96 terms

Unit 8 - AP World

Pre-Columbian Americas
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How were early humans able to cross from Siberia to modern-day Alaska?
Bering Strait
The Americas were geographically isolated from the rest of the world until what/who?
Columbus's voyages
What two main tools did almost all American civilizations develop and thrive without?
Wheel and Written language
North America was dominated by what kind of societies?
Hunting and Gathering
What were these societies organized into?
Tribes
Southwest Civilizations imported what crop?
Maize and irrigation from Mesoamerica
Describe where the Anasazi lived?
Semi-arid New Mexico
What were their large cities based around?
Religious purposes
What was special about the Anasazi's roads?
They were absolutely straight
What caused the Anasazi to collapse?
50-year drought
The Mesa Verde broke off from what group and moved where?
Separate Anasazi group that lived in Colorado
Moving from their homes in the valley they created a settlement in what unique area?
Cliff dwellings
Why was the Mesa Verde created?
This massive undertaking is thought to have been provoked by a strong military force.
Why did the Mesa Verde people eventually die?
Drought
What is the only woodland civilization we discussed?
Mississippian
Where did the Mississippian Civilization develop?
The Mississippi River Basin
What are some known traits of the Mississippian Civilization?
- Social Stratification
- Long-distance Trade
- Cities
- Large-scale Architecture
What bound the Mississippian cultures together?
Religious festivals
The Mississippian culture, much like other American civilizations, had no what?
Written language, therefore no recorded history
What else is the Mississippian Culture known for?
Their large burial mounds
What eventually led to the collapse of all Woodland Civilizations?
European disease and expansion
What is special about Early Mesoamerica's development?
It developed along with the world even though it had no outside contact.
What is a major difference between Early Mesoamerican peoples and other early civilizations?
Mesoamericans did not develop in river valleys
Who was the first Mesoamerican Civilization?
Olmecs
What modern day country were the Olmecs located in?
Mexico
What were the three main crops that supported the Olmecs?
Beans, Corn, Squash
What is unique to this area with the Olmecs government?
City-states
What were the Olmecs city-states focused on?
Large-scale temple building
Temples dominated what two parts of the Olmecs lives?
Political and Cultural
What adaptation did the Olmecs acquire while trying to survive in swamplands?
Hint: Egypt
Irrigation
What kind of religion did the Olmecs have?
Polytheistic
What two developments are the Olmecs credited for?
Writing
Calendar
Where were the Chavin located?
Andes Mountains
What did the Chavin rely on like most early civilizations?
Agriculture
What was special about the Chavin's diet?
It was supplemented with seafood from the coast
What two things were the Chavin able to produce with metal?
Tools and Weapons
What animals did the Chavin use as beasts of burden?
Llamas
What was the ruling group during Classical Mesoamerica?
Mayans
Where were the Mayans located?
Southern Mexico
The Mayans were contemporary with what other civilization?
Rome
Han
Gupta
Who ruled over the Mayans city-states?
One divine king, many city-states fought with each other
What did Mayan farms require to prevent silt loss through runoff?
Berms, mounds of dirt around farm
What kind of class movement was their in Mayan society?
Next to none, it was hereditary
What was a merchants standing in Mayan society?
Well-respected
What is the well-known stepped pyramid built by the Mayans? This was also their religious center?
Chichen Itza
What activities were held at these temples?
Festivals
Worship
Sacrifice
What was the Mayans form of writing?
Hieroglyphics
What were the Mayans beliefs regarding the creation of man?
Was created by gods through corn
The Mayans went to war NOT for territory but for people. What were the people needed for?
- Slaves for farming
- Sacrifices
What did the Mayans not have access to?
Beasts of burden, large animals
What city was built during the "Mayan Golden Age" this was also the political center for Mayans?
Tikal
What two things were the Mayans able to develop?
An accurate calendar
Complex architecture
What is thought to have caused the abandonment of the Mayan cities?
Famine
Because of the Mayans movement there was warfare for resources, this caused what?
A decrease in population
Post-Classical Mesoamerica starts with what civilization?
Toltecs
What area did the Toltecs dominate?
Central Mexico
What was the Toltecs main focus?
Warfare
Why were the Toltecs consumed with the need for war?
Demand for human sacrifices
Civil wars over what led to the invasion and end of the Toltecs?
Religion
Following the Toltecs were who?
The Aztecs
This city was built as the Aztecs capital and is now modern day Mexico City?
Tenochtitlan
What was unique to Mesoamerica with the Aztecs army?
It was professional
What were the rules about a conquered area?
- Paid tribute
- Continued to rule themselves if they paid tribute
- Terror was used to keep conquered peoples in line
What was the focus of Aztec religion and expansion?
Human Sacrifice
What were these human sacrifice wars later called?
Flowery Wars
How many people are estimated to have been killed annually during the Aztecs rule?
20,000
What was the Aztecs religion like?
- Polytheistic
- Thought warmth of sun relied on devotion
- Devotion was amount of human sacrifices
What two events were held in Aztec temples?
- Trade fairs
- Religious festivals
Eventually what did the Aztecs develop?
Military Tyranny
What did the Aztecs do to encourage trade?
Built extensive road system
How did the Aztecs divine kings lead their kingdom?
Indirectly
What was Aztec society dominated by?
Warriors
What was the status of women in the Aztec society?
- Could inherit property
- Higher status from weaving skill
Who was the greatest Aztec king?
Montezuma II
Why was Montezuma the II's rule interrupted, and the Aztec Empire?
Spanish arrive and end the empire
Where were the Incas located?
Andes Mountains of Peru
What kind of farming did the Incas rely on?
Terrace Farming
What were the peasants forced to provide for the higher classes in Incan society?
Crops
What kind of military did the Incas have?
Professional
What was unique about the Incas version of tribute compared to the Aztecs?
Tribute was paid in labor
What was the king called in his kingdom? (Incas)
The Great Inca
What did the people believe about the Great Inca?
- Descendant of the Sun God
- Death to look at him directly
- King owned everything
Why was it necessary for every king to make conquests?
To get into heaven
What was the bureaucracy made of?
Nobles
What was built to aid direct administration in the Incan Empire?
Extensive road system
Where was the Incan capital?
Cuzco
What temple was religion centered around?
Machu Picchu
What two things did the Inca religion emphasize?
- Ancestor worship
- Live life of morality
What did the Inca's do with their human sacrifice unlike the Aztecs?
Limited it
The Incan people preserved the king through mummification because...
He was thought to be a mediator to the gods
Where were all royal mummies buried?
Temple of the Sun in Cuzco
What two roles did women play in Incan society?
- Worked in fields
- Weaved cloth
What was used instead of a writing system?
Quipu
What was quipu?
Knotted strings that allowed them to keep track of the harvest and census
Who ended the Incas?
Spanish Conquistadors (Pizarro)
Who was Pizarro?
Mercenary sent to stop civil wars