9 terms

Con Physics Ch.18 Thermodynamics

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Thermodynamics
The study of heat and its transformation into different forms of energy
Absolute Zero
The lowest possible temperature that a substance can have; the temperature at which particles of a substance have their minimum kinetic energy.
Internal Energy
The total energy of the submicroscopic particles that make up a substance. Changes in internal energy are of principal concern in thermodynamics.
First Law of Thermodynamics
A restatement of the law of energy conservation, applied to systems in which energy is transferred by heat and/or work. The heat added to a system equals its increase in internal energy plus the external work is does on its environment.
Adiabatic Process
A process, often fast expansion or compression, in which no heat enters or leaves a system.
Temperature Inversion
A condition in which upward convection of air ceases, often because an upper region of the atmosphere is warmer than the region below it.
Second law of thermodynamics
Thermal energy never spontaneously flows from cold object to a hot object. Also, no machine can be completely efficient in converting heat to work; some of the heat supplied to the machine at high temperature is dissipated as waste heat at lower temperature. And, finally, all systems tend to become more and more disordered as time goes by.
Heat Engine
A device uses heat as input and provides work as output.
Entropy
A measure of the disorder of a system. Whenever energy freely transforms from one form into another, the direction of transformation is toward a state of greater disorder and therefore toward one of greater entropy.
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