Terms in this set (77)
story or poem in which characters, settings, and events stand for other people, events, institutions, abstract ideas, or qualities. Ex. Animal Farm; Dante's Inferno; Lord of the Flies
repetition of the same or similar consonant sounds at the beginning of words.
reference to someone or something that is known from history, literature, religion, politics, sports, science, or another branch of culture.
comparison made between two things to show how they are alike
repetition of a word, phrase, or clause at the beginning of two or more sentences, clauses, or phrases.
inversion of typical subject, verb, object syntactical form.
opponent who struggles against or blocks the hero, or protagonist, in a story.
central character who lacks all the qualities traditionally associated with heroes. May lack courage, grace, intelligence, or moral scruples.
attributing human characteristics to an animal or inanimate object (similar to PERSONIFICATION)
brief, cleverly worded statement that makes a wise observation about life, or of a principle or accepted general truth. Also called maxim, epigram.
calling out to an imaginary, dead, or absent person, or to a place or thing, or a personified abstract idea. If the character is asking a god or goddess for inspiration it is called an invocation.
an ideal example of a type.
the repetition of similar vowel sounds followed by different consonant sounds especially in words that are together.
commas used without conjunction to separate a series of words, thus emphasizing the parts equally: instead of X, Y, and Z... the writer uses X,Y,Z....see POLYSYNDETON.
narrative poem originally set to music and, therefore, has a musical rhythm and often has a REFRAIN, or repeated line or lines like a song.
a coming-of-age story.
unrhymed iambic pentameter.
a strong pause within a line of verse (a semi-colon, dash, or period).
Greek word meaning "purgation" or "cleansing" used to refer to a character's or audience's experience of relief after emotions felt over a work of art.
a word or phrase in everyday use in conversation and informal writing but is inappropriate for formal situations.
an elaborate metaphor that compares two things that are startlingly different in a witty or clever manner. Often an extended metaphor.
the repetition of consonants in the middle or ends of words (alliteration being at the beginning).
two consecutive rhyming lines of poetry.
Deus ex machina
an unexpected, artificial, or improbably character, device, or event introduced suddenly in a work of fiction or drama to resolve a situation or untangle a plot.
a speaker or writer's choice of words.
piece that teaches a specific lesson or moral or provides a model of correct behavior or thinking.
a type of lyric poem in which a person speaks to a silent audience and, in the course of doing so, reveals a critical aspect of his/her own character.
a poem of mourning for someone who has died. See Eulogy for contrast.
the end of a line of poetry is completed with a strong punctuation mark and does not flow into the next line. The opposite of an enjambed line.
the continuation without pause from one line of poetry to the next - the opposite of end-stopped lines.
device of repetition in which the same expression (single word or phrase) is repeated both at the beginning and at the end of the line, clause, or sentence. Voltaire: "Common sense is not so common."
a long narrative poem, written in heightened language, which recounts the deeds of a heroic character who embodies the values of a particular society.
a quotation or aphorism at the beginning of a literary work suggestive of the theme.
device of repetition in which the same expression (single word or phrase) is repeated at the end of two or more lines, clauses, or sentences (it is the opposite of anaphora).
an adjective or adjective phrase applied to a person or thing that is frequently used to emphasize a characteristic quality. "Father of our country" and "the great Emancipator" are examples. A Homeric epithet is a compound adjective used with a person or thing: "swift-footed Achilles"; "rosy-fingered dawn."
a speech of praise for someone who has died. See Elegy for contrast.
substituting a mild, indirect, or vague term for one considered harsh or blunt. "Passed away" instead of "died."
a type of comedy in which ridiculous and often stereotyped characters are involved in silly, far-fetched situations.
a scene that interrupts the normal chronological sequence of events in a story to depict something that happened at an earlier time.
a character who acts as contrast to another character. Often a funny side kick to the dashing hero, or a villain contrasting the hero.
poetry that does not conform to a regular meter or rhyme scheme.
a figure of speech that uses a exaggeration or overstatement.
the use of language to evoke a picture or a concrete sensation through the five senses. Imagery represents itself as opposed to Symbols, which represent something other than itself.
In medias res
(in the middle of things): a narrative that begins in the middle of an important action rather than at its chronological beginning.
IRONY: a discrepancy between appearances and reality.
VERBAL IRONY: occurs when someone says one thing but means something else.
SITUATIONAL IRONY: a discrepancy between what is expected to happen, or what would be appropriate to happen, and what really does happen.
DRAMATIC IRONY: when the audience knows more than the characters.
normally unassociated ideas, words, or phrases are placed next to one another, creating an effect of surprise and wit. Ezra Pound: "The apparition of these faces in the crowd;/ Petals on a wet, black bough."
a form of understatement in which the positive form is emphasized through using a double-negative: Hawthorne--- "...the wearers of petticoat and farthingale...stepping forth into the public ways, and wedging their not unsubstantial persons, if occasion were, into the throng..."
a poem that does not tell a story but expresses the personal feelings or thoughts of the speaker. A Ballad tells a story.
comparison between two unlike things without the use of such specific words of comparison as like, as, than, or resembles.
a figure of speech in which a person, place, or thing, is replaced by something closely associated with it. "We requested from the crown support for our petition." The crown is used to represent the monarch.
an atmosphere created by a writer's diction and the details selected.
a recurring image, word, phrase, action, idea, object, or situation used throughout a work, unifying the work.
a lyric poem in praise of something or someone.
the use of words whose sounds echo their sense. "Pop." "Zap."
a figure of speech that combines opposite or contradictory terms in a brief phrase. "Jumbo shrimp." "Pretty ugly." "Bitter-sweet."
a relatively short story that teaches a moral, or lesson about how to lead a good life.
a statement that appears self-contradictory, but that reveals a kind of truth.
a work that makes fun of another work by imitating some aspect of the writer's style.
a literary form idealizing country life, often with shepherds and sheep in an idyllic natural setting.
a figure of speech in which an object or animal is given human feelings, thoughts, or attitudes.
Point of view
POINT OF VIEW (POV): the vantage point from which the writer tells the story.
FIRST PERSON POINT OF VIEW: narrative told from the perspective of a character speaking directly about his or her experience using "I."
SECOND PERSON POINT OF VIEW: story told by unknown narrator using "you," thus making the audience/reader a character, implicating him/her.
THIRD PERSON LIMITED POINT OF VIEW: story told by unknown narrator but zooms in to focus on the thoughts of only one character.
THIRD PERSON OMNISCIENT POV: story told in the third person by an all-knowing narrator who has access to all characters' thoughts.
THIRD PERSON OBJECTIVE POV: a narrator who is totally impersonal and objective tells the story, with no comment on any characters or events.
using multiple conjunctions with NO commas to separate the items in a series. Instead of X, Y, and Z...polysyndeton would be X and Y and Z...
the central character in a story, the one who initiates or drives the action (usually the hero or anti-hero).
a "play on words" based on the multiple meanings of a single word or on words that sound alike but mean different things.
a stanza, poem, or lines in a poem consisting of four lines.
a word, phrase, line, or group of lines that is repeated, for effect, several times in a poem.
a rise and fall of the voice produced by the alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables in language.
in general, a story in which an idealized hero or heroine undertakes a quest and is successful.
a type of writing that ridicules the shortcomings of people or institutions in an attempt to bring about a change.
analyzing the meter and rhyme of a poem.
a figure of speech that makes an explicitly comparison between two unlike things, using words such as like, as, than, or resembles.
a long speech made by a character in a play while no other characters are on stage.
poem with 14 lines of iambic pentameter, originally created to meditate upon love.
Stream of consciousness
a style of writing that portrays the inner (often chaotic) workings of a character's mind.
a person, place, thing, or event that has meaning in itself and that also stands for something more than itself.
a part represents the whole. "All hands on deck."
the attitude a writer takes toward the subject of a work, the characters in it, or the audience, revealed through diction, figurative language, and organization.
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