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introduction to Criminology
Terms in this set (54)
Science study of the definition forms, cause and societal reaction to criminal behavior
seek casual explanation of crime
Application of system such as policies, courts and corrections
The study of physical evidence
Behavior outside Society's expectations. The Boundaries of Deviant behavior vary by social context.
The Progression of Knowledge (comte)
Theological\supernatural (Pre-18th century) : religion explanation
Scientific: Rationality emphasizing scientific method (measurement, observation, proof, replication, and verification) field based on many sciences
Act bad according to law
Mala in Se
Act bad in themselves
Criminal Law fails to prohibit act that many believe are Mala in Se
Criminal Law Penalizes acts that many believe to be mala prohibita
Characteristic of Geneinschaft
Societies (informal social control)
Lack of extensive division of labor
Similar Cultural, isolated from others
Folkway and mores largely sufficient to maintain control
Limited need if formal control
Characteristic of Gesellschaft
Societies (formal social control)
Extensive divisions of Labor
Variety of moral views
Increased needs for formal control
Intentional act or omission in Violation of Criminal Law, Committed without defense or justification, and Sanctioned by state as a felony or Misdemeanor.
Generally offenses punishable by a year or more in a state or federal prison.
Less serious offenses Punished by Less than a years in jail in U.S Criminal Law, an act must meet the following to be considered a Crime.
The Act is prohibited by law and includes legally precised punishment prior to violation.
A criminal Act must take place Social harm of a conscious, voluntary nature is required the act is performed intentionally.
The Voluntary misconduct must have directly caused the harm.
Folkways the tradition behavior or ways of life of a particular community group of people
Social Change and Emergence of Law
Laws have both manifest (intended) and latent (unintended) functions
Laws are not the most effective means of social control
An increase in the use of Law typically reflects a weakening of informal methods of social controls.
3 model of law making
Consensus model: views the laws as agreement among members of a society as to what constitutes as wrong doings.
Conflict model: views the law as originating in the conflict of interest different group.
Interactionist Model: Views humans as responding to abstract meaning as symbols as well s to concrete meaning.
4 characteristic of Law
1. It is assumed by political authority
2. It must be specific, defining both offense and punishment
3. The Law is uniformly applied
4. The Law contains penal sections (punishments) enforced by the state
methods of reporting crimes
Nibrs: National Incident- Based reporting system
Attempt to structure, summarize or explain essential elements of the subject in question
Involves the collection and analyzes of accurate data or facts some questions that might be asked by methodologists
How much crime is there?
Who commits crime
We all have bias
System of mutual trust and obligations between research and subject
Example of controversial social science research
different types of data gathering technique
1.Survey: Interview questionnaires, telephones survey, victims surveys uncover dark figure of crime national crime Victimization survey. Weakness Large Sample required, false or Mistaken reports, Can't count victim-less crime murders
2.participant observation: Researchers studies a group through direct observation and various levels of involvement.
Strength: Excellent for studying group other wise difficult to access. great source of qualitative date observe subjects in their natural environment.
Weakness: Difficult gaining access potential ethical- legal dilemmas and time consuming
3.Ethnography: Similar to participant Observation but greater time commitment and immersion into a culture. Risk include participation in illegal activities
Accuracy of measurement
Consistency and\or stability of measurement
The use of multiple methods to measure the same entity
Are crime rates easy to compare in a country and across countries? Why or why not?
This is one of the most pervasive crime trend over time and internationally, but varies by individual and crime white collar possible explanations
increase access to legitimate means of excitement
Decrease access to illegitimate
Greater personal cost to committing crime most adults offenders had been juvenile offenders But, most juvenile do not on to become adult offenders
trend in gender
gender is the best predictor of criminality across time and place
the gap between male and female
crime rate is narrowing in modernized societies increasing
Gap is smaller but still significant in contemporary western society.
Males= 83% of those arrested in the united state (ratio decreased)
more traditional societies, males\females ratio range from 200-to 1 to 1,000 to 1
Is relatively arbitrary, socially defined construct
The field of criminology is dominated by views reflecting those of European (white) descent
How is class related to crime?
Social class is not included in UCR data majority who are arrested are from lower social class
maybe due to lack of power in society lower class offenders more likely to be prosecuted
What are the economic costs of crime? Are the costs distributed equally in society?
Of Victimization include those experienced by the victim and those that the public include:
Direct property loss
Losses in productivity
Pain, suffering and lost quality of life
principle of Homogamy
The more frequently a person comes into contact with person's in demographics groups with likely offenders, the more likely it is the person will be victimized
the role of the victim in a crime
Extent that a victim is responsible for his or her own victimization
Victim Facilitation: Victim unintentionally makes it easier for offender to commit crime
Victim Provocation: Person does something that incites another person to commit an illegal act and individual is shot while trying to break into a home
What are the factors Wolfgang found related to victimology?
Victim likely to have history of violence offending
alcohol payed a role
Which three elements are needed for a crime to occur according to routine activities theory?
What are the victim services offered (e.g. mediation programs, impact statements, etc.)?
Victim witness assistance
Family Justice Centers: variety of services provided in one location
Face to Face Meeting
Victim- offender mediation program is designed to provide victims a chance to meet with their offenders in structure environment
Which theory focused on supernatural forces as the causes of crime?
Which theory focused on the relationship between humans and the environment? What is the thermic law of crime?
the Thermic Law of crime rates tend to be higher in warmer climates
The modern Western judicial and legal systems principles are based on which theory? Which school of thought is related to deterrence theory?
Classical School of Criminology
What theory focused on capitalism, inequality and poverty as the causes of social problems?
What is Durkheim's idea of anomie?
Role of group and social organization in human behavior
Linked Crime to broader Social change
Anomie: normlessness in society
What are Merton's modes of adaptation (and give examples)? Why do these individuals commit crime?
Rebel-organize a rebellion
What is the institutional anomie theory?
The Institutional anomie theory attribute crime to the american dream
What is Social Disorganization Theory, the concentric zone model, and which zone experiences the most crime?
is rooted in social disorganization used maps and officials statistics Concentric zone
techniques of neutralization (and give examples)
Denial of responsibility
Denial of injury\harm: but not hurting anyone else
Denial of victim
Condemnation of condemners
Appeal to higher authority: I didn't do it for myself
Hirschi's theory and what does he say are the bonds to society (i.e. attachment, belief, etc.)?
Social Bond theory delinquency occurs when a person's bond to society are weakened or broken
Commitment: An individual commits a crime because he has nothing to lose
Involvement: an individual commits a crime because he has nothing better to do with his time
Positivism, and what are the basic premises of it?
The use of empirical quantitative or scientific investigation for the improvement of society.
The field of study that studied the size and shape of a person's skull to determine intelligence and personality?
Lombroso's theory of Atavism?
theory that criminals are born as such and that they are throwbacks to an earlier and more primitive evolution period
movement sought to control using sterilization, euthanasia, cutbacks in welfare?
Social Learning theory
After, After observing other children fighting on the playground a young boy begin to pick a fight with one of his classmates.
What were Freud's main ideas regarding personality?
Superego- The socialized part of the personality, developed in order to function and gain acceptance in human society
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