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Terms in this set (53)
refers to the state in which body temperature is within the "normal" range.
the process of maintaining core body temperature at a near constant value.
an extremely high body temperature.
refers to a body temperature below normal range.
refers to a body temperature above normal range.
this is what controls and adjusts body temperature
a increase in the hypothalamic set point caused by release of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor from white blood cells. protective immune response to foreign antigens and cellular injury.
results from environmental exposure or as a complication from serious systemic disorders.
often considered a surgical complication because it is commonly discovered after a patient is given a general anesthetic.
evaporation of moisture from the skin surface
small but important part of the brain located between the midbrain and the cerebrum.
Thryrotropin-stimulating hormone-releasing hormone
secreted by hypothalamus
rapidly produce and release increased levels of perspiration; heat dissipates from the body as sweat evaporates from its surface.
most reliable means available for assessing core temperature.
known as the adjustment of the body temperature to the room temperature
intentionally induced to reduce metabolism and thereby preserve tissue by preventing tissue ischemia.
Children and Infants
These populations have a higher risk of developing thermo problems
blood vessels dilate, giving flushed appearance. sweat glands become more active.
blood vessels constrict, heat is trapped in deeper tissues. sweat glands become less active. skeletal muscles contract, causing shivering.
increases body temperature. helps to warm the body when exposed to low temperatures and can prevent hypothermia.
severe hypothermia range
<30 degrees C
30-34 degrees C
34-36 degrees C
36.5-37.2 degrees C
>37.2 degrees C
>41.5 degrees C
the body continually produces heat as a by- product of metabolism. the rate of that heat production is thermoregulation and is indicated by the temperature.
reflects the balance between the heat produced and the heat lost from the body.
measured in heat units called degrees in either Fahrenheit or Celsius.
core body temperatures
(deep tissue or cavity) and remain relatively constant.
body's surface temperature
fluctuates in response to environmental influences and can be unreliable.
transfer of heat from the surface of one object to the surface of another object without contact between the two objects, usually in the form of infrared rays. (body naturally gives off heat to room)
transfer of heat form one molecule to another molecule of lower temperature, in an attempt to find balance. cannot take place without contact between the molecules. (person touching person) (contact heat)
is the dispersion of heat by air currents. the body has a small amount of warm adjacent to it (principle of radiation). because warm air rises and is replaced by cooler air, humans always loose a small amount of heat through this way. (has to have movement of air)
continuous evaporation of moisture from the respiratory tract, mucosa of the mouth, and the skin. the continuous and unnoticed water loss is called insensible water loss. the accompanying heat loss is called insensible heat loss and accounts for approximately 10% of basal heat loss. (sweating happens to lose heat from body because inside is to hot) (exercising)
4 types of heat loss
radiation, conduction, convection, vaporization.
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
the rate of energy utilization the body requires to maintain essential activities such as breathing and heart rate. metabolic rates decrease with age, thus starts out high and gradually decreases over the life span.
including shivering increases metabolic rate. this produces heat.
increased output increases the rate of cellular metabolism. throughout the body, which in turn increases the production of heat in process called chemical thermogenesis.
hormones that are neurotransmitters that mount a sympathetic nervous system response that can immediately increase the rate of cellular metabolism.
directly affect liver and muscle cells
infants and children are greatly influenced by environmental changes until their thermoregulatory mechanisms are developed by adulthood.
body temperatures normally vary during the course of the day. the highest peak is usually in the late afternoon and the lowest point is typically during sleeping hours.
hard and strenuous work increases the body's temperature significantly secondary to the heat produced by the muscles and increased metabolic rate.
women usually have more fluctuations in temperature. ovulation increases the BT
stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system increases the production of epinephrine and norepinephrine, thereby increasing metabolic rate and heat production.
used to be the mainstay for it's antipyretic properties. not so much these days because its anticoagulant properties.
most commonly used antipyretic medication.
body temperature alternates at regular intervals between fever, normal and sometimes subnormal temperatures. this is common with some illnesses like malaria. (fluctuates)
a wide range (more than 3-4 degrees F) of temperature fluctuation occurs over a 24 hour period. all of which are elevated this is common with a cold or flu episode.
short febrile periods of a few days are interspersed with 1 or 2 days of normal temperatures. ( on and off temp every few days)
the body temperature fluctuates minimally but always remains above normal this can occur with typhoid fever. (changes but always stays high)
rises to fever level rapidly following a normal temperature then returns to normal within a few hours. bacterial blood infections can cause such temperature spikes. (normal to sudden high, back to normal)
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