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NYSTCE Students with Disabilities (Teacher Certification*)
Terms in this set (77)
Public Law 94-143, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA)
passed in 1975 and later reauthorized as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
Idea concept (inclusion)
granting of children with disabilities the right to a free, appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment (LRE).
primary placement-normative scenario
IDEA does not guarantee inclusive education to students with disabilities, this is the starting point
in which students with disabilities were included in the general education classroom only when their achievement would be near grade level without substantial support.
chapter 2 PI (b): Relevant laws, regulations, state policies, and ethical guidelines (e.g., related to referral, assessment, eligibility, placement within a continuum of services, behavior management planning and implementation, mandated reporting, maintaining confidentiality)
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA)
federal law that governs the education of children with disabilities. This law was first introduced in 1975 as the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, later re-authorization in 2004.
Overview of IDEA, feds provide funding to the states, in turn IDEA requirement one
•States must conduct Child Find activities to identify and evaluate children who may have disabilities at no cost to the parents.
IDEA requirement two
•Students with disabilities are entitled to the same types of educational experiences.
schools must provide a continuum of services.
allow these students to participate to the greatest extent possible. FAPE and LRE.
SWDs between 3 and 21 years of age
must have an Individualized Education Program (also called an individualized education plan or IEP).
IEP (Individualized Education Program)
describes the child's present level of progress and learning capacity, the short- and long-term educational goals for the child, and the accommodations and services which will be provided in order to achieve those goals.
SWDs under the age of 3
Individualized Family Service Plan [IFSP], a written document similar to the IEP that focuses on the family and the child's natural environment.)
a team typically consisting of the child's parents, a special education professional, a general education teacher, a representative of the school, and others.
IEP educational objective
must be aligned with state curriculum standards for general
At age 16, IEP must
include a description of the student's goals following graduation as well as the transition services needed to achieve those goals.
IEP, SWD and parent information
must be protected through confidentiality.
Vocational Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
forbid discrimination against individuals with disabilities.
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
helps ensure the privacy of educational records such as IEPs.
No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)
increases the accountability of schools with respect to the academic progress of students with disabilities.
to determine whether a child has a disability and requires special education services. Can be made by IEP team members and the student if 18 or older
Teams to receive referrals
Committee on Special Education (CSE). (For children between the ages of 3 and 5, this team is called the Committee on Preschool Special Education [CPSE].)
Assessment of students with disabilities is governed by
IDEA, NCLB, ADA and other federal/state laws
IDEA assessment requirements- one
•School officials must notify parents prior to any assessments over and above those that are routinely administered to all students. Parental permission is required prior to beginning these assessments.
IDEA assessment requirements- two
interdisciplinary team that includes at least one teacher or educational professional who is knowledgeable about the student's suspected disability.
IDEA assessment requirements- three
•Assessments must be carried out on an individual basis.
IDEA assessment requirements- four
•Assessments must consist of more than one test or criterion for determining eligibility for special education services, and for determining placement.
IDEA assessment requirements- five
•Assessment materials must be nondiscriminatory with respect to the student's racial and cultural background, and the assessments must be administered in the student's primary language or mode of communication.
IDEA assessment requirements- six
•Assessments must be empirically validated for the purpose for which they are used and must be administered by individuals trained in their administration.
IDEA assessment requirements- seven
•Test protocols must be adhered to unless it is necessary to make accommodations for a particular student.
IDEA assessment requirements- eight
•For children between birth and three years of age, assessment must take place in "natural" environments such as the home or day care center.
Confidentiality must be maintained. Parents must consent to identifiable information to be shared outside the school district
chapter 2- PI (c): The rights and responsibilities of students with disabilities, parents/ guardians, teachers, other professionals, and schools.
1. given to parent when child is first referred for evaluation, re-evaluated and notified of IEP meeting.
2. explanation of the procedural safeguards, also known as parents' rights, when their children are evaluated or re-evaluated, (a) when the parents are invited to CSE or CPSE committee meetings, (b) when the parents file a complaint, and (c) when they request the procedural safeguards.
Board of Education must appoint independent expert for mediation
•Mediation will be provided to parents who have complaints or who cannot agree with the CSE or CPSE team on planning or
IDEA requires states to create a mechanism for due process hearings while allowing the states some latitude in procedural details.
due process hearings allow the parents to bring their complaints before an impartial, experienced individual from outside the school district.
Age of Majority is eighteen in most states
The student must receive notice of IEP meetings, consent to evaluations and other IEP content, and otherwise function as their parents did.
chapter 2- PI (d): Culturally responsive strategies that promote effective communication and partnerships with students with disabilities and their parents/ guardians to help students with disabilities achieve desired learning outcomes.
When cultural backgrounds differ, teachers and other educational professionals will need to use culturally responsive strategies to facilitate effective communication.
Understanding that there are surface and underlying cultural differences.
clothing, eating habits, language use, polite and impolite behavior, and avoiding eye contact.
Culturally Responsive Strategies
•Teachers should strive to get to know students and their families.
•Teachers should recognize how the cultural backgrounds of individual students and families
•Teachers should proactively encourage student-led discourse whenever appropriate.
•Teachers should respond promptly and appropriately to culturally insensitive speech expressed by students, as well as to any prejudicial or discriminatory behavior that is observed.
chapter 2- PI (e): Effective strategies for communicating and collaborating with general education teachers, school staff members, paraprofessionals, related services providers, medical personnel, volunteers, and representatives of community agencies to help students with disabilities achieve desired learning outcomes.
• A team approach to the identification and support of students who have or who may have a disability is required by IDEA.
• Prereferral- obtains information about the student's strengths and weakness, designs and oversees the implementation of interventions to determine if referral to special education assessment is warranted.
• If not, provide additional support for student in general education classrooms.
Response to Intervention (RTI)
an educational strategy intended to help children who demonstrate below-average achievement in early grades, using special intervention
Assessment and IEPs
- Assessments are carried out to evaluate each referral
- IDEA requires that a team be responsible for designing, implementing, and summarizing the results of the assessment.
- IDEA also requires that a multidisciplinary team use the results of assessment to create, implement, monitor, and periodically review the effectiveness of an IEP for the student.
- In New York State, the CSE or CPSE serves these various functions.
chapter 2- PI (f): Strategies for engaging in self-reflection and ongoing professional development activities to enhance effectiveness as an educator of students with disabilities.
Self-reflection can benefit the special education professional:
- teacher can examine his/ her own assumptions about particular students or groups of students and identify problematic biases like:
- empathizing with low academic performing students
- students that misbehave or have poor impulse control.
- feeling of repugnance toward students with severe medical conditions, or a feeling of apprehension toward students who are severely autistic.
- response towards problematic behavior.
- can develop a proactive attitude toward instruction and professional development.
- teacher can become more aware of his/ her own strengths and limitations as an educator, as well as be more knowledgeable about the strategies that maximize the strengths, overcome the limitations.
Teachers are exposed to basic concepts, advanced strategies, and cutting-edge trends:
• the causes, etiologies, and effects of specific disabilities
• strategies and resources for working with children who have specific disabilities
• strategies for instruction and classroom management
• federal, state, and local laws and policies in special education
• methods of assessment and alternative testing
• identification and referral of at-risk students
• IEP planning, implementation, and review •transition planning
• advocacy for students with disabilities
chapter 2- PI (g): Strategies and information sources for remaining current regarding research-validated practice in the field of special education.
Scientifically based research:
• relies on systematic, empirical methods.
• SBR relies on rigorous data analysis that justifies the conclusions that are drawn from studies using different approaches.
- NCLB and IDEA indicate a preference for experimental or quasi-experimental research designs.
- no random assignments,
chapter 2- PI (h): Local, state, and national services, resources, and organizations serving students with disabilities and providing program support
• National- U.S. Department of Education (ED) maintains a website devoted exclusively to IDEA.
• The U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) offers programs, services, and a variety of resources that promote inclusion, equity, and opportunity for students with disabilities.
• National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities provides the full text of IDEA and information about this law.
- Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) provides information pertaining to the education of students with disabilities; special education legislation and advocacy; careers and professional development opportunities.
- American Educational Research Association (AERA) largest professional and scientific organizations that supports research pertaining to children with disabilities.
- National Association of Special Education Teachers (NASET)- provides special education professionals with information about policy and research, professional development
- New York State- Office of Special Education,
- New York State- Quality assurance regional offices, which are also part of the Office of Special Education
- New York State- Special education parent centers, 13 in N.Y.S.
- New York State-The Advocacy Center is the Parent Training and Information Center in New York State provides information, workshops, services, outreach, and many other activities.
-Local- IDEA requires every state to have a Parent Training and Information (PTI) center.
- Local- Child Find coordinator working within a particular school district or county who identifies and evaluates SWDs
chapter 2- PI (i): The teacher's responsibility to advocate for the interests of students with disabilities
•Teachers should familiarize themselves with relevant federal, state, and local laws and school policies pertaining to students with disabilities.
•Teachers should become as knowledgeable about backgrounds, strengths, and weaknesses of individual students with disabilities.
•Teachers should maintain open communication with other educators, and parents about the SWDs
Chapter 3- PI (a): Typical and atypical human growth and development in various domains (e.g., cognitive, linguistic, social, emotional, physical, sensory)
Receptive language (the ability to understand language) and expressive language (the ability to express oneself using language).
Throughout normal development, receptive language tends to be superior to expressive language.
Components of Language
Phonology refers to speech sounds. -Each phoneme in a language consists of a distinct sound used to distinguish spoken words in a language
- The English language contains about 45 phonemes.
- Semantics refers to the meanings of parts of words, words, sentences, and larger units.
- Grammar refers to the rules that govern the structure of language.
- Syntax the placement of words in phrases, clauses, and sentences.
- Morphology refers to rules governing the use of morphemes, or the smallest parts of words that contribute to meaning. prefixes and suffixes are morphemes (ing).
- Pragmatics can be defined as whatever contributes to meaning
- Differing tones of voice often convey important differences in meaning.
- figurative speaking, as in the case of metaphor or analogy.
- pragmatics is reflected in both expressive and reflective language changes.
- Orthography refers to the system of representing oral language in writing.
- The Sequence of Language Development (receptive and expressive).
- Reading is an extension of language development that plays a central role in children's academic performance.
- Pre-reading- gradually realize that certain marks in their environment convey stories.
- Reading- concepts of print, words in a picture book convey stories.
- alphabet knowledge- relies on alphabetic principle, the understanding that letters represent sounds in systematic and predictable ways.
- Children's understanding of the alphabetic principle is accompanied by increases in phonological awareness, or the ability to consciously recognize.
- Spoken and written words (alphabetic principle) is supported by awareness that spoken words are composed of units of sound (phonological awareness).
- Children begin to read, most of their efforts devoted to decoding, or the sounding out of words.
- High-frequency words (you, and, the) are sight words
- Support will be essential for progress in decoding, comprehension, and fluency (read quickly, effortlessly, accurately, and expressively).
- Transitional Reading- decoding is advanced and the # of sight words grows leading to efficient reading.
- Reading to Learn- efficient reading with comprehension, progressed to the point that more attention can be paid to content than to the mechanics of reading.
- Advanced reading skills- • apply knowledge of letter-sound correspondences to difficult words • infer meaning from context • make predictions about what will happen in a story • identify text structures • read critically • shift between close reading and skimming • read with fluency • self-correct during reading • read independently.
- Reading Development: The Example of Decoding: development of decoding skills reflects four phases:
- Pre-alphabetic- treating words as visual objects,
- Partial-alphabetic- know some letters and letter-sound
- Full-alphabetic- apply alphabet knowledge systematically when decoding, and they often decode words letter by letter.
- Consolidated- recurring letter patterns become consolidated.
- Digraphs are pairs of letters that represent a single sound, such as "sh" and "oo."
- Consonant clusters are pairs of consonants that appear together in a syllable (ts), no single sound.
- Syllables are units of pronunciation containing one vowel sound.
- Rimes are the parts of syllables consisting of the vowel and any consonant that follows ("og" in the word "dog" and "ank" in the word "bank.").
- Reading Difficulties-
- Dyslexia is considered a learning disability that primarily affects reading.
- developmental dyslexia- early childhood, result of disease or injury to the brain is called alexia.
Symptoms-• Inability to decode unfamiliar words • Difficulty segmenting words into phonemes • Difficulty identifying or creating rhymes • Seeing letters or words in reverse • Seeing letters move or blur • Dysfluency when reading out loud • Difficulty following a sequence of instructions.
Chapter 3- PI (b): Characteristics, identification criteria, etiologies, and medical aspects of various types of disabilities (e.g., learning disability, intellectual disability, autism, multiple disabilities)
IDEA defines developmental delays (birth to age 3) (local and state can claim at ages 3-9) in one or more of the following areas: • cognitive development • physical development • social or emotional development • communication development • adaptive development.
Autism Spectrum Disorder
- affects communication, social interaction, and learning.
- may show language delays, unusual speech patterns, aversion to eye contact and touch, repetitive behaviors, and resistance to change in daily routines.
concomitant hearing and visual impairments. usually congenital (i.e., present at birth) but may be adventitious (i.e., acquired through illness or injury). student usually cannot benefit from a single program that address one of the disabilities
•Deafness refers to an extreme hearing impairment that adversely impacts the student's educational performance.
inability to learn that cannot be attributed to other factors, such as intellectual or sensory deficits, or health problems; an inability to build or sustain satisfactory personal relationships with others; feelings or behaviors that are ordinarily inappropriate; pervasive unhappiness or depression; and a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears related to personal problems or problems at school.
Impairment in hearing that undermines the student's educational performance but is not severe enough to be classified as deafness.
General intellectual ability that is significantly below average, combined with limitations in adaptive behavior, which adversely impacts the student's educational performance.
- often congenital but may be adventitious.
- Example: mental retardation- impairments in the extent of the child's social competence and independence.
Combination of impairments that cannot be accommodated in special education for only one service.
Severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects the child's educational performance
Other health impairment
one of the 13 - limited strength, vitality, or alertness that affects a child's educational performance, usually due to chronic or acute health problem such as asthma, Tourette's diabetes, sickle cell, etc.
Specific learning disability
problems with the ability to comprehend or produce information when performing academic tasks. Dyslexia, dyscalculia, and minimal brain dysfunction are among the many.
- Usually congenital, but may be adventitious.
- The term "specific" indicates that this disability is restricted to particular school subjects or tasks. A student with a specific learning disability may perform well in some subjects or tasks, and perform poorly on others.
Speech or language impairment
a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance, Mutism
Traumatic brain injury
a blow to the head or a penetrating head injury that damages the brain and the student's ability to learn
difficulties in seeing that may include blindness or partial sightedness, adversely influence the student's educational performance.
- Congenital but can be adventitious
Chapter 3- PI (c): Similarities and differences among students with and without disabilities
SWDs may have unique disabilities that affect their ability to learn, however, similarities with peers may be vastly greater than the differences among them.
- There are many distinguishing characteristics of a student, the feelings, beliefs, and behaviors that students exhibit may or may not be related to the disability.
- Because of the similarities in students, must observe for the possibility of mis-classifications or a change in diagnosed learning disability.
Chapter 3- PI (d): How the characteristics of various disabilities can influence an individual's education and life.
SWDs may need support with:
- academic functioning- to sustain in gen. ed. environment.
- behavioral functioning- ex. brain trauma and impulse control.
- social functioning (e.g., a student with autism is unable to interact effectively with teacher or peers without additional support)
- •physical functioning (e.g., a student with visual and auditory impairments is unable to participate in physical activities with peers without additional support)
Chapter 3- PI (e): How students with disabilities learn, including students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, and developmentally and age-appropriate strategies for addressing those differences.
Identifying students with disabilities as early as possible and developing appropriate instructional and curricular modifications is desirable. Some practices to consider include: • maintaining an academic focus in the classroom • holding high expectations for students' academic performance and behavior • making students accountable for their work and classroom behavior • creating a positive, cooperative classroom atmosphere • differentiating instruction according to individual student characteristics • monitoring student behavior and engagement.
- Cultural and Linguistic Differences
- Terms and jargon in Sped may be different than their cultural background.
- May have a sense of being different
- •Negative stereotyping may be perpetrated more frequently against students with disabilities who exhibit cultural and/ or linguistic differences.
- teacher should speak positive about these cultural differences, incorporate cultural beliefs and practices when possible
- acknowledge differences and perhaps use as a whole classroom learning experience.
- individualized instruction, differentiation of lessons.
- show value in student's background by involving the students and their parents in the process
Chapter 3- PI (f): Factors that affect development, learning, and daily living in students with disabilities (e.g., roles of families and communities; effects of medications, sensory impairments, and medical conditions)
Other factors that were not mention earlier:
- Social Support- from family, community, and school can affect any or all aspects of the student's development and functioning.
- Parents help their child adjust to both the academic and the social climate of school, as well as life outside school.
- Medication- can help manage disability but have side affects.
- Medication is only one line of support for the student.
- Monitor changes in student performance and functioning that may be medication-related.
Chapter 4- PI (a): Basic and specialized terminology used in the assessment of students with disabilities
•Assessment is an ongoing process of monitoring student learning and identifying areas of strength and weakness (formative activity).
•Evaluation is the determination of what students have already achieved (summative activity).
PI (b): The characteristics, uses, and limitations of various types of formal and informal assessments
• Screening assessments are administered to all students in a particular group, such as a grade or a school.
• Prereferral assessments are administered to individual students in some states before formally referring
determine which instructional modifications are likely to help the student (Is Sped a good fit?).
• Diagnostic assessments are administered to individual students who may need extra support (may or may not be in sped). To determine areas of strength and weakness for a particular student. May be used to identify the nature of the student's disability.
• Progress monitoring assessments are used to determine whether an individual student's progress is adequate. Often focuses on one specific academic area.
• Outcome assessments are used to determine the extent of student achievement at the end of the school year or other significant time period.
• Alternative assessments are based on behaviors, products, and other forms of expression that are not captured in traditional assessments.
• Criticism of standard testing: •Recall and rote learning is valued over critical reflection. •The knowledge being tested is trivialized by using multiple choice • pre-determined options rather than constructing solutions. • Arbitrary time limits • only one correct solution to each problem.
• Observational assessment yields descriptions of student behavior in natural settings.
• Rating scales are used to note the extent to which a behavior is expressed.
• Duration records are used to note the amount of time the student spends engaged in a particular behavior.
• Anecdotal records are used to record narrative descriptions of behavior in particular settings.
• Ecological assessment focuses on the student's functioning in different environments, identify environments in which the student functions with greater or lesser difficulty,
• Authentic assessment provides descriptions of student performance on real-life tasks carried out in real-world settings (rubric evaluation).
• Portfolio is a collection of work produced by a student over time.
• Alternative Assessment and
• Students with Disabilities, SWDs may or may not perform well on standardized test, alternative assessment may be required (severe cognitive impairments).
• New York State Alternative
Assessment (NYSAA) alternative in place of state mandated testing. • once a year starting at age 9 to 14 so progress can be monitored toward achieving the New York State learning standards and alternate grade-level indicators. Again at 17 or 18 measured on a 1-4 scale (1= scaffolding required to 4= independent)
Chapter 4- PI (f): Strategies for communicating assessment results to all stakeholders and strategies and procedures for creating and maintaining records
• Know your audience when discussing assessments (speak in layman's terms to students and parents).
• IDEA, FERPA, and other federal laws protect the confidentiality.
• Student information to be viewed by designated school officials and parents only.
• Permission must be granted for disclosure to anyone else especially outside the school district
• School must document all instances in which records were examined; documentation must include information about when and why the records were examined, and who conducted the examination..
Chapter 4- PI (c): Strategies for selecting and administering nonbiased assessments for given students
(IDEA) requires school districts to design policies and procedures that prevent students from certain racial and ethnic groups from being over represented in special education programs.
• Disproportionality- minorities, low social-economical, non-majority linguistic backgrounds, ELLs.
• Strategies to mitigate disproportionality, •greater support for the pre-educational and early educational experiences of all children, extensive prereferrals, multiple assessments, professional development for teachers making decisions.
• IDEA states that assessment materials must be nondiscriminatory with respect to the student's racial and cultural background. Must be in student's primary language, accommodations made, •Test bias must be avoided in the selection of assessments, item bias- favors one group over another.
• Test to be taken in a least restrictive environment
• IDEA requires each state to develop guidelines for the accommodations.
• Purpose of accommodations is to allow students with disabilities to demonstrate their achievement without being unfairly limited owing to their disabilities.
• Accommodations must not change the content of what a test measures or otherwise invalidate the results.
• Accommodations must not substitute for knowledge or abilities that the student has not attained, or give an unfair advantage to the student.
• Must be stated in IEP
• Examples: larger font, increased space between items, highlighted key phrases, read aloud, tactile format.
• Setting accommodations involve changes to the location and/ or conditions of the assessment.
• Scheduling accommodations involve changes to the timing and scheduling of assessments.
Chapter 4- PI (d): Interpreting information from formal and informal assessments
• Norm-referenced- comparison to norms (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV), are standardized, meaning that their administration and scoring is both predetermined and consistent (classroom exam).
• Criterion-referenced assessment compares the individual's performance to some predetermined standard, or criterion (this exam).
• Individual-referenced assessment looks at an individual's score at one point in time with the same individual's score at some other point (STAR exam- fall & spring).
• Criterion-referenced assessments consist of standardized tests,
• Individual-referenced assessments may or may not be standardized.
• Progress-monitoring assessments are often individual-referenced.
• Running record- teachers use to track the progress of students in areas like reading.
• Performance-Based Assessment- student must exhibit some behavior or create some product requiring integration of knowledge and skills.
• Technical Adequacy of Assessment- • Validity and reliability are two of the important concepts that are used in the interpretation, analysis, and application of assessment results.
• Criterion-related validity refers to the extent to which scores on an assessment are related to some criterion measure (quantitative) .
• Concurrent validity (the criterion measure is administered at the same
time as the assessment) and
• Predictive validity (the criterion measure is administered at some point in the future.
• Content validity refers to the extent to which an assessment accurately measures some identifiable content, such as curriculum standards or clearly defined behaviors (observable).
• Construct validity refers to the extent to which an assessment accurately measures some underlying construct, such as intelligence, motivation, and engagement (considered for SWDs).
• Reliability- Inconsistent results undermine the usefulness of an assessment.
• Test-retest reliability- will it matter if the same test is administered again
• Inter-rater reliability refers to the extent to which observers agree on assessment results.
• Equivalent-forms reliability-refers to the extent to which alternate forms of the same assessment yield the same results.
Chapter 4- PI (e): How individual evaluation assessment and data and other assessment information is used to make eligibility, program, and placement decisions for students with disabilities; how to evaluate instruction; how to monitor progress of students with disabilities; how to make responsive, research-based, and time adjustments to instruction.
• Children who are considered eligible for special education services must be reevaluated every three years, if not sooner.
• Two criteria- one of the 13 types of disability, and educational performance is adversely affected by the disability.
• CSE or CPSE set up evaluation process including permissions for assessments.
• Results of the evaluation are used to set up the IEP
• If the parents disagree with the results of the evaluation, they may request an Individual Educational Evaluation (IEE) paid for by the school district. Mediation and due process hearings are also options for the parents.
• SETT framework (students, environment, tasks, and tools) used for decisions like assistive technology. These areas are identified in need of support & services.
• Progress monitoring is a commonly used approach for assessing individual student progress.
• Curriculum-based assessment (CBA), an approach to monitoring student progress that is relatively sensitive to changes in performance over time.
Chapter 4- PI (g): Screening, prereferral (e.g., response to intervention), referral, and classification procedures
• Assessment plays a central role.
Chapter 4- PI (h): The continuum of services and placements available for students with disabilities
School must provide:
• Consultant teacher services are direct and/ or indirect services provided to students with disabilities in the general education classroom and/ or to their general education teachers.
• Resource room programs supplement the general or special education experience of students with disabilities by providing individual or small-group instruction (with other students who have similar needs) during part of the day.
• Special classes consist of students with disabilities grouped on the basis of similar needs, who receive their primary instruction separate from the general education classroom.
• Related services consist of developmental, corrective, and other supportive services that help students with disabilities access the general education curriculum.
• Teaching assistants and teacher aides can assist in the delivery of special education services.
• Transition, transitional support and travel training within the school, community, and home must be provided.
• Adapted physical education
• 12-month special services and/ or programs.
• Special transportation (to help the student travel to, from, and within the school).
Continuum of Services and Programs for Preschoolers
• special education itinerant services
• Half-day preschool programs
• Full-day preschool programs
• 12-month special services/ programs
• In-state residential special education programs
Continuum of Placement (NYS choices)
• Public schools •Boards of cooperative educational services
• Private approved day schools
• Private approved residential schools
• Home instruction
• Hospital instruction
Interim alternative educational settings (IAES) must be provided for students with disabilities who have been suspended or removed from their current placement for more than 10 school days. Also, behavioral intervention services modifications intended to prevent re-occurrence of the problem behavior.
Chapter 4- PI (i): The components of IEPs and the roles and responsibilities of special education teachers in developing, implementing, monitoring, and modifying IEPs, transition plans, and behavioral intervention plans.
Within 30 days of determining that a child is eligible for special education services under IDEA, an IEP team must meet in order to create an IEP for the child consisting of: parent, sped teacher, one gen ed. teacher, a representative of the LEA (school district), assessment interpreter.
• The IEP team must review the IEP at least once per year.
• IFSP- children birth to age 3
• Different than the IEP, IFSP targets the family and those natural environments.
• Behavioral Intervention Plans (BIP) when a problem behavior disrupts their ability or that of other students to learn. A BIP is created when the IEP team meet to conduct a functional behavioral assessment in order to identify the causes of problem behavior and to then develop an intervention strategy.
• Recurring and/ or extreme misbehavior may result in a student being removed from his/ her regular educational placement through suspension or through placement alternative educational setting.
• Manifestation Determination Review
meeting to determine whether the misbehavior is a manifestation of the student's disability, or whether it resulted from the school's failure to appropriately implement the IEP.
•IDEA re-authorization in 2004 includes transition support for students after K-12
• Transition planning start at age 14
• Post-graduation plan must be included in students' IEPs by age 16.
• T. plan can include applying to college, vocational school, place to live, and •measurable goals for training, education, employment, •courses that should be provided to prepare student for post school, annual goals while in high school that will prepare the student for post school, transition services and activities that will facilitate the shift to life post-school.
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