "real communication." This is often contrasted with taking courses to learn language.
language learning hypothesis
A conscious process in which learners develop competence through formal studying of the language, including its rules, grammar and phonetic components
learning assessment
Gauging the progress of students
learning to learn
Learning strategies for learning.
meaningful learning
Learning based on students' experiences, interests, and goals
microskills
The many small skills needed in a larger course of action.
modeling
When the teacher demonstrates an activity or lesson before having students do the lesson or activity on their own
monitor hypothesis
The mechanism by which second language learners process, store, and retrieve conscious language rules.
natural order hypothesis
A hypothesis that students acquire grammatical structures in a predictable order, regardless of their native languages
output
The speech or writing that a learner produces in a target language
reflection
Evaluating information from a variety of sources and applying observations of one's own practice back into instructional planning.
role play
An activity acting out situations encountered in the classroom or in everyday life, using the language that might be used in such situations
scaffolding
Providing supports to help a student do a task. These supports are gradually withdrawn as the student masters the task, thus transferring more and more autonomy to the child. Strategies for scaffolding student work include modeling, questioning, giving fe
social competence
The ability to use the target language appropriately in various social situations. This includes knowing the target culture well enough to appreciate subtle socio-cultural differences in social interactions.
summative assessment
Measuring students' learning at the end of a lesson
think, pair, share
Students: 1) think about the lesson topic; 2) pair up with partners and share according to the guidelines the teacher has provided; 3) share their discussions with the rest of the class. Each person takes a turn retelling their partners' information.
top-down processing
Beginning with processing the higher symbolic and semantic level of meaning of a text and working one's way back to processing the physical characteristics of language (e.g., letter-sounds).