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206 terms

WGU STP

STP Exam
STUDY
PLAY
emergent literacy theory
children grow into reading and writing with no real beginning or ending point, reading and writing develop concurrently and in interrelated ways, and the learning process starts long before children enter school and does not depend on mastery of letter-sound skills.
emergent
begins at birth because it is a continuous, developmental process.
literacy
means that reading and writing are related and are reciprocal processes that influence each other.
Whole Language approach
learned in a social and emotional context. Whole language promotes the development of reading and other communication skills in a social, communicative network.
Conventions of print
knowledge of the semantic and visual structure of text. Children learn about print and come to realize that print differs from speech, although it carries a message just like speech. Eventually, children learn that print, not pictures, carries the story.
Purposes of print
knowledge that words convey a message separate from pictures or oral language.
Functions of print
awareness of the uses of print: making shopping lists, reading street signs, conveying instructions.
Print awareness
The knowledge that printed words carry meaning, and that reading and writing are ways to obtain ideas and information. A young child's sensitivity to print is one of the first steps toward reading.
Sight vocabulary
words that a reader recognizes without having to sound them out.
Phonemic awareness
an exclusively oral language activity. Phonemic awareness refers to the understanding that spoken words are made up of individual sounds called phonemes. Instruction in phonemic awareness should be viewed as an important element of a balanced reading program in the early elementary grades.
Alphabetic principle
matching elemental sounds and the letters that represent themThe knowledge that speech sounds can be represented by a letter or letters and that when a given sound occurs anywhere in a word, it can be represented by the same letters..
Social interaction - support by adults and peers
From the emergent literacy perspective, reading and writing develop concurrently and interrelatedly in young children and are fostered by experience with oral and written language. The more social interaction children have with adults and peers in terms of using written language or enjoying written language (story-book reading together, grocery lists, stop signs, etc), the easier it is for these children to develop into strong readers.
Frequent experiences with print
the more exposure children have to print, the more they understand the concepts about print. A classroom with many different words displayed on the walls helps children add words to their vocabulary.
Prior Knowledge or schema
Schema refers to a reader's background experience, knowledge, interests, attitudes, perspectives, and present context or situation in reading.
Motivation
print motivation is a child's interest in, and enjoyment of, books.
Fluency
able to read effortlessly.
Affective aspects of reading
refer to student's attitudes, interests, and values.
The process of language acquisition
consists of the child inferring the underlying rules of the language that he or she is exposed to, and testing those inferences by constructing his or her own utterances.
Direct instruction
explanation of words and letters helps children understand that letters have sounds and words have meaning.
Social interaction
interaction between children and adults helps children grasp the meaning of letters and sounds of letters.
Shared reading
Books and stories selected for sharing should be those that have been proven to be loved by children, they should have literary merit and engaging content. Shared book experiences result in higher end-of-year achievement scores and phonic analysis test scores.
Repeated reading
reading the same stories that children enjoy several times helps them with their comprehension, listening skills, and recognition of sight words.
Reader response
asking children to respond to what has been read to them helps them understand that the purpose of reading is to understand the meaning of the words. It helps them understand that people can express themselves through writing, and that writing has meaning.
Word walls
a teacher must create a word wall rather than just "have" a word wall.Using a word wall of high-frequency words aids in reading and writing. It is common for a teacher to add 5 new words per week.
Text innovation (rewrites)
rewriting a story helps children to understand how they can create stories and helps them understand the meaning of stories.
Shared writing
students are given the opportunity to share in the writing process. Teacher and students co-construct the message.
Children's literature
the first books written for children appeared during the 1700's
Most children's literature through the 1700's
conveyed a religious or moral theme.
Robinson Crusoe
was really written for adults.
James Cooper
The Last of the Mohicans.
The Wizard of Oz
was written in this century.
King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table
originated about 1000AD. It is a romance; it is a story about brave men and defenseless women.
The Newbury Award
Children's book award
The Caldecott Award
picture book award
Picture books
Are the picture books easy to follow, and so they tell a story in an organized way, so that children can understand the story without the use of the written word?
Poetry
A teacher needs to consider the age of the students and select poetry that she/he believes they will be able to relate to and enjoy. For example, for younger children, a teacher may select poems that have more alliteration and repetition of words.
Informational books
are they level appropriate?
Biographies
are they level appropriate?
Selecting fiction
When selecting fiction, a good balance of realistic stories, modern fantasies, historical fiction, and mysteries is important so that all areas of interest are covered.
Realistic Fiction
is imaginative writing that accurately reflects life either in the past or present. It has a prose narrative with a plot that unfolds through the character's actions, speech, and thoughts.
context clue
is information from the immediate sentence, paragraph, or surrounding words that might help readers determine the meaning and/or pronunciation of an unknown word.
Semantics
has to do with meaning cues. Semantic cues are the answer to the question "what makes sense?";clues are provided by the knowledge the readers has through the meanings of other words in the text.
Syntax
relates to the sentence structure, or grammar, and what kind of word normally fills a given slot (noun, adverb, adjective, etc). clues are provided by the structure of the sentence.
decoding a word,
they are trying to make a connection between the written word and the idea or thing it explicitly represents, so they would be concerned with organizing ideas and generating questions to be researched.
Relationship to print
students first learn to recognize known words and letters in familiar books and contexts.
Recognizing whole words
sight words are words that children have seen so often that they know them instantly. Often, sight words are words that cannot be sounded out phonetically.
Word patterns
students who can recognize words patterns have a better chance of reading the words correctly. For example, when two vowels appear in a word and one is an e at the end of the word, the first vowel is generally long and the final e is silent (cape, rope, kite).
Syllables
helping children to sound out words by separating the words into syllables.
Letters in sequence
helping children to recognize consonant blended sounds such as, wh, str, tr, sp, sh, ch, etc...
Use of prior knowledge
through a series of guided questions, the instructor helps students activate their prior knowledge of a specific topic to help them comprehend the content of a story or article on the same topic.
Retelling
have students retell what they just read to themselves or a partner. Retelling should reflect the main idea, the correct sequence of events, the characters, setting, interpretation, and response.
Reciprocal teaching
kids take turns learning from each other. This helps students make predictions, formulate questions, summarize information, and clarify points of confusion when reading.
Guided reading
an essential part of an early literacy program. Teachers observe students as they problem solve. Students learn to problem solve with new texts. Students experience success in reading for meaning.
Fluency
The goal of teaching reading is to increase the level of silent reading comprehension. In order for a student to focus attention on the meaning of sentences and paragraphs, he/she must be a fluent reader.
Reader response
responding to literature helps to increase the level of comprehension for the material.
Solving words
emphasizing what the child already knows will help in solving words and interpreting the story.
Adjusting reading according to purpose and context
Selecting text that will support the child's present knowledge and skills.
Metacognition
helps students become aware of their own reading comprehension abilities and needs, and to learn specific strategies that can be used to monitor and adjust reading behaviors to fit their own comprehension needs.
Maintaining fluency
Practicing fluent oral reading aids in understanding the close relationship between speech and print.
Making connections
Knowledge about a reading topic helps to improve comprehension. Proficient readers use background knowledge to enhance their understanding.
SQ3R
an acronym for survey, question, read, recite, review. This method provides students with a logical progression to study, and multiple encounters with the new material.
Survey
students survey the chapter, read and think about the title, headings, subheadings, captions under any pictures, vocabulary in bold print, side entries on each page and the summary.
Question
students should use the preceding information to write anticipatory questions about what they are about to read.
Read
students read looking for answers to their questions.
Recite
students tests themselves on the material. Anything difficult to remember should be rehearsed aloud or recited. The multi-sensory experience helps the difficult material to move into short-term, and with practice, long-term memory.
KWL
K stands for What I KNOW,W stands for What I WANT to know,L stands for What I LEARNED
Marking and coding
it is very helpful when reading books to highlight or underline important characteristics of characters, character names, and important quotes that one might use to support a thesis about the book.
Graphic organizers
a map or graph that summarizes information to be learned, and is distributed to students before beginning a new chapter or unit of study.
Picture writing
children draw pictures instead of using letters to tell a story or convey meaning.
Scribble writing
children use a pencil or crayon to explore the vast empty space on a blank sheet of paper.
Random letter
children use letters to represent words, but not based on phonics. They could use the letter Q to mean the "dog," or an entire sentence, or paragraph.
Invented spelling
helps develop phonetic awareness in children. They may spell their favorite words with a single letter.
Conventional writing
resembles adult writing in form and structure.
Prephonemic
children begin to use real letters, usually capital letters, to represent their meaning.
Early phonemic
children begin to use letters, usually capital consonant letters, to represent words.
Letter name
the addition of more than 1 or 2 consonants with at least one vowel, used by young writers to represent the spelling of words.
Transitional
writing looks like English, but the words are a mix of phonemic and conventional spellings.
Derivational
a student in this stage can decode any word, but might not be able to spell it.
Conventional
standard spelling in correct form
Reciprocal teaching
means that students take turns explaining to each other and learning from each other.
affective aspects of reading
referring to students attitudes, interests, and values.
activity
a learning experience.
ADD
stands for Attention Deficit Disorder. It is a medical term used to describe students with difficulties of attention.
ADHD
stands for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. It is a medial term used to describe students with hyperactivity, attention difficulties, and impulsiveness.
anticipatory set
this is done before the lesson to activate prior knowledge.
artifact
a piece of work that is created by a student and put in his/her portfolio.
assessment
a way of measuring the progress of a student.
assignment
Work produced by students and used by instructors for purposes of interaction and also evaluation.
.auditory
the process of hearing.
authentic assessment
a type of evaluation that requires a student to perform a task.
BD (Behavior Disorder)
A term used in special education to describe students who have an explained inability to learn, have problems relating to other children and adults, continually exhibit inappropriate behaviors or who have a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears about personal and school problems.
benchmark
statement that provides a description of student knowledge expected at specific grades, ages, or developmental levels.
bibliography
-a list of books, journal articles, etc. on a particular topic.
Bloom's taxonomy
There are six categories of cognitive objectives organized by complexity: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation.
closed constructed response
a type of question that requires the student to compose an answer rather than select an answer from a list of choices. There is only one right answer.
cloze test
a student must fill in the blanks in a paragraph.
collaborative learning
when students work with others to achieve a specific goal, purpose, or outcome.
Common Assessment Framework
is a method for organizing the teaching/learning experiences of students by establishing subject outcomes and measuring the attainment of these with well defined performance criteria.
constructed response
a type of question that requires the student to compose an answer rather than select an answer from a list of choices. There are closed and open-ended constructed response questions.
critical thinking
requires a student to apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information.
cultural diversity
recognized that students come from different backgrounds (ethnic, geographic, religious, and economic).
curriculum
the content of instruction.
D.E.A.R.
stands for Drop Everything And Read.
differentiation
the process of developing teaching and learning styles and materials related to the different levels of pupil understanding and ability.
Discussion Director
a role for literature groups. This individual leads the discussion as well as asks 5 thick questions.
D.O.L.
stands for Daily Oral Language. Students correct mistakes in sentences.
ELL
stands for English Language Learner.
expectations
a belief in what someone can do or accomplish.
gifted
used to describe a student who demonstrates a high level of ability.
heterogeneous grouping
organizing students with different ability levels.
homogeneous grouping
organizing students with similar ability levels.
IEP
The Individual Education Plan developed for each child eligible for special education, based on the child's unique needs, with parent participation, containing a statement of the child's present level of performance, educational needs, goals and measurable objectives. Is reviewed at least annually.
inclusion
special education students are included in the general education classroom setting.
kinesthetic
hands-on.
LD
stands for Learning Disability. This is a term in special education to describe a disorder in one of the basic psychological processes (listening, thinking, speaking, writing, spelling, etc).
learning contract
A form of individualized, active learning, in which the student proposes a course of study to satisfy an academic requirement and a teacher checks and approves the contract.
learning style
a mode of learning; an individual's preferred or best manner(s) in which to think, process information, and demonstrate learning.
Literary Luminary
a role for literature groups. This individual chooses 4 pieces of text to discuss with the group.
literature group
a reading experience that allows students to share their information and ideas related to a novel they are reading.
mastery
great skillfulness and knowledge of some subject or activity.
mnemonics
technique used to help remember names or concepts.
module
A module is a series of theme-related questions that progress in difficulty and open-endedness; beginning with multiple choice questions, advancing to opened-ended constructed response questions, and ending with a performance event.
multiple intelligences
Howard Gardner proposes that all humans are endowed with seven forms of intelligence: mathematical/logical, linguistic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, spatial, and kinesthetic. Schools usually emphasize the linguistic and mathematical/logical intelligences.
objective
desired outcomes.
open-ended constructed response
a type of question that requires the student to compose an answer rather than select an answer from a list of choices. There is more than one right answer.
performance event
is "on demand" in that it is used for assessment purposes. It is a real-world, robust, problematic situation that monitors student progress towards the attainment of predetermined criteria.
performance task
-a real-world, highly robust problematic situation that requires students to use specified knowledge, skills, and processes in various content domains.
PowerPoint
A program in the Microsoft Office suite which allows users to create presentations, and handouts. By creating PowerPoint "slides," users can add color, images, sounds, and movies to their text presentations.
prewriting
is the first stage of the writing process. It is when a writer gathers his/her thoughts before writing. This can be done by making a list, web, outline, etc.
progress report
-also known as a mid-quarter. It is a report that shows the progress of your child. It is sent in the middle of each quarter.
reflection
Learner pauses to think about, and organize information gathered from reading, discussions, or other activities.
response log
students write responses to what they have read.
role sheet
these are the sheets that are completed for the literature groups. The roles include Discussion Director, Literary Luminary, Connector, Illustrator, and Vocabulary Enricher.
rubric
also known as a scoring guide. It is used as a set of guidelines for evaluating a student's work.
scope and sequence
A curriculum plan, usually in chart form, in which a range of instructional objectives, skills, etc., is organized according to the successive levels at which they are taught.
self-assessment
students reflect on their work or performance.
strategy
a plan of action.
special education
Programs designed to serve children with mental and physical disabilities.
standards
Statements of what students should know and be able to demonstrate.
student-centered learning
the students and their needs are the focus and the teacher becomes the facilitator among them. The students are active participants in the learning process.
supplementary materials/activities
materials and/or activities used to extend or strengthen the topic being covered.
technology
In education, a branch of knowledge based on the development and implementation of computers, software, and other technical tools, and the assessment and evaluation of students' educational outcomes resulting from their use of technology tools.
thick question
a question that requires more than a one or two word response. It causes a person to think.
thin question
a question that has a one or two word answer. It is usually a yes/no question or a recall of information.
visual learner
learns by sight, or seeing something being done.
Vocabulary Enricher
a role in literature groups. This individual locates four words to look up and find their definitions.
WebQuest
inquiry-oriented activity in which some or all of the information that learners interact with comes from information on the Internet.
Writer's Workshop
learning situation in which the teacher assits the students in developing their writing by learning the writing process and introducing different writing genres.
writing prompt
A writing prompt gives definition and direction to the assigned topic. It can be as simple as a general idea, or complex enough to define the position of the thesis as well as the supporting paragraph.
pedagogy
1. the function or work of a teacher; teaching2. the art or science of teaching; education; instructional methods.
Hyperbole
a figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion, make a point, or evoke humor
Alliteration
the repetition of sounds, most often consonant sounds, at the beginning of words. Alliteration gives emphasis to words.
Assonance
the repetition of similar vowels in the stressed syllables of successive words
Idiom
An expression in one language that cannot be matched or directly translated word for word into another language.
Metaphor
a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity
Simile
a figure of speech that expresses a resemblance between things of different kinds (usually formed with 'like' or 'as')
Personification
the act of attributing human characteristics to abstract ideas etc.
Tuck Everlasting
Modern Fantasy
Wings of Merlin
Modern Fantasy
Arabian Nights
a collection of folktales in Arabic dating from the 10th century
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
Originally "Schneewittchen", one of the Folk tales collected and published by the Brothers Grimm.
Aesop's Fox
Fable
Johnny Tremaine
a 1943 children's novel by Esther Forbes, retells in narrative form the final years in Boston, Massachusetts prior to the outbreak of the American Revolution.
Summer of my German Soldier
Bette Greene's first and best-known novel, chronicles one summer in the life of a twelve-year-old Jewish girl in the rural South.
Demeter and Persophone
Greek Mythology
Daughter of Earth
(1929) is an autobiographical novel by the American author and journalist Agnes Smedley.
Lyddie
Historical fiction about a girl working in a cloth factory in Lowell, Mass
My Brother Sam is Dead
tells the story of a boy, Timothy (called Tim), who lives in Redding, Connecticut during the Revolutionary War.
Island of the Blue Dolphins
Contemporary Fiction based on true story of a woman marooned on an Island for 18 years.
The Lost Flower Children
Contemporary fiction with some fantasy
Pandora's Box
Greek Mythology
Pegasus
Greek Mythology
Dragons Dragons:& Other Creatures that Never Were
Collection of poems
The Frogs Wore Red Suspenders
Children's Poetry
Flashback
Event that took place before the current time of the story.
Style
Way the words are put together to create the story.
Setting
Place and time period of the story.
Theme
Central idea of a literary work.
Foreshadowing
Early clues about what will happen later.
Plot
Sequence of event that involves the characters of the story.
Imagery
Words or phrases that appeal to the senses and often create a picture in the reader's mind.
Protagonist
Central character( person, animal, or personified object) in the story.
Main Idea
Overall or core meaning if a passage of writing.
aesthetic
concerning or characterized by an appreciation of beauty or good taste
efferent
reading for information
Caldecott Medal
to the artist of the most distinguished American picture book for children published that year. It was named in honor of nineteenth-century English illustrator Randolph Caldecott.
Newbery Medal
The Newbery Medal is given annually by the American Library Association to the year's most distinguished book written by an American.It was named for John Newbery, a bookseller and book publisher who wrote what is considered the first children's book, A Little Pretty Pocket-Book, in 1744.
Metacognition
an explicit understanding of how learning works and an awareness of yourself as a learner.
Elaboration
Transferring information into long-term memory by processing it at deeper levels.
Preparation
the cognitive process of thinking about what you will do in the event of something happening
Organization
grouping related items together; common memory strategy in early grade school and improves as our knowledge base expands
Literal Comprehension
take facts from text to get main ideas; factual level of thinking
Inferential Comprehension
draw conclusions from the text; interpretive level of thinking
Graphic organizer
a diagram or pictorial device that shows relationships
Semantic organizer
Semantic organizers (also called semantic maps or semantic webs) are graphic organizers that look somewhat like a spider web. In a semantic organizer, lines connect a central concept to a variety of related ideas and events.
Freewriting
writing non-stop for a period of time in order to generate ideas
Composing
The act of writing a piece
Clustering
Clustering is a nonlinear activity that generates ideas, images and feelings around a stimulus word. As students cluster, their thoughts tumble out, enlarging their word bank for writing and often enabling them to see patterns in their ideas.
Editing
the process of correcting and making changes to your rough draft
Brainstorming
an idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives, while withholding any criticism of those alternatives
Publishing
to create your final copy
Pre-writing
Freely exploring topics, choosing a topic, and gathering and organizing details before you write.
Outlining
Representing the main points of material in hierarchical format.
Rehearsing
means the information will move from your working memory to your long term memory
Questioning
helps readers understand the text on a deeper level by eliminating confusion and stimulating interest in the topic
Phenomenological misconception
The way in which phenomena appears to children can create misconceptions about the way things work in the physical sense.