Exam 1 A & P
Terms in this set (178)
The cerebellar hemispheres are separated by a worm-shaped band of cortex called the
Which of the following is not one of the main divisions of the adult brain?
The region of the brain responsible for predicting the consequence of events or actions is the
prefrontal cerebral cortex.
Your uncle was just diagnosed with a heart attack. One of his major symptoms is left arm pain. You are not surprised because you are familiar with the phenomenon of ________ pain.
All of the following are a function of the hypothalamus except
projecting visual information to the visual cortex.
The Roman numeral V indicates the ________ nerve.
Define referred pain.
Referred pain is a sensation felt in a part of the body other than its actual source.
What contains a spider web-like network of cells and fibers through which cerebrospinal fluid flows?
Which structure of the dura mater separates the cerebral hemispheres from the cerebellum?
The midbrain relays auditory information to the
Mechanoreceptors might detect all of the following sensations except
Which major somatic sensory pathway carries proprioceptive input from tendons, muscle spindles, and joint capsules?
Descending (motor) pathways always involve at least ________ motor neuron
Where is the primary motor cortex located?
precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe of the cerebrum
The basic reflex motor patterns related to eating and drinking are controlled by which region of the brain? (Module 13.21B)
Motor neurons whose cell bodies are within the spinal cord are called ________ neurons.
All of the following help(s) to directly protect the brain except
the neural tubes.
The primary motor cortex is the surface of the
Which brain region has been affected in a stroke victim who is unable to speak? (Module 13.12C)
You suspect your friend has damage to cranial nerve I when he is unable to
smell his food.
Describe the arbor vitae, including its makeup, location, and function. (Module 13.6B)
The arbor vitae is white matter of the cerebellum that connects the cerebellar cortex and nuclei with cerebellar peduncles.
In most cases, the general interpretive center and the speech center are located in the
left cerebral hemisphere.
The shallow folds of the surface of the cerebellum are called
Divisions of the cerebral hemispheres that are named after the overlying skull bones are
Describe amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). (Module 13.22C)
ALS is a progressive degeneration of the motor neurons of the CNS, leading to muscle atrophy and eventual paralysis.
The general senses
involve receptors that are relatively simple in structure.
Which region of the brain contains two ventricles? (Module 13.2B)
A receptor that responds to chemicals dissolved in solution is a
The highest levels of information processing occur in the
Identify the lobes of the cerebrum, and indicate the basis for their names. (Module 13.11A)
frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes; they are named for the overlying bones of the skull
________ are receptors in the aorta that monitor the blood pressure.
Define the term general senses.
General senses are temperature, pain, touch, pressure, vibration, and proprioception and are distributed throughout the body.
After suffering a stroke, Mary finds that she cannot move her right arm. This would suggest that the stroke damage is in the area of the ________ lobe.
Which diencephalic structure regulates body temperature by control of autonomic centers in the medulla oblongata?
preoptic area of the hypothalamus
The cerebellum adjusts motor activity in response to all of the following except
The layer of the meninges that closely follows every gyrus and sulcus is the
Parkinson's disease is the result of
inadequate production of dopamine by substantia nigra neurons.
The term general senses refers to sensitivity to all of the following except
The limbic system __________.
is also known as the motivational system
The adult human brain contains almost ________ of the body's neural tissue.
Upper motor neuron cell bodies originate in all the following except
As CSF circulates, ________ between it and the interstitial fluid of the CNS is unrestricted between and across the ependymal cells.
The ________, a narrow stalk, connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland.
Which of the following is not a property of the limbic system?
functions in maintaining homeostasis in cold weather
Describe how rabies is contracted
Rabies is contracted by the bite of a rabid animal.
What is the function of the longitudinal fasciculi?
connect the frontal lobe to the other lobes of the same hemisphere
Male brains are typically ________ compared to female brains.
Receptors that monitor the position of joints belong to the category called
Describe the three classes of mechanoreceptors.
proprioceptors, which monitor the positions of bones, joints, and muscles; baroreceptors, which detect changes in pressure; and tactile receptors, which respond to the sense of touch
A person with a damaged visual association area may be
able to see letters but unable to associate them into words.
The control of heart rate and blood pressure is based in the
Which region of the brain is enclosed or hidden by the cerebrum?
The cerebral area posterior to the central sulcus is the
The Roman numeral VIII indicates the ________ nerve.
The surface of the postcentral gyrus contains the ________ cortex.
After suffering a blow to the back of the head, Phil loses his vision. The blow probably caused damage to the
The cardiovascular reflexes are based in the
Autonomic centers that control blood pressure, heart rate, and digestion are located in the
The two cerebral hemispheres are separated by the
________ are chambers within the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid.
Describe the role of the medulla oblongata.
The medulla oblongata relays sensory information to other parts of the brainstem and to the thalamus. It also contains centers that regulate autonomic functions, such as heart rate and blood pressure.
Pain is to ________ as cold is to ________.
Which structure is located in the diencephalon?
Which spinal tracts carry action potentials generated by nociceptors? (Module 13.19B)
lateral spinothalamic tracts
is secreted by ependymal cells.
Mechanoreceptors that respond to changes in blood pressure are called
Which cranial nerves arise from the brainstem
III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, XI, X, XI, XII
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) __________.
has its entire volume replaced roughly every 8 hours
The visual cortex is located in the
Alzheimer's disease is characterized by all of the following except that it
has a clear genetic basis.
The ________ filters and relays sensory information to the cerebral cortex.
Difficulty in swallowing may be a sign of damage to which cranial nerve(s)?
vagus and glossopharyngeal
There are ________ pairs of cranial nerves.
All the answers are correct.
Explain adaptation, and differentiate between peripheral adaptation and central adaptation.
Adaptation is a decrease in receptor sensitivity in the presence of constant stimulation. Peripheral adaptation reduces the amount of information sent to the CNS. In central adaptation, the awareness of the stimulus virtually disappears.
Only about ________ percent of sensory information reaches the cerebral cortex and our awareness.
Which cranial nerves have motor functions only?
oculomotor, trochlear, abducens, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves
The ________ provides the principal link between the nervous and endocrine systems.
Define visceral reflex.
A visceral reflex is an autonomic reflex initiated in the viscera. It can be modified, facilitated, or inhibited by higher centers, especially those in the hypothalamus.
The ________ division of the autonomic nervous system is known as the "rest and digest" division.
Which statement is true regarding the ANS?
The integrative centers for autonomic activity are located in the hypothalamus.
Which of the following is an effect of parasympathetic activation?
constriction of the pupils
Which cranial nerve provides roughly 75 percent of all parasympathetic outflow?
In general, parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are ________ and postganglionic fibers are ________.
are present in the carotid bodies
Preganglionic fibers leave the CNS and then synapse on
Which brain area is considered to be the headquarters of the ANS?
Preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system are located in the
lateral gray horns of segments T1 to L2 of the spinal cord.
A visceral motor neuron whose cell body is within the CNS is called a(n) ________ neuron.
Activated nicotinic receptors __________.
open chemically-gated channels in the postsynaptic membrane
What neurotransmitter is released by all parasympathetic neurons? (Module 14.5B)
Baroreceptors are not found in the
are normally activated by acetylcholine
When comparing the SNS and ANS, which of the following are unique to the ANS?
Dual innervation refers to an organ receiving
both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation.
Drugs known as beta-blockers may be useful for treating
excessive heart rate.
open chemically gated sodium ion channels.
Reduction in heart rate and force of contraction is a response in which visceral reflex?
Which neurotransmitter is released at the sympathetic chain ganglia?
Most vital organs receive ________ innervation. That is, they receive input from both sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
Which of the following is a characteristic of the enteric nervous system?
All of the neurotransmitters found in the brain are found in the ENS.
Compare the anatomy of the sympathetic division with that of the parasympathetic division.
In the SNS, axons emerge from the thoracic and lumbar segments of the spinal cord and innervate ganglia relatively close to the spinal cord. In the PNS, axons emerge from the brainstem and sacral segments of the spinal cord and innervate ganglia very close to or within the target organs.
Compare nicotinic receptors and muscarinic receptors.
Nicotinic receptors are acetylcholine receptors on the surface of sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglionic cells. Muscarinic receptors are acetylcholine G protein-coupled receptors located at all parasympathetic neuromuscular and neuroglandular junctions, and at a few sympathetic neuromuscular and neuroglandular junctions.
Define baroreceptors. Where are baroreceptors located within the body?
Baroreceptors are stretch receptors that detect changes in pressure. They are located along the digestive tract, within the walls of the urinary bladder, in the carotid and aortic sinuses, and in the lungs.
Which of the following is an example of a parasympathetic visceral reflex?
Regarding the dual autonomic innervation of the heart, __________
parasympathetic effects predominate at rest
Clusters of ganglionic sympathetic neurons lying along either side of the spinal cord are called sympathetic ________ ganglia.
Which division of the ANS is responsible for the physiological changes you experience when startled by a loud noise? (Module 14.2D)
sympathetic division of the ANS
Two terms that both refer to internal organs are
splanchnic and viscera.
Which of the following is an effect of sympathetic activation?
stimulation of the medial and lateral pathways associated with a general elevation in muscle tone
Which type of receptor is sensitive to changes in blood pH? (Module 14.10B)
In general, sympathetic preganglionic fibers are ________ and postganglionic fibers are ________.
The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS:
may work together, each controlling a stage of a complex process.
Identify two major divisions of the ANS. (Module 14.2A)
sympathetic division and parasympathetic division
Define dual innervation
Dual innervation means that a given body system receives instructions from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS.
Regarding ANS motor control, which CNS structure(s) is/are involved in emotions, memory, and behavior?
When you spin quickly, you may feel dizzy. Which component of the inner ear generates the sensations that can lead to this feeling?
Identify two common classes of hearing-related disorders. (Module 15.22C)
conductive hearing loss and sensorineural hearing loss
Considering the wavelengths of light received and abundance of various photoreceptors, which color is best received by the retina?
Define decibel. (Module 15.20A)
Decibels are units of the intensity of sound.
A ray of light entering the eye will encounter these structures in which order?
cornea - aqueous humor - lens - vitreous body - retina - choroid
In sensorineural deafness, __________.
the problem lies within the cochlea or somewhere along the auditory pathway
Name the three tiny bones located in the middle ear, from lateral to medial. (Module 15.16A)
malleus, incus, and stapes
A typical gustatory cell survives for only about ________ days before it is replaced.
________, or pinkeye, results from damage to or irritation of the conjunctival surface.
Which cells develop into the photoreceptors? (Module 15.5C)
ependymal cells of the outer layer of the optic cup
Olfactory receptors send axons through the cribriform plate. They synapse on neurons in the
Identify the cranial nerves that carry gustatory information. (Module 15.4B)
facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves
A person suffering from ________ can see distant objects more clearly than those that are close.
The frequency of a perceived sound depends on
which part of the cochlear duct is stimulated
What is the function of the auditory tube? (Module 15.16B)
to allow pressure equalization on both sides of the tympanic membrane
The senses of equilibrium and hearing are provided by receptors of the
Why does the near point of vision typically increase with age? (Module 15.9C)
Elasticity of the lens decreases with age.
Where are visual images perceived? (Module 15.13B)
visual cortex of the occipital lobe
Sound waves are converted into mechanical movements by the
Name the three layers of the eye. (Module 15.7A)
outer fibrous layer, middle vascular layer, deep inner layer
The ________ ear collects sounds waves and transmits them to the ________ ear, which contains auditory ossicles.
The vibrations received by the tympanic membrane are transferred to the oval window by the
The gelatinous material found in the posterior cavity is the
Define emmetropia. (Module 15.14A)
It is the term for normal vision.
What is the eye's blind spot? (Module 15.10A)
All of the following is a function of tears except
maintains acidic environment.
Sound travels directly to the eardrum through the
external auditory canal.
When light encounters a medium of different density, it is bent or
What occurs when the head is in the normal, upright position?
The otoliths push the hair cell processes down.
Define gustation. (Module 15.3A)
Gustation is the sense of taste.
A loud noise does not cause
the generation of a wave with a high frequency.
Identify the accessory structures of the eye. (Module 15.6A)
eyelids, eyelashes, the superficial epithelium of the eye, and the structures associated with the production, secretion, and removal of tears
A person suffering from ________ can see objects that are close, but distant objects appear blurred.
Taste buds are monitored by cranial nerves
VII, IX, and X.
What is your reflexive response to hearing a loud noise, such as a firecracker? (Module 15.21C)
turn your head and eyes toward the source of the noise
Olfactory organs are located in the nasal cavity inferior to the perforated bony structure known as the
can be treated by placing a diverging lens in front of the eye
What gives eyes their characteristic color? (Module 15.7B)
the density and distribution of melanocytes in the iris
Taste receptors are distributed in which of the following places?
All of the answers are correct.
An area of the retina that contains only cones and is the site of sharpest vision is the
A sudden rise of room brightness would cause
contraction of the pupillary constrictor muscles
What structure changes the shape of the lens for far and near vision?
________ are photoreceptor cells that are most useful in dim light.
Olfactory information is first received by which part of the brain?
Which structures develop into the retina? (Module 15.5B)
inner and outer layers of the optic cup
A sound with a frequency of 12,000 hertz would be
When all three cone populations are stimulated equally, we perceive
________ are photoreceptors that convey our ability to see color.
Where in the eye is aqueous humor located? (Module 15.7C)
in the anterior cavity, between the cornea and the lens
Which type of lens would correct hyperopia? (Module 15.14B)
converging lens (with at least one convex surface)
Which of the following is not one of the six primary taste sensations?
The visible spectrum for humans extends between a wavelength of 400 nm and ________ nm.
Which layer of the eye would be the first affected by inadequate tear production? (Module 15.6B)
The olfactory receptor cell can be activated by as few as ________ odorant molecules.
Gravity and linear acceleration are sensed in the
saccule and utricle.
The opening in the iris through which light passes is the
The visual receptors of the retina are called
All of the following are true of the lacrimal glands except that they
produce a strongly hypertonic fluid.
In the human eye, most refraction occurs when light passes through the
Where are the hair cell receptors for equilibrium located? (Module 15.21A)
vestibule and semicircular ducts
________ glands are modified sebaceous glands located along the margin of the eyelid that secrete a lipid-rich product.
Compare olfactory receptors with receptors for the other special senses. (Module 15.1C)
Olfactory receptors are the dendrites of specialized excitable olfactory neurons, whereas the receptors for the other special senses are receptor cells with inexcitable membranes and form synapses with the processes of sensory neurons.