An activity that involves the controlled manipulation of the forms of the language. Contrasts with more meaning-focused, and less tightly controlled, activities such as tasks. Usually written, like the equivalent of drills. Closed=only 1 answer; open=more than one possible. include gap fills, sentence transformations, ordering exercises, matching exercises, insertion exercises, deletion exercises, translation exercises, error-correction exercises. Individualized instruction, in contrast to the teaching of small or large groups. Usually occurs face to face, and at times, over the phone, or at a distance.
Advantages for the student: undivided attention of the teacher, optimal opportunities for participation, classes can be tailored to their particular needs, pace and learning style.
Advantages for the teacher: no mixed levels, mixed abilities, diverse interests or different learning styles. Teacher can allow learner some choice in lesson content and direction.
Disadvantages: can be intensive, tiring experiences for both the learner and the teacher. Limited possibilities for communication (only 1 channel).
To produce a version of a written text in another language. In spoken texts, this is called interpretation. Has been central to some teaching methods (grammar-translation) and frowned upon by others (direct method).
encourages dependence on the L1, encourages the notion of equivalence between languages (no 2 are alike), L1 system interferes with development o L2 system, the 'easy' approach and therefore less memorable, the 'natural way' of acquiring a language is through direct experience/exposure, not feasible in classes of mixed nationalities
new knowledge (L2) is constructed on the basis of existing knowledge (L1), languages have more similarities than differences and translation encourages the positive transfer of similarities, a time-efficient means of conveying meaning, an integral part of being a proficient L2 user (contributes to overall pluralingualism), a natural way of exploiting the inherent bilingualism of language classes
5th EditionCharles Alexander, Matthew Sadiku
6th EditionCharles Alexander, Matthew Sadiku
10th EditionR.C. Hibbeler
2nd EditionAlan S. Willsky, Alan V. Oppenheim, S. Hamid