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Public Health 1 Chapter Reviews
Terms in this set (23)
Define public health.
the fulfillment of society's interest in assuring the conditions in which people can be healthy
Identify the goal of public health.
Organized community efforts aimed at the prevention of disease and the promotion of health
Compare and contrast public health with medical practice.
-patient is the individual
-diagnostic process for health/disease
-strategic approach/treatment plan
-goal is to cure
-patient is the community
-diagnoses the health of the community using public health sciences
-treatment involves new policies and interventions
-goal is to prevent disease and disability
Summarize the core functions of public health.
Assessment - 1) Monitor health status to identify community health problems
2) Diagnose and investigate health problems and health hazards in the community
Policy Development - 3) Inform, educate, and empower people about health issues 4) Mobilize community partnerships to identify and solve health problems 5) Develop policies and plans that support individual and community health efforts
Assurance - 6) Enforce laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safety 7) Link people to needed personal health services and assure the provisions of health care when otherwise unavailable 8) Ensure a competent public health and personal health care workforce 9) Evaluate effectiveness, accessibility, and quality of personal and population-based health services
Describe the disciplines of public health.
-Epidemiology: study of epidemics; aims to control spread of infectious diseases; seeks causes of chronic disease and ways to limit harmful exposures
-Statistics: collection of data on the population; # are diagnostic tools for health of community; used to calculate risks, benefits
-Biomedical Sciences: infectious diseases (pathogens), chronic diseases, genetics
-Environmental Health Science: health effects of environmental exposures
-Social and Behavioral Sciences: social environment affects people's behavior (tobacco, poor diet, physical inactivity, injuries)
-Health Policy and Management: role of medical care in public health
List the three levels of prevention.
1. primary prevention (prevent disease
2. secondary prevention (minimize the severity of the illness)
3. tertiary prevention (minimize the disability, rehabilitations)
Illustrate approach to designing interventions that prevent undesirable health outcomes.
1. Define - the health problem
2. Identify - the risk factors associated with the problem
3. Develop and test - community-level interventions to control or prevent the cause of the problem
4. Implement - interventions to improve the health of the population
5. Monitor - the interventions to assess their effectiveness
Explain public health's role in the prevention of terrorism.
the public health response to disasters helps to control the damage and prevent further harm to survivors and rescuers
Define the mission of public health.
should be a way of doing justice, a way of asserting the value and priority of all human life -- public health as social justice
Explain public health's history with social reform
Identify the economic impact of public health efforts.
controversial: businesses resisted public health measure because they affect profits --> costs easier to calculate than benefits; milk producers resisted pasteurization, landlords resisted building codes, car manufacturers resisted design changes to improve safety, cigarette sales were significant income for small businesses -- *people were unwilling to pay short-term cost in order to obtain a benefit in the long term
List examples of government regulations that protect the environment.
Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act, Food Quality Protection Act, etc.
Articulate reasons why restrictions on individual behavior are acceptable.
if by restricting an individual's freedom, would behave in a way as to not cause direct harm to others
Summarize the moral and religious opposition to public health measures
PH approach was to have sex education, provision of contraceptives services, especially condoms; opposition: they believe that it promotes immoral behavior
Illustrate ways that the federal government has manipulated the release of scientific information
CDC is pressured to promote abstinence -- only program for preventing teen pregnancy; shows current conservative control of federal government
Compare and contrast the roles of state and federal governments in public health.
All three types of health agencies provide direct heath care services to certain populations (federal to military personnel and families for example, states for inmates in state prisons for example); all 3 pay for some health services and training of health care providers (state and federal fund through Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, SCHIP, etc); all 3 collect and analyze health care data; all 3 set health policy. The federal government is responsible for protecting the public's health (FDA, EPA, and others). The quality of state and local health agencies varies widely depending on the commitment to public health of their government bodies and the access to funding these agencies have. Most health services provided by local agencies are provided by nurses.
Explain how public health is organized at the local level and how local health departments are funded.
Include county and city health departments; have day-to-say responsibility; have responsibility for providing medical care for the poor; funding sources are variable -- mandates may be funded from state or federal governments
Identify the functions and responsibilities of state health departments.
-coordinate activities of local health agencies and provide funding
-collect and analyze data
-license and certify medical personnel, facilities, and services
-environment, mental health, social services, and aging may be handled by separate agencies
List federal agencies involved with public health and describe their missions.
- Department of Health and Human Services
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: main epidemiologic and assessment agency for the nation, publishes Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, centers on infectious diseases, chronic disease, injury prevention, etc.
- National Institutes of Health: biomedical research agency, institutes on cancer, heart and lung disease, diabetes, aging, child health and human development, and mothers
-Food and Drug Administration
Give examples of public health nongovernmental agencies and describe the purpose that they play
American Cancer Society, American Heart Association, American Diabetes Association, etc.
Explain how epidemiology is used to control disease.
epidemiology is a diagnostic discipline of public health; major part of public health's Assessment function
- investigates causes of diseases
-identifies trends in disease occurrence
-evaluates effectiveness of medical and public health interventions
- shows patterns of disease occurrence (who, when, where?)
Identify some infectious diseases that are considered to be "notifiable" and explain why they are required to be reported
notifiable = specific, higher risk disease
- needs to be reported because higher risk disease
Describe the steps involves in an epidemiologic investigation.
• Verify the diagnosis
• Construct a working case definition
• Find cases systematically - active surveillance
• Ask the who, where, and when questions to describe the epidemic by person, place, and time. Consider the incubation period
Look for a common source of exposure
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