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HACC N144 Development & Family
Unit 5 - Exam 2
Terms in this set (85)
~Simple to complex
~Continuous, orderly, sequential
~All humans follow the same pattern
~Occurs during the first 20 years of life
~Sequence is predictable, but individual
Normal development is.....
Cephalocaudal & proximodistal
Physical development occurs in _____________and __________directions
Head to toe
Refers to the development of personality
Erik Erikson: Psychosocial development through MATURITY
Jean Piaget: Psychosocial development through COGNITION
Who are the main developmental theorists that we are focusing on in the class, and what did they focus on in their theories?
Infancy = Trust vs Mistrust
Toddler = Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt
Preschool = Initiative vs Guilt
School Age = Industry vs Inferiority
Adolescent = Identity vs Role Confusion
Young Adult = Intimacy vs Isolation
Middle Adult = Generativity vs Stagnation
Older Adult = Integrity vs Despair
What are Erik Erikson's 8 stages of development?
Infants learn to trust that their caregivers will meet their basic needs. If these needs are not consistently met, mistrust, suspicion, and anxiety may develop.
What is occurring in Erik Erikson's 1st stage of Trust vs Mistrust?
Toddlers are learning that they are separate entities from their caregivers and that they have the ability to do things on their own. If discouraged from this independence, the toddler learns shame and doubt which may lead the child to rebel or leave him/her with a lasting sense of insecurity.
What is occurring in Erik Erikson's 2nd stage of Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt?
Children begin to assert their power and control over the world through directing play and other social interaction. Through this, they develop a sense of purpose. If discouraged or dismissed, they may feel a sense of shame or guilt.
What is occurring in Erik Erikson's 3rd stage of Initiative vs Guilt?
Children are at the stage where they will be learning to read and write, to do sums, to do things on their own. If not successful at the activities they pursue, they may feel unable and inadequate.
What is occurring in Erik Erikson's 4th stage of Industry vs Inferiority?
During this stage, adolescents explore their independence and develop a sense of self, often trying on different roles before deciding which one fits them and who they are/want to be.
What is occurring in Erik Erikson's 5th stage of Identity vs Role Confusion?
During this period, the major conflict centers on forming intimate, loving relationships with other people.
What is occurring in Erik Erikson's 6th stage of Intimacy vs Isolation?
During this time, adults strive to create or nurture things that will outlast them; often by parenting children or contributing to positive changes that benefit other people, contributing to society and doing things to benefit future generations.
What is occurring in Erik Erikson's 7th stage of Generativity vs Stagnation?
During this period, people reflect back on the life they have lived and come away with either a sense of fulfillment from a life well lived or a sense of regret and despair over a life misspent.
What is occurring in Erik Erikson's 8th stage of Integrity vs Despair?
~Can help to enhance development by providing appropriate activities
~Help an individual cope with illness
How can understanding each stage of development help RNs in their patient care?
1. Sensorimotor (Birth-2 yo)
2. Preoperational (2-7 yo)
3. Concrete Operational (7-11 yo)
4. Formal Operational (11 yo +)
What are Jean Piaget's Phases of Cognitive Development?
The infant develops an understanding of the world through trial and error using their senses and actions. Infancy is characterized by extreme egocentrism, where the child has no understanding of the world other than their own current point of view.
The main development during this stage is the understanding that objects exist and events occur in the world independently of one's own actions ('object permanence').
What is occurring in the Sensorimotor phase of cognitive development?
During this stage, the child learns to use the symbols of language. The child cannot use logic or transform, combine, or separate ideas. Development consists of building experiences about the world through adaptation and working towards the (concrete) stage when it can use logical thought.
During the end of this stage children can mentally represent events and objects, and engage in symbolic play.
What is occurring in the Preoperational phase of cognitive development?
Characterised by the development of organized and rationale thinking. The child is now mature enough to use logical thought or operations (i.e. rules) but can only apply logic to physical objects (hence concrete operational).
Children gain the abilities of conservation (number, area, volume, orientation) and reversibility. However, although children can solve problems in a logical fashion, they are typically not able to think abstractly or hypothetically.
What is occurring in the Concrete Operational phase of cognitive development?
As adolescents enter this stage, they gain the ability to think in an abstract manner by manipulating ideas in their head, without any dependence on concrete manipulation.
He/she can do mathematical calculations, think creatively, use abstract reasoning, and imagine the outcome of particular actions. They now have the ability to think about things which they have not actually experienced and to draw conclusions from its thinking.
What is occurring in the Formal Operational phase of cognitive development?
~Help to develop a teaching strategy for a specific age group
~Understand that normal range of development is wide
How can understanding each stage of cognitive development help RNs in their patient care?
Process through which humans encounter and react to new situations by using mechanisms they already possess
Process of change whereby cognitive process mature sufficiently to allow individual to solve problems that were unsolvable before.
Ability to handle demands made by the environment. Coping behavior.
Cluster of conditions that occur as the result of impairment in physical function, language, development, behavioral patterns, or learning ability.
Attention Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Cerebral Palsy (CP)
Failure to Thrive (FTT)
What are 4 of the common developmental impairments found in pediatric patients?
Attention Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)
Disorder marked by a delay in brain maturation in areas of self-regulation. Characterized by having difficulty completing tasks that require focused concentration, hyperactivity, hyperkinesis, and impulsivity.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Characteristically demonstrates impaired communication and social interaction patterns, and the presence of repetitive, restrictive, and stereotyped behaviors.
Cerebral Palsy (CP)
A group of chronic conditions affecting body movement, coordination, and posture that results from a non progressive abnormality of the immature brain. Often a result of some type of insult to developing brain of the fetus or infant that occurs in later stages of pregnancy, during birth, or with the first 2 years after birth. May or may not include mental retardation.
Failure to Thrive (FTT)
Most commonly describes syndrome in which infant falls below the 5th percentile for BMI and height on the standard growth chart.
2 or more individuals who are joined together by marriage, blood, or adoption, and are residing in the same household.
~Beliefs held by others (peers, coworkers, political leaders, etc)
Family values may change because they are influenced by external factors including....
~Socialization & caring of children
~Receiving & giving love
~Protection & economic support of members
~Serving as a buffer between members & environment/society by advocating for needs of members
What are the roles of a healthy functioning family?
Partnership between the family and the nurse
Nursing that considers the health of the family as a unit in addition to the health of individual family members
Family roles and relationships
Interactions among family members and with the community
~Married couples w/ children
~Married couples w/out children
~Other family households (single-parents, unmarried parents, etc...)
~Men living alone
~Women living alone
~Other non-family households
What are the 6 types of households?
Mother, father and children living together as a unit
Relatives of nuclear families such as aunts, uncles, grandparents.
Extended-Kin Network Family
Specific form of extended family in which 2 nuclear families of primary or unmarried kin live in proximity to each other
Both partners are employed by choice or by necessity. May or may not have children.
A family in which only one parent is present to care for the children
Adolescent parents to children
Children who can no longer live with their birth parents are placed with a family that has agreed to include them temporarily.
A couple without children
Step Family (Blended Family)
Consists of a biological parent with children and a new spouse who may or may not have children
~Fewer financial issues than single-parenting
~Offers child a new support person and role model
~provides new opportunity to parent for successful relationship
What are some strengths to Step Families?
~Relationship between stepparents and stepchildren may be strained
~Stress in adaptation of new patterns in behavior and respecting each others' differences
~Strain with other biological parent
~Manipulative behaviors of children
~Different parenting styles
What are some challenges to Step Families?
Post-divorce family in which the biological children are members of 2 nuclear households both that of the father and that of the mother. Children alternate between the 2 homes.
Both parents have equal responsibility and legal rights regardless of where the children live.
When more than 2 generations live together
Heterosexual Cohabiting Family
Unrelated individuals or families who live under 1 roof
(also includes gay or lesbian single parent families)
Include those families in which 2 or more people who share a same-sex orientation live together w/ or w/out children.
Children typically have only 1 biological/adoptive parent with co-parent having no legal parental status.
What is a consideration in regards to Gay/Lesbian Families in regards to HIPPA?
2 adults who have chosen to share one another's lives in an intimate and committed relationship of mutual caring without marriage
Refers to the dynamics or changes that a family experiences over time including changes in relationships, communication patterns, roles, and interactions.
1. Beginning family - newly married couples
2. Childbearing family - oldest child infant to 30 mos
3. Families ow/ preschoolers
4. Families w/ school children
5. Families w/ teenagers
6. Families launching young adults
7. Middle age parents
8. Family in retirement and old-age
What are the 8 stages to the Family Life Cycle (nuclear family)
~Adjusting to living together as a couple
~Establishing mutually satisfying relationship
~Relating to kin
~Deciding whether or not to have children
What are some Family Developmental Tasks that occur in the Beginning Family (Couple) stage?
~Adjusting to having and supporting needs of more than 2 members
~Developing attachment between parents and children
~Adjusting to economic costs of having more members
~Coping with energy depletion and lack of privacy
~Carrying out activities that enhance growth and development of the children
What are some Family Developmental Tasks that occur in the Childbearing Family & Family with Preschool Age Children stages?
~Adjusting to expanded world of children in school
~Encouraging educational achievement
~Promoting joint decision-making between kids and parents
What are some Family Developmental Tasks that occur in the Family w/ School-Age Children stage?
~Providing supportive home-base and maintaining open communications during transition
~Parents must balance freedoms w/ responsibilities
~Release adult children as they seek independence
What are some Family Developmental Tasks that occur in the Family with Teenagers & Launching Young Adults stages?
~Maintaining ties w/ older and younger generations
~Planning for retirement
~Reestablishing the couple relationship
~Acquiring role as a grandparents
What are some Family Developmental Tasks that occur in the Middle Age Family stage?
~Adjusting to retirement
~Adjusting to aging
~Coping w/ loss of a spouse
~Adjusting to living alone
~Closing the family home
What are some Family Developmental Tasks that occur in the Older Adult Family stage?
Adults who care for their own children and 1 or more of their aging parents
~Family Coping Mechanisms
~Family Communication Patterns
What are the 11 factors that shape family development?
Assessed by how parents pick up on children's emotional signals and how appropriately parents express their own emotions
The ability of parents to support learning and exploration w/out overwhelming the child's autonomy
Parent's availability to the child w/out being interfering, overprotective, or overwhelming
Ways parents interact w/ the child that are patient and pleasant
Amount of affection and approval displayed
How restrictive parents are regarding rules
Parents who are rigid and punitive and value unquestioning obedience from their children
Parents who are firm, set clear limits, reason with their children, and explain things to them
Parents who provide lax and inconsistent feedback and require little of their children but show a great deal of warmth
Parents who neither set limits nor display much affection or approval
~Asking parents how they handle situations that require limit setting
~ Observing parent-child interactions
How can you assess Parenting Styles?
A method of teaching children the rules for how to behave in society and what is expected in different circumstances
Action taken to enforce the rules when the child misbehaves
~Determine level of family functioning
~Clarify family interaction patterns
~ID family strengths and weaknesses
~Describe health status of the family and its individual members
What is the purpose of doing a Family Assessment?
Consist of visual representations of gender showing lines of birth decent through the generations
An assessment tool that can help nurses visualize how the family unit interacts w/ the external community environment, including schools, religious commitments, occupational duties, and recreational pursuits.
Family Wellness Promotion
Emphasizes addressing each individual family member's contribution to the health and well-being of the family
~Healthy eating habits
~Use of stress reduction techniques
~Help set own family and personal wellness goals
What are some family health promotion strategies?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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HACC N144 Culture & Diversity
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