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Anatomy

Anatomy
STUDY
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Gross Anatomy
Concerns body structures seen without the use of microscope.
Histologic Anatomy
The study of the cells, tissues, and organs as observed with a microscope.
Developmental Anatomy
The development of the individual from the fertilized egg to the adult form.
Cytology
The study of the cells and how they function.
Neurophysiology
Study of nerve function.
Renal physiology
The excretory system and it's functions.
Reproductive physiology
The study of reproductive organs and the methods for reproduction.
Atoms
The ultramicroscopic building blocks of matter.
Molecules
The combination of atoms combining together.
Cell
The functional unit of living things.
Tissue
Group of cells of similar structure working together and performing the same function.
Organ
Composed of two or more different kinds of tissues.
Organ system
Composed of several organs with complementary functions.
Organism
The systems operating together, highest level of organization.
Epithelial tissue
Skin, Primary tissue that covers the body surfaces, lines its internal cavities, and forms glands.
Connective Tissue
Blood and bone Tissue
Four types of tissue:
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, and Nerve.
Integumentary System
Covers the body and protects it. (Skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands)
Skeletal System
Protects the body and provides support for the locomotion and movement. (Bones, cartilage, and ligaments)
Nervous System
Receives stimuli, integrates information, and coordinates the body functions. (Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs)
Endocrine System
Chemically coordinates & integrates the activities of the body. (Pituitary, adrenal, thyroid and other ductless glands)
Muscular System
Permits body movement. (Skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle.)
Digestive System
Digest Foods and absorbs soluble nutrients from ingested food. (teeth, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, and pancreas)
Respiratory System
Collects oxygen and exchanges it for carbon dioxide. (Lungs, pharynx, trachea, & other passageways.
Circulatory System
Transports cells & materials throughout the body. (Heart, blood vessels, blood, & lymph structures.)
Immune System
Removes foreign chemicals & microorganisms from the bloodstream. (T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, and macrophages; lymph structures.)
Urinary System
Removes metabolic wastes from the bloodstream. (Kidney, bladder, and associated ducts.)
Reproductive System
Produces sex cells for the next generation. (Testes, ovaries, & associated reproductive structures.)
Metabolism
Sum of all chemical processes in the body. The sum total of all the chemical reactions occurring in body cells; the combined reactions of anabolism and catabolism.
Catabolism
The breakdown of organic matter, usually with the release of energy.
Anabolism
The buildup of organic matter, usually required an input of energy.
Movement
The result of contracting muscle cells. Movement can be voluntary, such as occurs in the muscles of the skeleton, or it can be involuntary, such as occurs in the muscle of the heart.
Growth
An increase in the size of body cells and/ or the body itself.
Conductivity
The ability of cells to receive stimuli and transport them from one body part to another. This characteristic is associated with nerve cells and muscle cells.
Reproduction
The ability of the body to replicate itself.
Sexual reproduction
Production of sperm and egg cells and their union to form a fertilized egg cell, which develops into a new individual.
Asexual reproduction
The duplication of a single cell. Asexual reproduction results in two identical daughter cells; asexual reproduction occurs in growth and repair.
Irritability
The response of the body to internal and external stimulus.
Excretion
The process of removing waste products from the body.
Homeostasis
The steady state of equilibrium existing in the body and the body and the maintenance of this state.
Feedback systems
Self regulating system that sends information back into the system to induce a response.
Set point
In the feedback system is the normal value of a variable factor such a temperature.
Receptor (or sensor)
Detects any deviation from set point in the feedback system.
Control center
Receives information in the feedback system from various receptors and integrates and determines the response needed to return to the set point.
Effectors
Implement the response needed in the feedback system to return to normal homeostasis.
Negative feedback system
When the information decreases the systems output to bring the system back to it's set point.
Positive feedback system
Assist in maintaining homeostasis. In this situation, the information returned to the system increases the deviation from the set point.
Anatomical position
Body is erect with eyes forward, feet together, arms at sides, and palms facing forward with the thumbs pointing away from the body.
Anterior
Toward the front of the body on the belly side.
Ventral
The belly side of a four legged creature, such as a dog.
Posterior or dorsal
Refers to the back side of the human body.
Superior
Toward the head or upward part of the body.
Cephalic and cranial
Are sometimes used instead of superior. Meaning towards the head or upward part of the body.
Inferior
The direction away from the head or toward the lower part of the body.
Caudal
Referring to the tail portion of a structure.