Upgrade to remove ads
A&P Unit 6- The Skeletal System
Terms in this set (78)
Functions of the Skeletal System
Production of Blood Cells (Hematopoiesis)
Mineral storage (calcium and phosphorus)
Prefix for bones
Divisions of the Skeletal System
How many bones are in the human body ?
Classifications of Bones
Long-act as levers with muscles. Support (arms & legs)
Short-aids with movement (fingers & toes)
Flat-protection and muscle attachment (sternum & skull)
Irregular-muscle attachment & joints (facial & vertebra
a small independent bone or bony nodule developed in a tendon where it passes over an angular structure. The kneecap is the major one
known as hard bone
Cells are very close together. Found in long bones & forms the outer layer of other bones
known as spongy bone; Cells are not close together. Found in short, flat & irregular bones
Marrow Bone (prefix-myelo)
soft, fatty & yellow. Some fat is stored here.
contains little fat & an abundance of marrow cells.
Productions of Blood Cells (Hematopoesis) occurs here
production of blood Cells
Types of Blood Cells produced in red marrow
Erythrocytes - red blood cells
Leukocytes - white blood cells
Thrombocytes - platelets
Shaft of the long bone; bone inbetween the ends of the bone
Space in the middle of the diaphysis; Yellow marrow is found here
Ends of the long bone; red marrow is found here in the spongy bone
A long bone is composed of....
Outer shell is composed of compact bone
Ends are composed of spongy bone.Spaces within thespongy bone are filled with red bone marrow.
tough fibrous membrane covering the outside of the bone
contains nerve endings & blood vessels to nourish the bone tissue.
Bone cells on the inner surface
Cells are important in the growth & repair of
When there is a break in the bone, there is an increased
activity of the osteoblasts & calcium salts are deposited at the site
Phagocytic cells that eat dead bone cells
Membrane that lines the medullary cavity
Located at the ends of long bone.
Cushions the bone at the joint
Why are bones hard ?
due to calcium & phosphorus
cartilage between the diaphysis & epiphysis
Area allows for bone expansion
Growth Hormone (GH), estrogen & testosterone
Growth of the bone is affected by these hormones
Structure of the Short Bone & Flat Bones
same as a long bone only smaller
Compact Bone-Spongy Bone-Compact Bone
Spongy bone contains red bone marrow
Examples- cranium and sternum
Air sinuses add lightness to the skull & act as echo chambers for the voice.
irregular bones that form the spinal column
Separated by fibrocartilage
There are openings between the vertebra through which the spinal nerves pass.
Body of Vertebra
-solid cylinder of spongy bone
-faces the front of the body
-Serves to protect.
prevent undesirable movement between vertebra
for the attachment of muscles and articulation with the ribs.
for the attachment of muscles
opening through which the spinal cord passes
opening between the vertebra for passage of the spinal nerves
lump or large knoblike projection of bone
Ridge or Crest
a thin narrow raised area
hole through the bone through which blood vessels, ligaments & nerves pass
dent or depression
large process on the femur
Canal or Meatus
is the line where the skull bones have joined
joints ( prefix- arthro)
The point at which the bones are attached to each other are called
body position to be changed and to permit motion
Kinds of Joints
Allows no motion such as the Sutures of skull.
Allows a slight degree of motion or flexibility such as Vertebra, symphysis pubis, sacroiliac joint
joints are lined with synovial membrane which secretes synovial fluid to lubricate joint. Allows for free movement
hold the bones together & are found in connection with all the freely movable joints
anterior & posterior cruciate ligament (Synovial Joint)
extra cartilage called the meniscus
are sacs filled with synovial fluid are found at the ends of bones & between muscles
fascial membrane that anchor muscle to bones.
Types of Freely Movable Joints-Hinge Joint
opens & closes like a door.
Example: Finger, elbow & knee
Types of Freely Movable Joints-Ball and Socket Joint
Allows a rotating motion.
Rounded end of one bone fits into a hollow depression of another bone.
Example: Shoulder and hips.
Types of Freely Movable Joints- Pivot Joint
One bone turns around another bone
Types of Freely Movable Joints-Gliding Joint
Bones glide on each other to allow movement
Types of Freely Movable Joints-Saddle Joint
Joint-Slight rounded surface of one bone fits intoa slight hollow in another bone.
bending motion. Decreasing the angle between 2 parts
straightening or stretching. Increasing the angle between 2 parts
Motion away from the midline of the body
Motion toward the midline of the body
Motion around a central axis
tearing or stretching of the ligament
overstretching of a muscle, due to physical exertion, small tears in the muscle, "pulled muscle"
a separation of two bones where they meet at a joint
without puncture to the skin
puncture to the skin, increases risk of infection
fine fracture that does not completely break
incomplete breaks, occur in children because bones are soft & pliable
crushed fragmented, splintered, "many pieces"
caved in, such as a skull fracture "hit with a baseball bat"
horizontally across the bone
diagonally across the
length of the bone
Manages symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis & in more severe cases slows joint destruction & preserves function
Common ones - Plaquenil,Arava,Trexall,Minocin
Bone resorption inhibitors
Treats / prevents osteoporosis in postmenopausal women
Other uses include treatment of osteoporosis due to other causes, including corticosteroid therapy, treatment of Paget's disease of the bone, and management of hypercalcemia.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
A &P Unit 2- Biochemistry
A&P Unit 3- Cells
A&P Unit 3- Tissues
A&P Unit 4- The Skin
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
biology: skeletal system
Skeletal Study Guide
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Intro to Med-Surg- Oncology carcinogens, statistic…
Intro to Med-Surg Unit 3- Care of the Su…
Intro to Med-Surg Unit 3- Care of the Surgical Cli…
Drug Classifications- Antiglaucoma- Antineoplastics