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PRINCE2 2009 study cards

Study cards from the 2009 edition of Managing Successful Projects with PRINCE2 Best Management Practice, Project Management, OGC
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What does PRINCE 2 stand for?
Projects IN Controlled Environments
Two competing imperatives for organisations today
Maintaining BUSINESS AS USUAL
INTRODUCING CHANGE to transform business operations for the future
PRINCE 2 definition of a project
a TEMPORARY ORGANISATION created to DELIVER one or more business PRODUCTS according to an agreed BUSINESS CASE
5 characteristics of a project
CHANGE is introduced
TEMPORARY, has a defined start and end
CROSS FUNCTIONAL - different skills, perspectives, motivation
every project is UNIQUE
UNCERTAINTY - projects are more risky
Definition of project management
The PLANNING, DELEGATING, MONITORING and CONTROL of all aspects of the project, and the MOTIVATION of those involved, to achieve project OBJECTIVES within the expected PERFORMANCE TARGETS for time, cost, quality, scope, benefits and risks
What does a project manager do?
Plan
Delegate
Monitor
Control
6 project performance variables
Time
Cost
Quality
Scope
Risk
Benefits
The structure of PRINCE 2 - Four elements
7 PRINCIPLES
7 THEMES
7 PROCESSES
TAILORING to the project environment
What are the 7 principles?
1. Continued Business Justification
2. Learn from experience
3. Defined roles and responsibilities
4. Manage by stages
5. Manage by exception
6. Focus on Products
7. Tailor to suit the project environment
3 characteristics of the PRINCE 2 principles
UNIVERSAL - apply to every project
SELF-VALIDATING - proven over many years
EMPOWERING - can be used with confidence
1st Principle
CONTINUED BUSINESS JUSTIFICATION
a PRINCE 2 project has continued business justification
3 requirements for a PRINCE 2 project's business justification
A justifiable REASON TO START
the JUSTIFICATION REMAINS VALID throughout the project
the justification is DOCUMENTED and APPROVED
2nd Principle
LEARN FROM EXPERIENCE
PRINCE 2 project teams learn from previous experience: lessons are sought, recorded and acted upon throughout the life of the project
When should lessons be sought from experience
When starting a project
As the project progresses
As the project closes
Whose responsibility is it to seek lessons learned?
EVERYONE involved with the project
What is the difference between a lesson identified and a lesson learned?
Unless lessons provoke change they are only lessons identified, not lessons learned
3rd Principle
DEFINED ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
a PRINCE 2 project has defined and agreed roles and responsibilities within an organisation structure that engages the business, user and supplier stakeholder interests
Why must projects have an explicit project management team structure consisting of defined roles and responsibilities for the people involved?
To be SUCCESSFUL
3 primary stakeholders
BUSINESS sponsors
USERS who will use the products to gain the intended benefits
SUPPLIERS (internal or external) who provide resources and expertise
2 primary responsibilities of the business sponsors
ENDORSE the OBJECTIVES
and ENSURE the business investment provides VALUE FOR MONEY
4th Principle
MANAGE BY STAGES
a PRINCE 2 project is planned, monitored and controlled on a stage-by-stage basis
What should be done at the end of each stage?
ASSESS project status
REVIEW business case and plans to ensure project remains viable
DECIDE whether or not to proceed
2 benefits of breaking the project into stages
1. Enables senior management CONTROL POINTS - in accordance with priority, risk and complexity
2. Overcomes planning horizon issues - Detailed short-term team plan, long-term outline plan
How does PRINCE 2 overcome planning horizon issues
Dividing the project into management stages
Having a HIGH-LEVEL PROJECT PLAN and a DETAILED STAGE PLAN
Planning, delegating, monitoring and controlling on a stage-by-stage basis
PRINCE 2 requires a minimum of (how many) management stages?
TWO
one initiation stage and one (or more) management stages
5th Principle
MANAGE BY EXCEPTION
a PRINCE 2 project has defined tolerances for each project objective to establish limits of delegated authority
What does PRINCE 2 have to enable appropriate project governance?
Defined distinct responsibilities for
DIRECTING
MANAGING
DELIVERING
with clearly defined accountability
3 elements for establishing accountability
TOLERANCES set for the 6 project performance variables
CONTROLS set up for escalating if tolerances will be exceeded
ASSURANCE mechanism in place to ensure controls are effective
6th Principle
FOCUS ON PRODUCTS
a PRINCE 2 project focuses on the definition and delivery of products, in particular their quality requirements
How is a PRINCE 2 project oriented?
It is OUTPUT oriented, with products agreed and defined prior to the activities required to produce them
What is a PRINCE 2 explicit understanding of the projects product output called?
the Product Descripion
6 elements of a PRINCE 2 Product Description
Purpose
Composition
Derivation
Format
Quality Criteria
Quality Method
5 major risks for projects without a product focus
Acceptance disputes
Rework
Uncontrolled change ('scope creep')
User dissatisfaction
Underestimation of acceptance activities
7th Principle
TAILOR TO SUIT THE PROJECT ENVIRONMENT
PRINCE 2 is tailored to suit the project's environment, size, complexity, importance, capability and risk
2 reasons for tailoring a project
To ensure the project management method relates to the project's environment

To ensure that project controls are based on the project's scale, complexity, importance, capability and risk
Who makes an active decision on how the PRINCE 2 method will be applied to the project?
The PROJECT MANAGER and the PROJECT BOARD
Where should the result of the project tailoring decision recorded?
in the PID (project initiation documentation)
What are the 7 themes?
1. Business Case
2. Organisation
3. Quality
4. Plans
5. Risk
6. Change
7. Progress
1st Theme
BUSINESS CASE
What is the purpose of the Business Case management product?
(Theme)
To establish mechanisms to judge whether the project is (and remains) DESIRABLE, VIABLE and ACHIEVABLE, as a means to support decision making
3 elements for the continued justification of the project
DESIRABLE - the cost/benefit/risk balance
VIABLE - the project can deliver the products
ACHIEVABLE - the products can provide the benefits
Who is responsible for specifying the benefits and subsequently realising them through use of the products?
The SENIOR USER(s)
3 elements the Executive is responsible for ensuring about the benefits specified by the senior user
Value for money
Aligned to corporate objectives
Capable of being realised
When is the business case developed and maintained?
Developed at the start of the project
Maintained throughout the life of the project, formally verified by the Project Board at each key decision point (e.g. end stage assessment)
Definition of an OUTPUT
Any of the project's SPECIALIST PRODUCTS, whether tangible or intangible
Definition of an OUTCOME
The RESULT OF THE CHANGE derived from using the project's outputs
Definition of a BENEFIT
The MEASURABLE IMPROVEMENT resulting from an outcome that is perceived as an advantage by one or more stakeholders
4 elements of the PRINCE 2 approach to the Business Case
DEVELOP the right information for decisions
VERIFY the project is (still) worthwhile
MAINTAIN - update costs & benefits
CONFIRM benefits have or will be realised
Who is responsible for the business case?
The EXECUTIVE is responsible for ensuring that the business case is written and approved
3 stages of a business case
PROJECT MANDATE
OUTLINE Business Case
DETAILED Business Case
3 elements of a detailed business case
OUTLINE Business Case
Project Plan
Risk Register
The Business Case contents are...
1. Executive summary
2. Reasons
3. Business options
4. Expected benefits
5. Expected dis-benefits
6. Timescale
7. Costs
8. Investment appraisal
9. Major risks
When should the business case be reviewed?
1. End of STARTING up a PROJECT
2. End of INITIATING a PROJECT
3. As part of any IMPACT ASSESSMENT
4. With any EXCEPTION PLAN
5. At the END of each STAGE
6. As part of the BENEFITS REVIEW
Whose responsibility is it to assure the projects stakeholders that the project is still desirable, viable and achievable at all times?
The Executive
assisted by Project Assurance
2nd Theme
ORGANISATION
What is the purpose of the organisation theme?
To define and establish the project's STRUCTURE of ACCOUNTABILITY and RESPONSIBILITIES
4 elements of a successful project management team
1. Business, user and supplier STAKEHOLDER REPRESENTATION
2. APPROPRIATE GOVERNANCE, defined responsibilities for directing, managing and delivering the project with clearly defined accountability at each level
3. REVIEW ROLES throughout the project
4. An effective COMMUNICATIONS STRATEGY
4 levels of management (organisation)
CORPORATE or programme management
DIRECTING (project board)
MANAGING (project manager)
DELIVERING (team / team manager)
The Senior Supplier role is accountable for
the QUALITY of products delivered by the supplier(s)
and the TECHNICAL INTEGRITY of the project
Project Assurance should be independent of...
The Project Manager
3rd Theme
QUALITY
What is the purpose of the QUALITY theme?
To define and implement the means by which the project will verify products that are fit for purpose
PRINCE 2 definition of Quality
The FEATURES and CHARACTERISTICS of a Product, Person, Process, Service or System that bear on its Ability to Meet EXPECTATIONS, NEEDS, REQUIREMENTS or SPECIFICATION
PRINCE 2 definition of Scope
The scope of a plan is the SUM TOTAL of its PRODUCTS, defined by the Product Breakdown Structure and Product Descriptions
Quality Assurance should be independent of...
The Project Management Team
(It is the responsibility of corporate or programme management)
Quality planning comprises:
1. Customer's quality expectations
2. Project's acceptance criteria
3. Document quality expectations and acceptance criteria in the Project Product Description
4. Quality Management Strategy
5. Clear product descriptions
6. Set up the Quality Register
Acceptance criteria MoSCoW
Each acceptance criterion is rated as
Must have
Should have
Could have, or
Won't have for now
5 things the Project Product Description includes
1. overall PURPOSE of the project
2. its COMPOSITION (the set of products)
3. the customer's QUALITY EXPECTATIONS
4. ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA, method and responsibilities
5. project level QUALITY TOLERANCES
4th Theme
PLANS
Purpose of the PLANS theme
To facilitate communication and control by defining the means of delivering the products
(Where, How, by Whom, and estimating the When and How Much)
3 levels of plan recommended by PRINCE 2
1. PROJECT plan
2. STAGE plans
3. TEAM plans
Purpose of an exception plan
Show the ACTIONS REQUIRED to recover from the effect of a TOLERANCE DEVIATION
8 steps in the PRINCE 2 planning procedure
1. DESIGN the plan
2. DEFINE and analyse the PRODUCTS
3. create the PRODUCT BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE
4. identify ACTIVITIES and DEPENDENCIES
5. prepare ESTIMATES
6. prepare the SCHEDULE
7. analyse RISKS
8. DOCUMENT the plan
5th Theme
RISK
Purpose of the RISK theme
to IDENTIFY, ASSESS and CONTROL UNCERTAINTY and, as a result, improve the ability of the project to succeed
What is a Risk?
an UNCERTAIN EVENT or set of events that, should it occur, will have an EFFECT on the ACHIEVEMENT of OBJECTIVES
A Risk is a combination of (2 things)
1. the PROBABILITY of a perceived THREAT or OPPORTUNITY occurring
2. the magnitude of its IMPACT on OBJECTIVES
What is risk management
the systematic application of PROCEDURES to IDENTIFY and ASSESS risks
then PLANNING and IMPLEMENTING risk RESPONSES
Purpose of the Risk Management Strategy
To describe how risk management will be embedded in the project management activities
Purpose of the Risk Register
to CAPTURE and MAINTAIN INFORMATION on all of the identified THREATS and OPPORTUNITIES relating to the project
5 step risk management procedure
1. Identify
2. Assess
3. Plan
4. Implement
5. Communicate: continuous through steps 1-4
3 aspects of a risk
1. risk CAUSE (source or driver, because...)
2. risk EVENT (what might happen)
3. risk EFFECT (potential impact on objectives)
Role description for a Risk Owner
A named individual, responsible for the management, monitoring and control of all aspects of a particular risk
Role description for a Risk Actionee
An individual assigned to carry out a risk response action or actions (takes direction from the risk owner)
9 categories of Risk Response
1. AVOID (threat)
2. REDUCE (threat)
3. FALLBACK (threat)
4. TRANSFER (threat)
5. ACCEPT (threat)
6. SHARE (threat or opportunity)
7. EXPLOIT (opportunity)
8. ENHANCE (opportunity)
9. REJECT (opportunity)
6th Theme
CHANGE
Purpose of the CHANGE theme
To identify, assess and control any potential and approved changes to the baseline
3 types of Issue
REQUEST FOR CHANGE: a proposal for change to a baseline
OFF-SPECIFICATION: a deviation from a baseline
PROBLEM/CONCERN: any other issue the PM needs to resolve or escalate
7th Theme
PROGRESS
Purpose of the PROGRESS theme
To establish mechanisms to monitor and compare actual achievements against those planned
3 levels for monitoring progress
Work Package
Stage
Project
What is an Exception?
A situation where it can be forecast that there will be a DEVIATION beyond the TOLERANCE levels agreed between the Project Manager and Project Board
2 types of progress control
EVENT driven
TIME driven
5 management products used to review progress
Daily Log
Issue Register
Product Status Account
Quality Register
Risk Register
What is a Product Status Account?
A report on the status of products (planned and actual dates, review and approval)
- Derived from configuration item records
- Can reveal progress issues
4 products for Reporting Progress
1. Checkpoint Report
2. Highlight Report
3. End Stage Report
4. End Project Report
What is a Checkpoint Report?
The TEAM MANAGER'S report to the Project Manager about progress against a WORK PACKAGE
What is a Highlight Report?
The PROJECT MANAGER'S report on STAGE PROGRESS to the Project Board
7 Processes
1. Starting up a project
2. Directing a project
3. Initiating a project
4. Controlling a stage
5. Managing product delivery
6. Managing a Stage Boundary
7. Closing a project
1st Process
STARTING UP a Project
6 activities in Starting up a Project
1. appoint the EXECUTIVE and PROJECT MANAGER
2. capture PREVIOUS LESSONS
3. design and appoint the PROJECT MANAGEMENT TEAM
4. prepare the OUTLINE BUSINESS CASE
5. select the PROJECT APPROACH and assemble the PROJECT BRIEF
6. PLAN the INITIATION stage
7 Management products in Starting up a Project
LESSONS Log
OUTLINE Business Case
Project BRIEF
Project Management team ROLE DESCRIPTIONS
Project PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
STAGE PLAN
DAILY LOG
Description of the Project Brief
A statement that describes the PURPOSE, COST, TIME and PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS, and constraints for a project
2nd Process
DIRECTING a Project
5 activities in Directing a Project
1. Authorize initiation
2. Authorize the project
3. Authorize a Stage or Exception Plan
4. Give ad hoc direction
5. Authorize project closure
3rd Process
INITIATING a Project
8 activities in Initiating a Project
1. Prepare the Risk Management Strategy
2. Prepare the Configuration Management Strategy
3. Prepare the Quality Management Strategy
4. Prepare the Communication Management Strategy
5. Set up the Project controls
6. Create the Project Plan
7. Refine the Business Case
8. Assemble Project Initiation Documentation
4th Process
CONTROLLING a STAGE
8 activities in Controlling a Stage
WORK PACKAGES:
1. Authorize a Work package
2. Review Work Package status
3. Receive completed Work Packages

MONITORING & REPORTING:
4. Review the stage status
5. Report highlights

ISSUES:
6. Capture and examine issues and risks
7. Escalate issues and risks
8. Take corrective action
5th Process
Managing PRODUCT DELIVERY
3 activities in Managing Product Delivery
ACCEPT a Work Package
EXECUTE a Work Package
DELIVER a Work Package
6th Process
Managing a Stage Boundary
5 activities in Managing a Stage Boundary
1. Plan the next Stage
2. Update the Project Plan
3. Update the Business Case
4. Report stage end
5. Produce an Exception Plan
7th Process
Closing a project
5 activities in Closing a Project
1. Prepare planned closure
2. Prepare premature closure
3. Hand over products
4. Evaluate the project
5. Recommend project closure
Tailoring is about adapting the PRINCE2 method to...
1. External factors - such as corporate standards
2. Project factors - such as the scale of the project
Should elements of PRINCE2 be omitted when Tailoring?
No - The method is not a series of isolated silos where any element can be omitted with no effect on the others
What is embedding?
What an organisation needs to do to adopt PRINCE2 as its corporate project management method
What is the difference between PRINCE2 and PMBOK?
PRINCE2 provides a framework of WHAT needs to be done, by WHO and by WHEN
The BoK provides a range of techniques of HOW those things can be done.
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