Grade 10 IT Glossary
Terms in this set (89)
Software that is used to do productive work and accomplish specific tasks.
A multi-purpose electronic tool that can receive data (input), can process the data, produce results and output the results.
Raw, unprocessed facts
Software which is distributed freely. You do not receive the source code. There is no limitation on the time or functionality included.
Physical components and devices, the parts of a computer that you can physically touch.
A combination of hardware, software, data, processes and people with the purpose to collect, manipulate, convey, store and retrieve
data and information.
How to securely store, manage, and retrieve such large amounts of data.
How to process and analyse this data looking for valuable information that you didn't even know was there.
The result of processing data and it should be useful and meaningful.
The way of getting both data and instructions into the computer.
Input, Processing, Output model.
IT and ICT
Information Technology (IT) is a term that refers to all the technology
involved with the collecting, processing and storing of data/information.
Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is a term that expands
IT to include the transmission of data using communications technology. It
includes technologies such as computers, cell phones, the Internet and other
networks as well as broadcasting technologies (radio and television).
Open source software
Software made available with a license that allows you to access and modify the source code, but not to sell the software.
A way of allowing the computer to show the results of the processing it has done.
POS system (Point of Sale system)
Specialized software and hardware designed to be used at the till point. It manages stock and creates reports (such as a till slip) when stock is sold to customers.
Software developed by a certain software house. Users have to pay a license fee to be allowed to use the software. No access to the source code is provided.
Software which is distributed freely, but either it can only be used for a limited time, or limited capabilities are available. Also you do not receive the source code.
The programs - sets of instructions - that that tells the device/computer what to do.
The programming code used to develop a specific application.
Software that is used to control and maintain your computer.
Biometric scanners (usually optical) are specifically designed for
security, and read and identify unique identifying characteristics of
people, like fingerprints or the pattern of an iris.
CPU (Central Processing Unit)
The part of the computer that does all the processing.
A data projector connects to your computer and projects what is on
your monitor on a screen or wall so that everyone can see a larger
version of what would be on your monitor.
DIMM (Dual Inline Memory Modules)
Electronic circuit boards with RAM on.
Dot matrix printers
A very old technology using pins hitting ink ribbons to create images
Devices can be connected to this port for fast data transfer. Mainly
used for transferring video but is being used less and less.
Sprays drops of ink on paper.
Works by melting toner into the paper.
Stores data by means of magnetic fields, for example hard disks.
Device that converts the signal from a computer to a format that can be transmitted over a communication channel. 3G modem: To transfer data over a cellular phone network. ADSL modem: For high speed data transfer over digital telephone networks.
Modular design of computers
Means that computers consist of a variety of separate components for ease of upgrading and maintenance.
A large piece of circuitry with slots and connectors for different
components and peripherals to connect to it.
Stores data by means of laser, for example CD, DVD, Blu-ray.
Devices connected to the computer.
RAM or Random Access Memory is where any program that is run
is loaded and temporarily stored, and where files that are open are
Device that makes communication between networks over the Internet possible by helping to direct data to its correct destination.
SSD (Solid State Drive)
A type of disk that stores data electronically.
The process of getting two sets of the same data files on two different devices updated with the latest copy of the file(s).
Touch pads are rectangular pressure sensitive areas built into the
laptop. They are input devices that can be used instead of a mouse.
USB (Universal Serial Bus)
Port that a variety of devices can be connected to.
Connects to a USB port and expands it to 4 or more ports that devices can be connected to.
Programs that allow operating systems to communicate with and control hardware devices.
A function of an operating system whereby it manages storage - both how the data is organised on the storage device and how or when a program can access the storage device.
Embedded operating system
Embedded operating systems differ from those installed and used on a general-purpose computer such as a PC in that they are stored on internal memory chips. They are not loaded from disk as is the case of a computer with a hard drive.
A graphical user interface makes use of visual controls to allow the user to interact with the computer and with programs on the computer.
A function of an operating system whereby it manages input and output of the computer and how programs use the input and output devices - i.e. which programs receive input from input devices and which programs can use an output device.
A function of an operating system whereby it manages the memory (RAM) to control how programs use it - i.e. make sure that programs don't try to use the same area of memory at the same time and so corrupt each other's data/instructions.
Network operating system
An operating system which has extra features that give it additional ability to control and manage shared resources (e.g. files, printers) and users on a network.
An operating system is system software which controls all activities that take place in a computer.
Process and task management
A function of an operating system whereby it manages the CPU and how it runs programs - i.e. which programs and tasks can use the CPU and for how long.
System software is software that is intended to control, support or operate the computer.
Programs that are part of system software and do maintenance and
A special account which allows that account holder (user) to make any changes they wish to the system, including to other accounts.
To store files that are static (not going to be changed), usually onto a secondary system or onto a DVD for example.
A utility that removes:
• temporary files downloaded from the Internet,
• deleted files and folders permanently by emptying the Recycle Bin
• temporary files created by Windows
• components of Windows that you are not using
• installed programs that you no longer or seldom use.
To reorganise the parts of files and speed your computer up again.
Files and parts of files are scattered on disk.
Software that enables the operating system to communicate with a hardware device.
Software that allows you to control which programs can access the Internet - and tries to hide your computer from the others 'out there' (or at least prevent them from contacting and taking over your computer).
A program that presents you with options and performs an installation based on your choices and preferences.
The technology whereby devices that are added or connected to a PC are automatically 'detected', and whereby the PC is configured for their use, provided drivers are available for the devices.
Probably the most widely-used utility program used to compress files.
Adobe Reader plug-in
This plug-in allows you to view and print the contents of PDF documents directly from within your browser.
Examples include Adobe Flash Player, Silverlight and Adobe Shockwave Player. These multimedia plug-ins enable users to experience a very wide range of applications and multimedia web content in any browser, irrespective of the operating system.
Generally used to write plug-in programs for other applications.
Media Player plug-ins
A plug-in such as QuickTime, which allows you to play embedded audio and video on web pages without needing to have or open the Windows Media Player application on your computer.
Portable Document Format (PDF). A popular format to distribute documents electronically.
Software which adds functionality to a bigger program, often used when browsing the Web.
Clients are computers that use but do not provide network resources.
E-mail servers are used to handle all the e-mail needs of the organisation.
An extranet is a network where access is provided to the organisations' private network to users from outside the organisation.
Fat clients run most of their applications from their local hard drives and make little use of network services.
Internet or proxy server
Users connect to the Internet via this server so security control for viruses etc. can be implemented at one central point. Access to the Internet can also be speeded up by storing (caching) recently accessed web pages on disk.
An intranet is an organisation's private network and is an Internet-like environment consisting of web pages relating to the organisation's business.
Local area network (LAN)
A local area network is a privately owned network connecting computers in a small area such as a school, university campus or company offices in one building.
A network is a collection of computers or other computing devices such as
smartphones that are connected by some sort of communication media (either via
cable or wirelessly) to allow users to share software, hardware, data and information
Network operating system is software that controls all the communication in a
network as well as the security on a network.
Network security refers to policies put in place to ensure the security of a network by
preventing unauthorised access and misuse of the computer network.
Peers are those computers that both use and provide network resources.
local area network in which network resources are
shared among workstations, without a dedicated server.
used to handle all the printing requirements of a network with a
large number of computers.
a computer that provides shared resources, such as files, e-mail and Internet facilities or printers to network users.
hardware device used to connect computers on a network so that
communication can occur.
have no hard drives, but depend almost completely on a server to run
applications and store data files.
spread over a wide geographical area, such as a city,
across provinces or countries and even continents.
A wireless LAN (WLAN) is a LAN which communicates using high-frequency radio
waves rather than cables to communicate.
Cap is the amount of data an ISP allows a person to upload and
download in a month.
E-communication refers to all forms of communication via electronic
means. In other words, it is the process in which computers and other
devices such as cellphones are used to exchange messages and/or
Electronic mail (E-Mail)