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25 terms

Policy Making Institutions

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Delegate
an elected representative who acts in perfect accord with the wishes of his or her constituents
Trustee
an elected representative who believes that his or her own best judgment, rather than instructions from constituents, should be used in making legislative decisions.
Apportionment
The process, occurring after every decennial census, that allocates congressional seats among the states.
Redistricting
The process of redrawing election districts and redistributing legislative representatives
Gerrymandering
Drawing maps to give political parties an advantage
Civility
Members of Congress are expected to avoid expressions of anger, personal attacks on character, etc.
Specialization
The system of committees and subcommittee encourages members of Congress to specialize in a particular policy areas.
Reciprocity
Favors rendered should be rapaid in kind. A type of bargaining process
Logrolling
A form of reciprocity in which by mutual agreement, members support projects that are primarily beneficial to the individual members and their constituencies
Patronage
The appointments and opportunities a representative can dole out to supporters
Pork Barrel
Appropriations made by legislative bodies for local projects that are often not needed but that are created so that local representatives can win re election in their home districts
Earmarks
Practice of inserting pork legislation into a relatively pork free bill
Private Bills
A bill that seeks to secure either a special privilegem relief, or an exemption to the person named in the bill
Standing Committee
A temporary legislative committee set up to highlight or investigate a particular issue or address a issue not within the jurisdiction of existing committees
Joint Committee
A legislative committee formed of members of both the House and Senate
Conference Committee
A joint committee created to work out a compromise on House and Senate versions of a particular piece of legislation
Seniority
Ranking given to an individual on the basis of length on continuous service on a committee in Congress
Congressional Staffers
keep the Congress running and functional
Staff Agencies
A legislative support agency responsible for policy analysis; provide resources and expertise to the legislative branch
Congressional Caucus
An association of members of Congress based on party, interest, or social group, such as gender or race
Closed Rule
HRC limits or prohibits amendements to the bill
Open Rule
HRC permits floor debate and allows for new amendments during the floor debate
Filibuster
Lengthly continuous speech by a Senator that can defeat a bill by forcing the majority to pul the bill off the Floor
Cloture
3/5 Vote by the Senate for a Filibuster to stop
Signing Statements
Can be used to make substantive administrative, legal, or constitutional pronouncements abou the nature of the bill they are signing into law