History Alive the Ancient World, Ch 34

The First Period of Expansion
The first period of expansion, or becoming larger, began in 509 B.C.E. At this time, the Romans drove the last Etruscan king out of power, and Rome became a republic
The Second Period of Expansion
During the second period of expansion, from 264 to 146 B.C.E., Rome and Carthage fought three major wars. Through these wars, Rome gained control of North Africa, much of Spain, and the island of Sicily.
The Third Period of Expansion
During the third period of expansion, from 145 to 44 B.C.E., Rome came to rule the entire Mediterranean world. In the east, Rome took control of Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt. In the west, the Roman general Julius Caesar conquered much of Gaul (modern-day France).
The Fourth Period of Expansion
The fourth period of expansion began with the start of the empire. It lasted until 14 C.E. The first emperor, Augustus, added a great deal of new territory by pushing the borders of the empire all the way to natural boundaries, like rivers, to make it easier to defend. Later emperors added more territory. At its height, the Roman Empire stretched from the island of Britain in the northwest to the Black Sea in the east.
What did each period of expansion involve?
Each period of expansion involved cost and sacrifice.
How long did the First Period of Expansion take place?
Rome's first period of expansion included more than two hundred years of almost constant warfare. During this time, Rome gradually took control of the entire Italian peninsula.
Key point of First Expansion
After the last Etruscan king was overthrown in 509 B.C.E., the Romans began to expand their territory and influence. In 493 B.C.E., Roman leaders signed a treaty, or agreement, with their Latin neighbors to the south.
390 BCE
Then, in 390 B.C.E., Rome nearly came to an end. A band of Gauls (gawlz), a warlike people from the north, crushed a Roman army and surged into the city.
How did Romans react to the Gauls
hey rebuilt their city and surrounded it with walls. They also built up their army. Before long, Roman soldiers were on the march again.
What did Rome learn about the keeping territories?
As Rome's territory expanded, the city had to keep a large, permanent army to defend it and the conquered lands.By 264 B.C.E., Rome had more citizens and well-trained soldiers than any other power in the Mediterranean world. But very soon, the Romans would face their greatest challenge yet.
how many wars were fought with Carthage in the 2nd expansion?
During Rome's second period of expansion, it fought three savage wars with Carthage, a powerful city-state in North Africa, for control of the Mediterranean region.
another name for the Rome wars with Carthage
Rome's wars with Carthage are called the Punic Wars, after the Greek name for the people of Carthage. The First Punic War began in 264 B.C.E. It was fought mostly at sea.
The first punic war
A decisive victory at sea in 241 B.C.E. won the war for the Romans. The triumphant Romans took over Sicily, as well as other islands in the area.
when did the 2nd punic war start?
The Second Punic War started 23 years later. This time, the Carthaginians decided to attack Italy itself. In 218 B.C.E.,
Describe the 2nd punic war
Hannibal, a brilliant Carthaginian general, surprised the Romans by marching his army from Spain across the Alps (a high mountain range) and into Italy. His troops rode elephants and braved snowstorms, landslides, and attacks by local tribes. For 15 years, Hannibal's men fought the Romans in Italy.
In 202 B.C.E., Hannibal had to return home to defend Carthage against an attack by a Roman army. There he was defeated in the battle that ended the Second Punic War.
What was the conclusion of the 2nd war?
Carthage was forced to give up Spain to Rome, along with huge sums of money.
The Third Punic War lasted three years. In 146 B.C.E., the Romans burned Carthage to the ground.
How long did the third punic war last?
What did the punic wars do for Rome?
The Punic Wars expanded Roman power and territory, but Rome's victories came at a price.
what happened at the end of the third expansion?
By the end of Rome's third period of expansion, the republic collapsed.
what marked the final years of the republic?
The final years of the republic were marked by still more wars. Many of Rome's allies resented having to pay Roman taxes and fight in Roman armies without enjoying the rights of citizenship. In 91 B.C.E., some rebelled. To end the revolt, Rome agreed to let all free Italians become Roman citizens.
slave revolts
Rome also had to fight to put down slave revolts. A slave named Spartacus led a famous revolt in 73 B.C.E. After crushing his army and killing Spartacus in battle, the Romans put thousands of the surviving rebels to death on crosses.
when did war break out for Caesar and Pompey?
Forty years later, another civil war broke out between two ambitious generals, Pompey (POM-pee) and Julius Caesar (SEE-zer).
How did Casesar respond to Pompey?
Urged on by Pompey, the Senate forbade Caesar to enter Italy with his army. Caesar disobeyed. On January 11, 49 B.C.E., he crossed the Rubicon with his army. After three years of fighting, he defeated Pompey. The frightened Senate named Caesar dictator for life. With Caesar in control, and after nearly five hundred years, the republic was at an end.
What was Caesar's vision, why was he killed?
Caesar had a vision of Rome as a great empire. He started new colonies and granted citizenship to the people of cities in Gaul and Spain. But he did not live to see his vision come true. On March 15, 44 B.C.E., a group of enemies stabbed Caesar to death as he was entering the Senate.
The men who killed Caesar thought they were saving the republic. But they were wrong. Instead, real power would never return to the Senate, as an emperor eventually emerged to take Caesar's place
what started the fourth period of expansion?
Caesar's murder plunged Rome into civil wars that lasted over ten years. When the fighting ended, Caesar's grandnephew and adopted son Octavian was the sole ruler of Rome. So began the Roman Empire, and Rome's fourth period of expansion.
Describe Octavian
To gain power, Octavian had to defeat jealous rivals. One of them was Marc Antony, a popular general. Antony had married Queen Cleopatra of Egypt. In 31 B.C.E., Octavian defeated Antony and Cleopatra in a sea battle near Actium, Greece.
What was Octavian known for? What was his known name?
Octavian knew that the Romans prized their republic. He told them he was restoring the authority of the Senate. But in fact, he was in complete control. The Senate gave him the title Augustus, which means "revered" or "honored." He ruled for life as Caesar Augustus, and historians call him Rome's first emperor.
What did Augustus encourage?
Augustus encouraged education, art, and literature. He completed grand construction projects, repairing more than eighty temples. "I found Rome brick and left it marble," he boasted. He also gave Rome its first police force, firefighters, and library.
What is Pax Romana?
Under Rome, the Mediterranean world was mostly at peace for 200 years. This period is called the Pax Romana, or Roman Peace.
What is the main idea from First Expansion?
Conquest of the Italian Peninsula The first period of expansion began in 509 B.C.E. The Romans rebelled against the Etruscans, and Rome became a republic. The Romans then conquered central Italy. By 264 B.C.E., Rome controlled all of Italy.
What marked the Second Expansion?
The Punic Wars During the second period of expansion, from 264 to 146 B.C.E., Rome fought Carthage in the three Punic Wars. As a result, Rome gained North Africa, much of Spain, and Sicily. Rome also conquered Macedonia and Greece.
What marked the third period of expansion?
The Final Years of the Republic During the third period of expansion, from 145 to 44 B.C.E., Rome took control of Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Gaul. But civil wars divided the republic. Julius Caesar made himself dictator for life. Then Octavian seized power, becoming the first emperor, Caesar Augustus.
What was important about the fourth expansion?
Rome Becomes an Empire The fourth period of expansion began with the start of the empire and lasted until 14 C.E. The emperors continued to add a great deal of new territory. At its height, around 117 C.E., the Roman Empire stretched from Britain to the present-day Middle East.