Terms in this set (247)
What are granulocytes?
Have granules in cytoplasm, dark dense segmented nucleus, stain purple/blue
Dark dense segmented nucleus, neutral staining meaning no color In all species except cow (dusty purple granules), granulocyte
Dark dense segmented nucleus, granules stain pinkish, granulocyte
Dark dense segmented nucleus. Granules stain blue, in dogs almost bluish black, in cats are round pale blue grey, least common in all species
What WBC are granulocytes?
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
What WBC are agranulocytes?
lymphocytes and monocytes
Nucleus is round to oval, may have a cleft or bleb. High N:C ratio, most abundant WBC in cows, agranulocyte
"Lacy" blue grey cytoplasm. Low to equal N:C ratio
Describes nuclear characteristics
Membrane bound package of chemicals
WBC distribution for dogs and cats- neutrophil
WBC distribution for dogs and cats - lymphocyte
WBC distribution for dogs and cats - monos and eos
WBC distribution for horse - neutrophil and lymphocyte
WBC distribution for horse - monos and eos
WBC distribution for horse - basos
WBC identification rule of thumb
Judge the cells by the company they keep
When is rouleaux normal?
What do you view on the feather on 40x?
What do you view on body 40x?
What do you view on feather 100x?
WHat do you view on body 100x?
For blood film use ___ blood
Whole blood or EDTA
If the film is too thin ___ the spreader angler
If the film is too thick ___ the spreader angle
Diff Quick procedure
Fixative:5 1 second dips
Eosinophilic: 5 1 second dips
Basophilic: 7-10 1 second dips
Wright's stain procedure
Jar 1: Wright's stain (set blood film into jar for 1 minute)
Jar 2: Buffer with 1 pipette of Wright's stain (set blood film into jar for 1 min)
Jar 3: Distilled water ( 7-10 1 sec dips)
Why does plasma become red?
Hemolytic, caused by shaking, too small of needle, spin too long/too fast, squirting blood in tube
Why does plasma become yellow?
Icteric, caused by biliary stasis
Why does plasma become white/cloudy?
Lipemic, caused by diabetes mellitus
The percent of a quantity of blood which is made up of the red blood cells
Used for CBC
Mix, make BF asap, refrigerate
Used for biochemistries
Clot, spin, separate serum asap
Serum separator RTT
Used for biochemistries
Clot, spin, don't need to separate (has waxy
Used for blood glucose
Used for blood gasses
Used for coagulation studies
Full, mix, spin to separate off plasma, freeze if >6 hrs. before processing, refrigerate <6 hrs.
Used for PCV/TP directly fr pt.
Directly drawn from pt. directly from needle into crit tube
Used for PCV/TP in conjunction w/ LTT
Used or avian/rep CBC
Dog needle sizes
Cat/Cat sized dog needle sizes
Horse needle sizes
Cattle needle sizes
Sheep/goats needle sizes
Hog needle sizes
AVC-16g 3' (Best)
Avian needle sizes
Cellular component of blood
RBC- O2 transport
Acellular dissolved substances component of blood
Albumin- Oncotic pressure
Electrolytes- Action potentials
Insulin- Regulate blood sugar
Fibrinogen- Clot formation
Fluids component of blood
H20 - Tissue perfusion, solvent, transport, chemical rxns, thermo regulation
Normal K9 PCV
Normal F9 PCV
Normal K9 TP
Normal F9 TP
What is viewed on 10x on feathered edge?
1. WBC distribution
2.Pltlt clumping (mild,moderate, etc)
3. Abnormal cells
What is viewed on 10x in monolayer?
1. Adequate size?
2. WBC distribution
Basically is BF ok?
What is viewed on 10x in body?
RBC associations (rouleaux, agglutination)
What is viewed on 40x in monolayer?
WBC differential - begin morph. assessment
WHat is viewed on 100x in monolayer?
RBC morphology (size, shape, color, +/- inclusions)
WBC morphology (nuclear, cytoplasmic)
Pltlt assessment (size, shape, membrane reactivity)
Cow normal lymphocyte distribution
Cow normal neutrophil distribution
Cow normal eosinophil distribution
What species are basophils rare in?
Used to describe overall appearance of blood film
Fragments usually due to DIC or iron deficiency
Crenated cell-spikey all over appearance
Many times tech error
Irregular spicules uneven size and distribution. Happens due to changes in liver
One or two long spikes coming off cell
Looks like elmer fud hat
RBC w/ more surface area than contents
Clinically significant in mature RBC (liver)
Variation of leptocyte
Small round evenly staining RBC, more contents than surface area. Associated w/ IMHA
RBC w/ pale colored mouth area at center only seen in dogs w/ dwarfism
"Punched out cell" Usually artifact
"Blister cell" Common w/ Heinz bodies. Due to oxydization of red cell membrane. Push hemoglobin to one side. Common causes: Onion, zinc, acetaminophen
Literally empty RBC membrane
What is used to measure TP?
What does a refractometer measure TP in?
What is a refractometer most accurate to?
Residual RNA, very small multiple round spots that are bluish. Lead poisoning in dogs and intensely responding anemias in cat and dog.
Basophils nuclear remnants. Single dark round inclusion.
Can be seen w/ NMB will look like blue/green protrusion from cell. Clear nipple like protrusion of cell wall on routine stain. Single or multiple. Caused by oxidized and denatured hemoglobin. Acetaminophen, onions, maple leaves, zinc. IV hemolysis. Seen in sick and stressed cats.
NMB stain procedure
1. Equal parts NMB and EDTA whole blood
2. Let incubate at room temp for 10-20 min
3. View at 100x for punctate retics, agrigate retics, Heinz bodies, and anaplasma marginale
Cattle is major host. Transmitted by ticks and blood sucking flies. Mild parasitemia followed by fever and marked parasitemia. Severe anemia, icterus. EVH (extra vascular hemolysis) High mortality.
Mycoplasma haemocanis (Hemobartonella canis)
Dog host. Tick transmission. Young puppies and splenectomized dogs anemia, emaciation, anorexia.
Mycoplasma haemofelis (Haemobartonella Felis)
Cat host. Severe often fatal anemia in cats. Usually FELV +
Bobcat host. Fatal tick transmitted dz in domestic cats.
Every living mammal has Babesia spp. Tick transmission. Intravascular hemolysis.
Dog/horse/cattle/sheep. Tick transmission. Found in leukocytes or platelets. May occur singley or in colonies called morula. Pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia
"Canine distemper virus" highly contagious. Aerosolized. Fever, leukopenia, GI, resp., and neurologic. Can be present in RBC, WBC, and epithelial cells. Inclusions variable in size and shape, will stain pinkish.
What is the primary way dead RBC are removed from blood?
Macrophages in the live, sleep, and bone marrow consume old RBC and recycle parts. Extravascular hemolysis is normal. Breaks down RBC
What is the primary way to remove RBC called?
Mononuclear phagocytic system
Secondary way of removing RBC
Intravascular hemolysis, not very common, can cause hemolytic sample
3 trends of RBC maturation
1. RBC get smaller
3. Loss of nucleus
When will you see anemia?
5-7 days post trauma
a reticulocyte is equivalent to _____________ cell on a routinely stain blood film
Stimulus for erythropoiesis
What produces EPO due to hypoxia?
What effect on bone marrow does EPO have?
1. Simulate PPSC to differentiate rubriblast
2. Increase hemoglobin synthesis
3. Early release of immatures into peripheral blood
What does the absolute retic count determine?
Definitive number of regeneritive retics
Normal RBC in k9
Normal RBC in F9
Normal K9 MCV
Normal F9 MCV
Normal K9 MCHC
Normal F9 MCHC
What does <60,000 retic/ul mean?
What does >60,000 retic/ul mean?
Normal K9 WBC
6,000-17,000 / ul
Normal F9 WBC
Normal K9 pltlets
Normal F9 pltlets
What does an aggregate retic contain and what does it mean?
Clumped ribosomes and new retic
What does a punctate retic contain and what does it mean?
Polkdot ribsomes and older retic
What is the only things you can see with NMB?
1. Punctate retics
2. Aggrigate retics
3. Heinz bodies
Macrocytic hypochromic regenerative anemia
Polychromatophilics present (polychromasia), anisocytosis. Means larger cells, decreased hb, bm is working
Microcytic hypochromic anemia
Small cell, decreased hb, BM not working. Means iron deficiency
Normocytic normochromic non-regenerative anemia
WNL cells, WNL hb, bm not producing cells. EPO issue; kidney failure, BM toxin/failure. PCV will be low/RBC count is low
Mechanisms of anemia; decreased production
Kidney failure, BM toxin/failure, iron decreased
Mechanisms of anemia; Increased loss
Mechanisms of anemia; increased destruction
IMHA, heinz bodies, clostridium hemolyticom
True deviation/change in what youre measuring
Ammt. looks different but its not...concentration issue
Something is mimicking what you're measuring or interfering. Majority of time is tech error
Mechanism: Increase conc. of RBC
ex: Dehydration #1 cause
Primary:polycythemia vera (RBC tumor)
No EPO involved
Secondary absolute polycythemia
Casued by 1. glucocorticoids (No EPO), hypoxia w/ anemia. ex: anything lung related; improper o2 perfusion (EPO)
Build and repair, hormone transporters
What are babies first born with out?
Will have true no proteins (absolute hypoproteinemia)
What does concentration of proteins do?
Creates balance between input, absorption, filtration of tissues, return from tissues onto lymph system.
Mechanism: Decreased production ex: Liver failure, immune deficiency
Mechanism: Increased loss ex: hemorrhage, PLE, PLN, any external plasma loss
Mechanism: Decreased consumption ex: Anorexia, starvation, V/D, any malabsorptive/maldigestive dz
Mechanism: Decreased concentration ex: over hydration
Left distilled H20 on refractometer
Mechanisms: Increased production ex: inflammation, immune dz, early gestation, protein producing neoplasia
Mechanism: Increased concentration Ex: Dehydration
Add buffy coat on refractometer
Sample drying out
Fluid replacement equation:
# x % dehydrated (as a decimal) x 454
(Hgb x 100)/PCV=g/dL
(Hgb x 10)/RBC=pg
Observed retic equation
Absolute retic equation
(Pt. PCV/Avg. PCV)xObs. %=%
Corrected observed retic equation
3 mechanisms of hypoproteinemia and examples
1. Decreased consumption; Anorexia
2. Decreased production; Liver failure
3. Increased loss; Hemorrhage
How much blood can you draw from bird equation
Grams x .10= mL
3 functions of platelets
Why do we stage tumors?
Prognosis and diagnostic plan
3 sites for bone marrow sampling?
1. Humeral head
2. Femoral head
3. Wing/crest of illium
3 mechanisms of anemia
1. Increased destruction; IMHA
2. Increased consumption; DIC
3. Decreased production; Bone marrow toxin
Stress chemical mediator/leukogram
Physiologic chemical mediator/leukogram
Inflammation (L shift) chemical mediator/leukogram
Deg. L shift is...
Leukopenia with ≥ 10% bands
Cytoplasmic changes to segs
2. Dohle bodies
3. Azurophilic granules
4. Basophilic cytoplasm
2 clotting factors of extrinsic pathway
1. Tissue thromboplastin
2. Factor VII
3 factors secreted from/produced by platelets
3. Platelet derived growth factor
Stimulates and amplifies clotting cascade
Platelet derived growth factor function
3 mechanisms of thrombocytopenia
1. Increased destruction; ITP
2. Increased consumption; DIC
3. Decreased production; Bone marrow toxicity
Defect/disease of primary hemostasis
Von Willebrands disease
Defect/disease of secondary hemostasis
Defect/disease of fibriolysis
Best test for VWB dz?
Best test for warfarin toxicity?
Best test for DIC?
Platelet count, PT
Cat blood types
What blood type do exotic cats have?
Why can you never give an exotic cat A type blood?
They make anti-A antibodies
Major cross match
2 gtt donor red cell suspension, 2 gtt recipient plasma
Minor cross match
2 gtt donor plasma, 2gtt recipient red cell suspension
2 gtt donor red cell suspension 2 gtt donor plasma
How much blood can a dog donate? How often?
10mL/# every 3 weeks
How much blood can a cat donate? How often?
5 mL/# every 3-4 weeks
Preferred canine blood type? Why?
What antigens are missing from k9 type A- blood?
1.1, 1.2, and 7
What 2 reactions can pt. have to blood transfusion?
Acid Citrate Dextrose (ACD)
3.8% sodium citrate
Citrate phosphate dextrose with adenine
Citrate Phosphate Dextrose (CPD)
Name of product that delivers hemoglobin to pt. w/o use of cells?
3 components of hemostasis
Factors of intrinsic pathway
XI, IX, VIII, XII
Vitamin K dependent factors
II, VII, IX, X
What occurs in the common pathway?
Prothrombin, thrombin, fibrin, fibrinogen
2 parts of primary hemostasis
2. Platelet plug
Substance that starts fibrinolysis
What occurs during fibrinolysis?
Plasminogen > Plasmin > FDPs
What is by product of fibrinolysis?
Order of maturation of the lymphocyte
1. Resting memory cell
Order of maturation of the monocyte
Order of maturation of the seg
7. Mature seg.
What needle is used for bone marrow aspirate?
Parts of osgood needle
Needle, cap, stylet
What anticoagulant do you use for B.M samples?
Why can't you used heparin with BM samples?
Alters staining characteristics
What needle do you use for BM core biopsy?
Parts of the jamshidi needle?
Needle, stylet, cap, hooked stylet
Aged cells removed by what organs?
Spleen, liver and bone marrow are known as what system?
Mononuclear phagocytic system
ONLY counted in cat
EPO effects on bone marrow
PPSC becomes rubriblast
Increase hemoglobin stimulus
Releases immatures early into peripheral blood
Stimulus for EPO is
EPO produced by what organ?
How are platelet produced?
2. Cytoplasmic dermarcation
What is stimulus for platelet production?
Blocks thrombin and inhibits platelets
Activates substance that breaks down clots
What factor is stimulated by traumatic venipuncture?
Factors produced by endothelial cells and platelets
End product of extrinsic and intrinsic
Hypersegmented segs shift what way?
How many lobes do hypersegmented segs have?
5 or more
Defining cell of inflammation
What are 2 things seen in dogs w/ IMHA?
Seg. stimulus for production
Infectious/Non-infectious inflammatory processes
Best test for vascular defects
Best test for thrombopathia
What lymphoid tumor would cause hypercalcemia and PU/PD?
What is name of occurrence that causes PU/PD w/lymphosarcoma?
Most common cutaneous tumor of dogs that produces heparin and histamine? What cell is seen with these tumors?
Mast cell tumor-Eosinophils
What lymphoid tumor may cause serum hyperviscosity, monoclonal gammopathy, Bence-Jones proteinuria, and lytic bone lesions?
Plasma cell tumor
What cell type is effected w/ plasma cell tumors?
What does a plasma cell produce a lot of?
What RBC neoplasia causes excessive production of RBC w/o EPO?
What RBC neoplasia causes RBC maturation defects?
2 mechanisms of hypovolemia
What is most common cause of hypovolemia?
What other items should be submitted at time of bone marrow sample?
Peripheral blood sample, blood film, other tests...
2 diseases that cause thromboembolism due to roughened endothelium
2. Heartworm disease
Best blood component for hemorrhagic shock
Best blood component for normovolemia anemia
Best blood component for anemic with heart failure
Best blood component for hypoproteinemic
Best blood component for warfarin toxicity, non anemic
Best blood component for VWB dz