AP HISTORY Unit 1 40 Notecards

WHO: Populists/ The common man and charitable rich
WHAT:- populists concern is that democracy is threatened by:
1. the growth of large national corporations
2. increasing in equality between the rich and poor
WHEN: Late 19th Century
WHERE: United States
WHY: They restored democracy to the people.
Omaha Platform
WHAT: platform of the Populist party that rejected laissez-faire and demanded economic and political reform
WHEN: 1892
WHY: This was the platform of the Populist Party
Coxey's Army
WHO: Unemployed workers in Ohio
WHAT: A protest march of unemployed workers in Ohio; Led by Populist Jacob Coxey;
WHERE: Ohio/Washington
WHY:They demanded inflation and a public works program
William Jennings Bryan
WHO: Democrat/ Had Populist Followers
WHAT: Democratic candidate ran for president most in 1896 and 1900 and lost both times; wanted "free silver" (unlimited coinage of silver). This attracted the Populist Party.
WHEN: Progressive Era
WHY: was a leader of the fundamentalist cause and was the prosecuting attorney in the Scopes Monkey Trial.
Jacob Riis
WHAT:muckraker who was a photographer for New York Evening Sun. He took pictures of the bad conditions. Revealed shocking photos to the public.
WHEN: Progressive Era
WHERE: United States/Cities/NY
WHY: His photographs were so intense that they shocked the national and sparked a spirit for reform.
Jane Addams
WHO: Leading Reformer
WHAT:a leading figure in settlement houses. Inspired by work at Toynbee Hall in London (a settlement house). Opened Hull house in Chicago.
WHEN: Progressive Era
WHY:She inspired many people to become social workers
WHO: Several Progressives/Jounalists
WHAT:a name given to journalists whom dramatized the need for reform by Theodore Roosevelt because he thought they were too obsessed with the bad side of things. These people spread the awful working conditions to every home in America.
WHEN: Progressive Era
WHY:They influenced people to start voting for reforms and to join reform groups.
Lincoln Steffens
WHO: a Muckraker for Politics
WHAT:a leading muckraker that was the managing editor at McClure's (a mag known for uncovering social problems). 1903 he published The Shame of the Cities (articles on political corruption; showed the political bribes and violence).
WHEN: Progressive Era
WHY: He exposed the political corruption in the US.
Ida Tarbell
WHO: Author
WHAT: wrote about Rockefeller "history of standard oil"
WHEN: Progressive Era
WHY: Showed the evils of the way that Rockefeller ran his business. She exposed bad working conditions.
Muller v. Oregon
WHO: Muller and Oregon.
WHAT:supreme court reviewed the law that capped women's workdays to 10 hours. Lawyer Louis D. Brandeis argued that long working hours harmed working women and their families. The court decided that they agreed with Brandeis because women are mothers and the could be "properly place in a class" of themselves. This was a victory for women. Although this was later the court issue to that justified why men should get payed more than women.
WHEN: Progressive Era
WHY: This was a victory for women because it was one of their goals to limit working hours.
Lochner v. New York
WHO: Lochner and New York
WHAT:This supreme court case debated whether or not New York state violated the liberty of the fourteenth amendment by limiting working hours which allowed Lochner to regulate his business when he made a contract. The verdict was that the limiting work hours law was invalid.
WHERE: New York
WHY: This was a step backwards for Progressives because they went from achieving their goal of a limited work day to having the law be invalid.
Adkins v. Children's Hospital
WHO: Adkins and Children's Hospital
WHAT:case that debated the law that guaranteed women and children a minimum wage. The question was did the minimum wage law violate the 5th amendment? The decision was no
WHY:This was a victory for the Progressives because it achieved their goal of a minimum wage.
Hammer v. Dagenhart
WHO: Hammer, Dagenhart
WHAT: Court case that questioned if the Keating-Owen Child Labor Act violated the Commerce Clause, the 10th Amendment, or the 15th Amendment
WHY:ruled that the Keating-Owen Child Labor Act, that prohibited interstate trade involving commodities produced by children under the age of fourteen, was unconstitutional
Robert La Follette
WHO:"fighting bob" "Laboratory of democracy"
WHAT: Under his governing Wisconsin government forced railroads to charge lower fees and pay higher taxes. Improved Wisconsins: education and factories
WHEN: Progressive Era
WHY: Improved Wisconsins: education and factories
Direct Primary
WHO: Voters
WHAT: when voters vote directly candidates who will run for office.
WHY:Voters were more in charge and they new the candidates would do a good job because if they didn't then they wouldn't get voted back in
Australian Ballot
WHO: Voters
WHAT: a secret ballot
WHY: This was made so that no one would know whom your were voting for and so your vote couldn't be influenced through threats or bribery.
Initiative, Referendum, Reform
WHO: Progressives/Voters
WHAT: Initiative: Gave people the power to put a proposed new law directly on the ballot in the next election by collecting citizen's signatures on a petition.Voters could pass laws without waiting for officials to do it.
Referendum: allowed citizens to approve or reject laws passed by a legislature.
Reform:gave voters the power to remove public servants from office before their terms ended
WHEN: Progressive Era
WHY: This gave more power to the people and this was an achievement of the Progressives.
17th Amendment
WHO: Voters
WHAT:Amendment where the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures
WHY: It gives more power to the people's vote.
Square Deal
WHO: Roosevelt
WHAT: Introduced by Teddy Roosevelt; its goals were to keep the wealthy and powerful from taking advantage of small business owners and the poor. Fair government did not mean that everyone would get rich or that the government should take care of the lazy.
WHEN: 1904
WHY: This made a fair government. It helped to keep the wealthy from taking over everyone.
Elkins Act
WHO: Railroad Companies, Government, and Customers
WHAT: Government could stop rebates because railroads weren't being upfront about it and didn't give them to everybody
WHEN: 1903
WHY: This regulated the railroads rebates and protected people from being ripped off.
Hepburn Act
WHO: Railroad Companies, Government, and Customers
WHAT: Created federal ability to regulate railroad fares. Made fares the same for everyone. By the department of commerce and labor.
WHEN: 1906
WHY: Created equality among customers.
Mann-Elkins Act
WHO: Government, Railroads, and Customers
WHAT: It strengthened the Elkins Act and said that the government also had to regulate telephone, telegraph and cable companies
WHEN: 1910
WHY: Strengthened government regulation of Railroads
Upton Sinclair, The Jungle
WHO: Author
WHAT:A book about the filthy, unhealthy conditions in the meatpacking plants.
WHEN: 1906
WHY: Exposed the horrors of the meat packing industry to the public which influenced people to push for reform. This led to the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act
Pure Food and Drug Act
WHO: Consumers and Businesses
WHAT:placed at the same controls on other foods and on medicines. Banned the interstate shipment of impure food and the mislabeling of food drugs.
WHEN: 1906
WHY: This protected consumers and kept them healthy.
National Reclamation Act
WHO: Roosevelt
WHAT: it provided federal funds for the construction of damns, reservoirs, and canals in the West
WHEN: 1902
WHY: These products would open new lands for cultivation and provide cheap electric power in the future
Ballinger-Pinchot Affair
WHO: Roosevelt, Taft, Pinchot, Ballinger
WHAT: Taft withdrew from a sale that Roosevelt had done while he was in office that contained water power. Pinchot (the chief of forest service) sued Ballinger with favoritism of people interested in water power. Taft fired Pinchot and then controversy force Ballinger out of his position.
WHEN: 1909
WHY: Widend the gap between Roosevelt and Taft
16th Amendment
WHO: Government and US citizens
WHAT:Allows the Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on Census results
WHEN: 1913
WHY: This created a fair way of taxing the nation.
Socialist Party
WHO: Middle Class and charitable rich
WHAT: More radical than Progressives; they wanted to replace government rather than reform it; they wanted welfare for the middle class; They wanted to distribute wealth evenly
WHEN: 1900
WHY: They were too radical to survive as a party. They were unrealistic
Eugene V. Debs
WHO: Socialist Party Candidate
- Socialist Party candidate for 5 elections (1900-1920)
- champion of labor, jailed in Pullman strike
- Founded the party
WHEN: 1900
WHY: Champion of Labor
WHO: Socialist Party (Wobblies)
WHAT:militant unionists ; more willing to be radical and violent
WHEN: 1900s
WHY: It was the negative name for them.
Election of 1912
WHO: Wilson, Taft, TR, Debs
WHAT: Debs = socialists Taft = Republican TR = Progressives Wilson = Democrat
WHEN: 1912
WHY: Wilson won,
Progressive/Bull Moose Party
WHO: Progressives, Teddy Roosevelt
WHAT:protestant church leaders, African Americans, union leaders, feminists, Muckrakers
- liberals not radicals
- they want to use the existing government to make MODERATE necessary changes
- middle class American developed a sense of social responsibility and a need to adjust to the changing times (fix problems of industrializations)
- limit the power of big businesses
- improve the democracy (give people a voice again)
- strengthen social justice (we should be helping people out)

WHEN: Progressive Era
WHY: Pushed several reforms through and greatly improved the lives of the common man.
New Nationalism
WHO: Teddy Roosevelt
WHAT: government regulation of business & unions; women's suffrage & social welfare = strong federal government helping people
WHY: This was the Progressive idea platform for the election of 1912
New Freedom
WHO: Woodrow Wilson
WHAT:limit big business & big government; end corruption & support small business (wants a smaller government than Teddy. Ex. Smaller social welfare)
WHEN: 1912
WHY: This was the Democratic Platform.
Underwood Tariff
WHO: Woodrow Wilson
WHAT:1. reduce tariff
2. graduated income tax

WHY: This was one of Wilson's Legislations
Federal Reserve Act
WHO: Woodrow Wilson
WHAT:1. Addresses inelasticity of money & weakness of banks
2. Pujo Committee- decentralization ( spread banks out and publicly run them)
3. Federal Reserve Board: overseers of the 12 national banks. They issue paper money "federal reserve notes"

WHEN: 1913
WHY: Strengthened banks. One of Wilson's legislations
Clayton Anti-trust Act
WHO: Woodrow Wilson
WHAT:- gives the federal trade commission act more "teeth"
- exempts unions from because prosecuted as trusts

WHEN: 1914
WHY: Strengthens federal trade commission and was one of Wilson's Legislations
Federal Trade Commission
WHO: Wilson
WHAT:1. exempted unions
2. gave government the power to moniter interstate commerce (can seize and decist order for companies that are cheating customers)
WHEN: 1914
WHY: Protected the customers. One of Wilson's Legislations
18th Amendment
WHO: US citizens, Women
WHAT:banned production and sale of alcohol. This was a result of the Women's Christian Temperance movements starting the Temperance Movement.
WHEN: 1919
WHY: This was a victory for the women because they pushed to bannish alcohol because their hard earned money was being wasted on it and their husbands were getting drunk and beating them.
Ida B. Wells-Barnett
WHO: a black woman
WHAT:a black teacher, helped form the National Association of Colored Women (group aimed to help families strive for success and to assist those who were less fortunate. Set up day care centers, educated black children)
WHEN: early 1900s
WHY: She set up the national association of colored women
Niagara Movement
WHO: DuBois
WHAT: started this movement at Niagara Falls, and four years later joined with progressives to form NAACP the new organization
WHEN: 1905
WHY: later led to the drive for equal rights.
Booker T. Washington
WHO: Former Slave
WHAT:African American progressive who agreed with segregation and asked that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality and respect from the whites; Founded the Tuskegee Insitute.
WHEN: 1900s
WHY: He founded the Tuskegee Insistute and believed that AMs would gradually earn their rights.
W.E.B Dubois
WHO: Highly Educated Black Man
WHAT: Graduated from Harvard; Believed that blacks should seize their rights right away rather than waiting.
WHEN: 1900s
WHY: Wanted blacks to resist segregation and discrimination.
WHO: Blacks
WHAT:National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans
WHEN: 1909
WHY: Got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
National Urban League
WHO: Blacks and Whites
WHAT: a group that helped blacks that faced discrimination in cities
WHEN: 1910
WHY: Helped blacks in cities
Carrie Chapman Catt/NAWSA
WHO: Women's Rights Leader
WHAT:was one of the countries first female superintendents; Urged women to join the National American Woman Suffrage Association. Became president of the NAWSA and used the "winning plan" (group to lobby congress, meetings, parades. They weren't "un- lady like". They publicize the roles that they took during the war. She didn't do as radical things as Paul.
WHEN: 1900s
WHY: Fought for women's rights. .
Alice Paul/Woman's Party
WHO: Women's Right Activist
WHAT: The Congressional Women's Party. Was arrested for picketing and then went on hunger strike and got women's suffrage.
WHEN: 1900s
WHY: She was what ultimately got suffrage through for women.
19th Amendment
Equal Rights Amendment
WHAT: a law introduced to congress in 1923 saying that there should be no discrimination against anyone by gender but was not passed until 1972
WHEN: 1923
WHY: This would have been a big success for women
Meat Inspection Act
WHO: Government and Meat Plants
WHAT:probed federal agents to inspect any meat sold across states lines and required federal inspection of meat processing plants
WHY: Protected the customers against unsanitary meat.