102 terms

Outdoor Emergency Care (5th Edition): Chapter 6

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Anatomy
Structure of the body
Gross Anatomy
Human anatomy we can see
Microscopic Anatomy
Human anatomy we can't see
Physiology
Study of mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans
Coronal/Frontal plane
An imaginary plane where the body is cut into front and back parts.
Median/Saggital plane
divides the body into equal left and right halves
Horizontal/Transverse plane
divides the body into equal top and bottom halves
Midline
Line that goes vertically down the human body
Mid-clavicular
Lines on the top left and right of the body
Distal
Close to the trunk and core of the body (elbows and thighs)
Proximal
Far from the trunk and core of the body (feet and hands)
Anterior/Ventral
Front of the body
Posterior/Dorsal
Back of the body
Superior
Near the head
Inferior
Near the feet
Medial
toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of
Lateral
Away from the midline of the body
Superficial
Any part near the surface of the body
Deep
Any part far from the surface of the body
Flexion
Bending or flexing movement, like bending at the knee
Extension
Straightening movement, opposite of flexion
Adduction
Move an extremity closer to the body (bring arm back to body)
Abduction
Taking an extremely from the midline of the body (move an arm out to wave to someone)
Supine
Flat on their back, face up
Prone
Patient on their stomach, head on either side
Lateral recumbent
Patient is lying on their left or right side
Cranial cavity
formed by cranial bones and contains brain
Spinal cavity
located within the spinal column, surrounds and protects the spinal cord
Thoracic cavity
cavity housing lungs and heart
Abdominal cavity
Contains liver, gallbladder, pancreas, stomach, intestines, spleen
Pelvic cavity
Contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum
Abdomen quadrants
Use patient's left/right and up/down, not yours
How many body systems does a human body have?
11
Cell
Basic unit of all life
Tissue
Collection of cells acting together to do something
Body system
Group of organs and other structures that work together to perform specific functions
Respiratory system
A system of organs, functioning in the process of gas exchange between the body and the environment, consisting especially of the nose, nasal passages, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Upper airway
(Nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx)FUNCTION:Conducts air to lower airway Protects lower airways *Warms, filters & humidifies air
Lower airway
trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and aveoli (gasses travel through the structers to and from the blood)
Where air in the respiratory system goes
Nasopharynx => Oropharynx => Laryngopharynx => Lower Airway
Cause of air flowing into lungs
Contraction of diaphragm => creates negative pressure in thoracic cavity => air flows into lungs
Minute ventilation
Movement of a volume of air into and out of the body
Tidal volume
Volume of air moved pre breath
Carbon Dioxide role in breathing
Increase in CO2 = increase in breathing rate
Cardiovascular/Circulatory System
Heart, blood vessels, and blood.
Circulates blood around the body via the heart, arteries and veins, delivering oxygen and nutrients to organs and cells and carrying their waste products away.
Inspiration
Air is inhaled, diaphragm contracts
Expiration
Air is exhaled, diaphragm expands
Chambers of heart
right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle
Journey of blood
Right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary arteries, lungs, left atrium, left ventricle, aorta, arteries, capillaries, veins
Superior/inferior venae cavae
Two largest veins in the body
Blood in the heart
Blood vessels
Arteries, arterioles, veins, venues, capillaries
Venous system
Veins that carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart
Pulmonary veins
Carry oxygenated blood from lungs to heart
Venules
small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins
Red blood cells
Blood cells that carry oxygen from the lungs to the body cells. Removes CO2 from the cells.
White blood cells
Blood cells that perform the function of destroying disease-causing microorganisms
Platelets
tiny, disk-shaped bodies in the blood, important in blood clot formation
the drive to breathe is stimulated by what?
Rise in blood CO2 level
Nervous system
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
Central Nervous System
consists of the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
Cerebrum
Area of the brain responsible for all voluntary activities of the body
Cerebellum
the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance.
Brainstem
the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions
Meninges
three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
Cerebrospinal fluid
Fluid in the space between the meninges that acts as a shock absorber that protects the central nervous system.
Properties of Cerebrospinal fluid
Buoyancy, brain stays locked in fluid because of density.
Cushioning/protection, liquid protects brain from striking inside of skull
Chemical stability, flow carries metabolic wastes away from nervous system tissues, regulate chemical concentrations and pH
Gastrointestinal system
also known as the digestive system, extends from the mouth to the anus, and responsible for digestion and elimination
Path of food
Food enters through mouth, is chewed, passes through esophagus, into stomach. From stomach to small intestine, digestion takes place and nutrients are absorbed through intestinal wall into venous blood vessels. Nutrients go to liver before going to heart. Waste goes to last intestine/colon, where water is absorbed and wasted goes through rectum/anus.
Liver
A large solid organ that lies in the right upper quadrant immediately below the diaphragm; it produces bile, stores glucose for immediate use by the body, and produces many substances that help regulate immune responses.
Urinary System
Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. Regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood.
Endocrine System
Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells.
Intergumentary System
Functions: protects against environmental hazards; helps regulate body temperature; provide sensory information
Skeletal System
Protects and supports body organs and provides a framework the muscles use to support movement. Made up of bones and joints. Skull, spinal column, thorax, pelvis, upper extremities, lower extremities.
Muscular system
Consists of skeletal muscles, tendons that connect muscles to bones, and ligaments that attach bones together to form joint
Skeletal muscle
Voluntary muscles, under control of voluntary nervous system
Smooth muscle
Involuntary muscle, muscle tissue in which the contractile fibrils are not highly ordered, occurring in the gut and other internal organs and not under voluntary control.
Cardiac muscle
In the walls of the heart, shares properties of skeletal and mouth muscle. Generates electrical impulses
Reproductive system
Reproduce offspring- produce male sex cells (sperm) and female sex cells (oocytes)
Lymphatic system
Composed of a network of vessels, ducts, nodes, and organs. Provides defense against infection.
Homeostasis
A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
Right ventricle
pumps blood to the lungs to be oxygenated
Left ventricle
pumps oxygenated blood to the body
Pulmonary Vein
Deliver oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium
Pulmonary Artery
artery carrying oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs
Occipital
back of head
Involuntary or smooth muscles are found in
Intestines and blood vessels
Elbow
Shoulder
Arm
Knee
Ankle
Leg
Hemoglobin
An iron-containing protein in red blood cells that reversibly binds oxygen.
Lymph
watery fluid
plasma
Liquid part of blood
Diastolic pressure
Blood pressure that remains between heart contractions.
Systolic pressure
Blood pressure in the arteries during contraction of the ventricles.
Humerus
upper arm bone
Patella
kneecap
Tendon
Connects muscle to bone
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