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NYSTCE Students with Disabilities (Teacher Certification*)

Terms in this set (77)

• National- U.S. Department of Education (ED) maintains a website devoted exclusively to IDEA.
• The U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) offers programs, services, and a variety of resources that promote inclusion, equity, and opportunity for students with disabilities.
• National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities provides the full text of IDEA and information about this law.
- Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) provides information pertaining to the education of students with disabilities; special education legislation and advocacy; careers and professional development opportunities.
- American Educational Research Association (AERA) largest professional and scientific organizations that supports research pertaining to children with disabilities.
- National Association of Special Education Teachers (NASET)- provides special education professionals with information about policy and research, professional development
- New York State- Office of Special Education,
- New York State- Quality assurance regional offices, which are also part of the Office of Special Education
- New York State- Special education parent centers, 13 in N.Y.S.
- New York State-The Advocacy Center is the Parent Training and Information Center in New York State provides information, workshops, services, outreach, and many other activities.
-Local- IDEA requires every state to have a Parent Training and Information (PTI) center.
- Local- Child Find coordinator working within a particular school district or county who identifies and evaluates SWDs
Phonology refers to speech sounds. -Each phoneme in a language consists of a distinct sound used to distinguish spoken words in a language
- The English language contains about 45 phonemes.
- Semantics refers to the meanings of parts of words, words, sentences, and larger units.
- Grammar refers to the rules that govern the structure of language.
- Syntax the placement of words in phrases, clauses, and sentences.
- Morphology refers to rules governing the use of morphemes, or the smallest parts of words that contribute to meaning. prefixes and suffixes are morphemes (ing).
- Pragmatics can be defined as whatever contributes to meaning
- Differing tones of voice often convey important differences in meaning.
- figurative speaking, as in the case of metaphor or analogy.
- pragmatics is reflected in both expressive and reflective language changes.
- Orthography refers to the system of representing oral language in writing.
- The Sequence of Language Development (receptive and expressive).
- Reading is an extension of language development that plays a central role in children's academic performance.
- Pre-reading- gradually realize that certain marks in their environment convey stories.
- Reading- concepts of print, words in a picture book convey stories.
- alphabet knowledge- relies on alphabetic principle, the understanding that letters represent sounds in systematic and predictable ways.
- Children's understanding of the alphabetic principle is accompanied by increases in phonological awareness, or the ability to consciously recognize.
- Spoken and written words (alphabetic principle) is supported by awareness that spoken words are composed of units of sound (phonological awareness).
- Children begin to read, most of their efforts devoted to decoding, or the sounding out of words.
- High-frequency words (you, and, the) are sight words
- Support will be essential for progress in decoding, comprehension, and fluency (read quickly, effortlessly, accurately, and expressively).
- Transitional Reading- decoding is advanced and the # of sight words grows leading to efficient reading.
- Reading to Learn- efficient reading with comprehension, progressed to the point that more attention can be paid to content than to the mechanics of reading.
- Advanced reading skills- • apply knowledge of letter-sound correspondences to difficult words • infer meaning from context • make predictions about what will happen in a story • identify text structures • read critically • shift between close reading and skimming • read with fluency • self-correct during reading • read independently.
- Reading Development: The Example of Decoding: development of decoding skills reflects four phases:
- Pre-alphabetic- treating words as visual objects,
- Partial-alphabetic- know some letters and letter-sound
- Full-alphabetic- apply alphabet knowledge systematically when decoding, and they often decode words letter by letter.
- Consolidated- recurring letter patterns become consolidated.
- Digraphs are pairs of letters that represent a single sound, such as "sh" and "oo."
- Consonant clusters are pairs of consonants that appear together in a syllable (ts), no single sound.
- Syllables are units of pronunciation containing one vowel sound.
- Rimes are the parts of syllables consisting of the vowel and any consonant that follows ("og" in the word "dog" and "ank" in the word "bank.").
- Reading Difficulties-
- Dyslexia is considered a learning disability that primarily affects reading.
- developmental dyslexia- early childhood, result of disease or injury to the brain is called alexia.
Symptoms-• Inability to decode unfamiliar words • Difficulty segmenting words into phonemes • Difficulty identifying or creating rhymes • Seeing letters or words in reverse • Seeing letters move or blur • Dysfluency when reading out loud • Difficulty following a sequence of instructions.
• Screening assessments are administered to all students in a particular group, such as a grade or a school.
• Prereferral assessments are administered to individual students in some states before formally referring
determine which instructional modifications are likely to help the student (Is Sped a good fit?).
• Diagnostic assessments are administered to individual students who may need extra support (may or may not be in sped). To determine areas of strength and weakness for a particular student. May be used to identify the nature of the student's disability.
• Progress monitoring assessments are used to determine whether an individual student's progress is adequate. Often focuses on one specific academic area.
• Outcome assessments are used to determine the extent of student achievement at the end of the school year or other significant time period.
• Alternative assessments are based on behaviors, products, and other forms of expression that are not captured in traditional assessments.
• Criticism of standard testing: •Recall and rote learning is valued over critical reflection. •The knowledge being tested is trivialized by using multiple choice • pre-determined options rather than constructing solutions. • Arbitrary time limits • only one correct solution to each problem.
• Observational assessment yields descriptions of student behavior in natural settings.
• Rating scales are used to note the extent to which a behavior is expressed.
• Duration records are used to note the amount of time the student spends engaged in a particular behavior.
• Anecdotal records are used to record narrative descriptions of behavior in particular settings.
• Ecological assessment focuses on the student's functioning in different environments, identify environments in which the student functions with greater or lesser difficulty,
• Authentic assessment provides descriptions of student performance on real-life tasks carried out in real-world settings (rubric evaluation).
• Portfolio is a collection of work produced by a student over time.
• Alternative Assessment and
• Students with Disabilities, SWDs may or may not perform well on standardized test, alternative assessment may be required (severe cognitive impairments).
• New York State Alternative
Assessment (NYSAA) alternative in place of state mandated testing. • once a year starting at age 9 to 14 so progress can be monitored toward achieving the New York State learning standards and alternate grade-level indicators. Again at 17 or 18 measured on a 1-4 scale (1= scaffolding required to 4= independent)
(IDEA) requires school districts to design policies and procedures that prevent students from certain racial and ethnic groups from being over represented in special education programs.
• Disproportionality- minorities, low social-economical, non-majority linguistic backgrounds, ELLs.
• Strategies to mitigate disproportionality, •greater support for the pre-educational and early educational experiences of all children, extensive prereferrals, multiple assessments, professional development for teachers making decisions.
• IDEA states that assessment materials must be nondiscriminatory with respect to the student's racial and cultural background. Must be in student's primary language, accommodations made, •Test bias must be avoided in the selection of assessments, item bias- favors one group over another.
• Test to be taken in a least restrictive environment
• IDEA requires each state to develop guidelines for the accommodations.
• Purpose of accommodations is to allow students with disabilities to demonstrate their achievement without being unfairly limited owing to their disabilities.
• Accommodations must not change the content of what a test measures or otherwise invalidate the results.
• Accommodations must not substitute for knowledge or abilities that the student has not attained, or give an unfair advantage to the student.
• Must be stated in IEP
• Examples: larger font, increased space between items, highlighted key phrases, read aloud, tactile format.
• Setting accommodations involve changes to the location and/ or conditions of the assessment.
• Scheduling accommodations involve changes to the timing and scheduling of assessments.
• Norm-referenced- comparison to norms (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV), are standardized, meaning that their administration and scoring is both predetermined and consistent (classroom exam).
• Criterion-referenced assessment compares the individual's performance to some predetermined standard, or criterion (this exam).
• Individual-referenced assessment looks at an individual's score at one point in time with the same individual's score at some other point (STAR exam- fall & spring).
• Criterion-referenced assessments consist of standardized tests,
• Individual-referenced assessments may or may not be standardized.
• Progress-monitoring assessments are often individual-referenced.
• Running record- teachers use to track the progress of students in areas like reading.
• Performance-Based Assessment- student must exhibit some behavior or create some product requiring integration of knowledge and skills.
• Technical Adequacy of Assessment- • Validity and reliability are two of the important concepts that are used in the interpretation, analysis, and application of assessment results.
• Criterion-related validity refers to the extent to which scores on an assessment are related to some criterion measure (quantitative) .
• Concurrent validity (the criterion measure is administered at the same
time as the assessment) and
• Predictive validity (the criterion measure is administered at some point in the future.
• Content validity refers to the extent to which an assessment accurately measures some identifiable content, such as curriculum standards or clearly defined behaviors (observable).
• Construct validity refers to the extent to which an assessment accurately measures some underlying construct, such as intelligence, motivation, and engagement (considered for SWDs).
• Reliability- Inconsistent results undermine the usefulness of an assessment.
• Test-retest reliability- will it matter if the same test is administered again
• Inter-rater reliability refers to the extent to which observers agree on assessment results.
• Equivalent-forms reliability-refers to the extent to which alternate forms of the same assessment yield the same results.
School must provide:
• Consultant teacher services are direct and/ or indirect services provided to students with disabilities in the general education classroom and/ or to their general education teachers.
• Resource room programs supplement the general or special education experience of students with disabilities by providing individual or small-group instruction (with other students who have similar needs) during part of the day.
• Special classes consist of students with disabilities grouped on the basis of similar needs, who receive their primary instruction separate from the general education classroom.
• Related services consist of developmental, corrective, and other supportive services that help students with disabilities access the general education curriculum.
• Teaching assistants and teacher aides can assist in the delivery of special education services.
• Transition, transitional support and travel training within the school, community, and home must be provided.
• Adapted physical education
• 12-month special services and/ or programs.
• Special transportation (to help the student travel to, from, and within the school).
Continuum of Services and Programs for Preschoolers
• special education itinerant services
• Half-day preschool programs
• Full-day preschool programs
• 12-month special services/ programs
• In-state residential special education programs
Continuum of Placement (NYS choices)
• Public schools •Boards of cooperative educational services
• Private approved day schools
• Private approved residential schools
• Home instruction
• Hospital instruction
Interim alternative educational settings (IAES) must be provided for students with disabilities who have been suspended or removed from their current placement for more than 10 school days. Also, behavioral intervention services modifications intended to prevent re-occurrence of the problem behavior.
Within 30 days of determining that a child is eligible for special education services under IDEA, an IEP team must meet in order to create an IEP for the child consisting of: parent, sped teacher, one gen ed. teacher, a representative of the LEA (school district), assessment interpreter.
• The IEP team must review the IEP at least once per year.
• IFSP- children birth to age 3
• Different than the IEP, IFSP targets the family and those natural environments.
• Behavioral Intervention Plans (BIP) when a problem behavior disrupts their ability or that of other students to learn. A BIP is created when the IEP team meet to conduct a functional behavioral assessment in order to identify the causes of problem behavior and to then develop an intervention strategy.
• Recurring and/ or extreme misbehavior may result in a student being removed from his/ her regular educational placement through suspension or through placement alternative educational setting.
• Manifestation Determination Review
meeting to determine whether the misbehavior is a manifestation of the student's disability, or whether it resulted from the school's failure to appropriately implement the IEP.
•IDEA re-authorization in 2004 includes transition support for students after K-12
• Transition planning start at age 14
• Post-graduation plan must be included in students' IEPs by age 16.
• T. plan can include applying to college, vocational school, place to live, and •measurable goals for training, education, employment, •courses that should be provided to prepare student for post school, annual goals while in high school that will prepare the student for post school, transition services and activities that will facilitate the shift to life post-school.