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STP Exam

emergent literacy theory

children grow into reading and writing with no real beginning or ending point, reading and writing develop concurrently and in interrelated ways, and the learning process starts long before children enter school and does not depend on mastery of letter-sound skills.


begins at birth because it is a continuous, developmental process.


means that reading and writing are related and are reciprocal processes that influence each other.

Whole Language approach

learned in a social and emotional context. Whole language promotes the development of reading and other communication skills in a social, communicative network.

Conventions of print

knowledge of the semantic and visual structure of text. Children learn about print and come to realize that print differs from speech, although it carries a message just like speech. Eventually, children learn that print, not pictures, carries the story.

Purposes of print

knowledge that words convey a message separate from pictures or oral language.

Functions of print

awareness of the uses of print: making shopping lists, reading street signs, conveying instructions.

Print awareness

The knowledge that printed words carry meaning, and that reading and writing are ways to obtain ideas and information. A young child's sensitivity to print is one of the first steps toward reading.

Sight vocabulary

words that a reader recognizes without having to sound them out.

Phonemic awareness

an exclusively oral language activity. Phonemic awareness refers to the understanding that spoken words are made up of individual sounds called phonemes. Instruction in phonemic awareness should be viewed as an important element of a balanced reading program in the early elementary grades.

Alphabetic principle

matching elemental sounds and the letters that represent themThe knowledge that speech sounds can be represented by a letter or letters and that when a given sound occurs anywhere in a word, it can be represented by the same letters..

Social interaction - support by adults and peers

From the emergent literacy perspective, reading and writing develop concurrently and interrelatedly in young children and are fostered by experience with oral and written language. The more social interaction children have with adults and peers in terms of using written language or enjoying written language (story-book reading together, grocery lists, stop signs, etc), the easier it is for these children to develop into strong readers.

Frequent experiences with print

the more exposure children have to print, the more they understand the concepts about print. A classroom with many different words displayed on the walls helps children add words to their vocabulary.

Prior Knowledge or schema

Schema refers to a reader's background experience, knowledge, interests, attitudes, perspectives, and present context or situation in reading.


print motivation is a child's interest in, and enjoyment of, books.


able to read effortlessly.

Affective aspects of reading

refer to student's attitudes, interests, and values.

The process of language acquisition

consists of the child inferring the underlying rules of the language that he or she is exposed to, and testing those inferences by constructing his or her own utterances.

Direct instruction

explanation of words and letters helps children understand that letters have sounds and words have meaning.

Social interaction

interaction between children and adults helps children grasp the meaning of letters and sounds of letters.

Shared reading

Books and stories selected for sharing should be those that have been proven to be loved by children, they should have literary merit and engaging content. Shared book experiences result in higher end-of-year achievement scores and phonic analysis test scores.

Repeated reading

reading the same stories that children enjoy several times helps them with their comprehension, listening skills, and recognition of sight words.

Reader response

asking children to respond to what has been read to them helps them understand that the purpose of reading is to understand the meaning of the words. It helps them understand that people can express themselves through writing, and that writing has meaning.

Word walls

a teacher must create a word wall rather than just "have" a word wall.Using a word wall of high-frequency words aids in reading and writing. It is common for a teacher to add 5 new words per week.

Text innovation (rewrites)

rewriting a story helps children to understand how they can create stories and helps them understand the meaning of stories.

Shared writing

students are given the opportunity to share in the writing process. Teacher and students co-construct the message.

Children's literature

the first books written for children appeared during the 1700's

Most children's literature through the 1700's

conveyed a religious or moral theme.

Robinson Crusoe

was really written for adults.

James Cooper

The Last of the Mohicans.

The Wizard of Oz

was written in this century.

King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table

originated about 1000AD. It is a romance; it is a story about brave men and defenseless women.

The Newbury Award

Children's book award

The Caldecott Award

picture book award

Picture books

Are the picture books easy to follow, and so they tell a story in an organized way, so that children can understand the story without the use of the written word?


A teacher needs to consider the age of the students and select poetry that she/he believes they will be able to relate to and enjoy. For example, for younger children, a teacher may select poems that have more alliteration and repetition of words.

Informational books

are they level appropriate?


are they level appropriate?

Selecting fiction

When selecting fiction, a good balance of realistic stories, modern fantasies, historical fiction, and mysteries is important so that all areas of interest are covered.

Realistic Fiction

is imaginative writing that accurately reflects life either in the past or present. It has a prose narrative with a plot that unfolds through the character's actions, speech, and thoughts.

context clue

is information from the immediate sentence, paragraph, or surrounding words that might help readers determine the meaning and/or pronunciation of an unknown word.


has to do with meaning cues. Semantic cues are the answer to the question "what makes sense?";clues are provided by the knowledge the readers has through the meanings of other words in the text.


relates to the sentence structure, or grammar, and what kind of word normally fills a given slot (noun, adverb, adjective, etc). clues are provided by the structure of the sentence.

decoding a word,

they are trying to make a connection between the written word and the idea or thing it explicitly represents, so they would be concerned with organizing ideas and generating questions to be researched.

Relationship to print

students first learn to recognize known words and letters in familiar books and contexts.

Recognizing whole words

sight words are words that children have seen so often that they know them instantly. Often, sight words are words that cannot be sounded out phonetically.

Word patterns

students who can recognize words patterns have a better chance of reading the words correctly. For example, when two vowels appear in a word and one is an e at the end of the word, the first vowel is generally long and the final e is silent (cape, rope, kite).


helping children to sound out words by separating the words into syllables.

Letters in sequence

helping children to recognize consonant blended sounds such as, wh, str, tr, sp, sh, ch, etc...

Use of prior knowledge

through a series of guided questions, the instructor helps students activate their prior knowledge of a specific topic to help them comprehend the content of a story or article on the same topic.


have students retell what they just read to themselves or a partner. Retelling should reflect the main idea, the correct sequence of events, the characters, setting, interpretation, and response.

Reciprocal teaching

kids take turns learning from each other. This helps students make predictions, formulate questions, summarize information, and clarify points of confusion when reading.

Guided reading

an essential part of an early literacy program. Teachers observe students as they problem solve. Students learn to problem solve with new texts. Students experience success in reading for meaning.


The goal of teaching reading is to increase the level of silent reading comprehension. In order for a student to focus attention on the meaning of sentences and paragraphs, he/she must be a fluent reader.

Reader response

responding to literature helps to increase the level of comprehension for the material.

Solving words

emphasizing what the child already knows will help in solving words and interpreting the story.

Adjusting reading according to purpose and context

Selecting text that will support the child's present knowledge and skills.


helps students become aware of their own reading comprehension abilities and needs, and to learn specific strategies that can be used to monitor and adjust reading behaviors to fit their own comprehension needs.

Maintaining fluency

Practicing fluent oral reading aids in understanding the close relationship between speech and print.

Making connections

Knowledge about a reading topic helps to improve comprehension. Proficient readers use background knowledge to enhance their understanding.


an acronym for survey, question, read, recite, review. This method provides students with a logical progression to study, and multiple encounters with the new material.


students survey the chapter, read and think about the title, headings, subheadings, captions under any pictures, vocabulary in bold print, side entries on each page and the summary.


students should use the preceding information to write anticipatory questions about what they are about to read.


students read looking for answers to their questions.


students tests themselves on the material. Anything difficult to remember should be rehearsed aloud or recited. The multi-sensory experience helps the difficult material to move into short-term, and with practice, long-term memory.


K stands for What I KNOW,W stands for What I WANT to know,L stands for What I LEARNED

Marking and coding

it is very helpful when reading books to highlight or underline important characteristics of characters, character names, and important quotes that one might use to support a thesis about the book.

Graphic organizers

a map or graph that summarizes information to be learned, and is distributed to students before beginning a new chapter or unit of study.

Picture writing

children draw pictures instead of using letters to tell a story or convey meaning.

Scribble writing

children use a pencil or crayon to explore the vast empty space on a blank sheet of paper.

Random letter

children use letters to represent words, but not based on phonics. They could use the letter Q to mean the "dog," or an entire sentence, or paragraph.

Invented spelling

helps develop phonetic awareness in children. They may spell their favorite words with a single letter.

Conventional writing

resembles adult writing in form and structure.


children begin to use real letters, usually capital letters, to represent their meaning.

Early phonemic

children begin to use letters, usually capital consonant letters, to represent words.

Letter name

the addition of more than 1 or 2 consonants with at least one vowel, used by young writers to represent the spelling of words.


writing looks like English, but the words are a mix of phonemic and conventional spellings.


a student in this stage can decode any word, but might not be able to spell it.


standard spelling in correct form

Reciprocal teaching

means that students take turns explaining to each other and learning from each other.

affective aspects of reading

referring to students attitudes, interests, and values.


a learning experience.


stands for Attention Deficit Disorder. It is a medical term used to describe students with difficulties of attention.


stands for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. It is a medial term used to describe students with hyperactivity, attention difficulties, and impulsiveness.

anticipatory set

this is done before the lesson to activate prior knowledge.


a piece of work that is created by a student and put in his/her portfolio.


a way of measuring the progress of a student.


Work produced by students and used by instructors for purposes of interaction and also evaluation.


the process of hearing.

authentic assessment

a type of evaluation that requires a student to perform a task.

BD (Behavior Disorder)

A term used in special education to describe students who have an explained inability to learn, have problems relating to other children and adults, continually exhibit inappropriate behaviors or who have a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears about personal and school problems.


statement that provides a description of student knowledge expected at specific grades, ages, or developmental levels.


-a list of books, journal articles, etc. on a particular topic.

Bloom's taxonomy

There are six categories of cognitive objectives organized by complexity: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation.

closed constructed response

a type of question that requires the student to compose an answer rather than select an answer from a list of choices. There is only one right answer.

cloze test

a student must fill in the blanks in a paragraph.

collaborative learning

when students work with others to achieve a specific goal, purpose, or outcome.

Common Assessment Framework

is a method for organizing the teaching/learning experiences of students by establishing subject outcomes and measuring the attainment of these with well defined performance criteria.

constructed response

a type of question that requires the student to compose an answer rather than select an answer from a list of choices. There are closed and open-ended constructed response questions.

critical thinking

requires a student to apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information.

cultural diversity

recognized that students come from different backgrounds (ethnic, geographic, religious, and economic).


the content of instruction.


stands for Drop Everything And Read.


the process of developing teaching and learning styles and materials related to the different levels of pupil understanding and ability.

Discussion Director

a role for literature groups. This individual leads the discussion as well as asks 5 thick questions.


stands for Daily Oral Language. Students correct mistakes in sentences.


stands for English Language Learner.


a belief in what someone can do or accomplish.


used to describe a student who demonstrates a high level of ability.

heterogeneous grouping

organizing students with different ability levels.

homogeneous grouping

organizing students with similar ability levels.


The Individual Education Plan developed for each child eligible for special education, based on the child's unique needs, with parent participation, containing a statement of the child's present level of performance, educational needs, goals and measurable objectives. Is reviewed at least annually.


special education students are included in the general education classroom setting.




stands for Learning Disability. This is a term in special education to describe a disorder in one of the basic psychological processes (listening, thinking, speaking, writing, spelling, etc).

learning contract

A form of individualized, active learning, in which the student proposes a course of study to satisfy an academic requirement and a teacher checks and approves the contract.

learning style

a mode of learning; an individual's preferred or best manner(s) in which to think, process information, and demonstrate learning.

Literary Luminary

a role for literature groups. This individual chooses 4 pieces of text to discuss with the group.

literature group

a reading experience that allows students to share their information and ideas related to a novel they are reading.


great skillfulness and knowledge of some subject or activity.


technique used to help remember names or concepts.


A module is a series of theme-related questions that progress in difficulty and open-endedness; beginning with multiple choice questions, advancing to opened-ended constructed response questions, and ending with a performance event.

multiple intelligences

Howard Gardner proposes that all humans are endowed with seven forms of intelligence: mathematical/logical, linguistic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, spatial, and kinesthetic. Schools usually emphasize the linguistic and mathematical/logical intelligences.


desired outcomes.

open-ended constructed response

a type of question that requires the student to compose an answer rather than select an answer from a list of choices. There is more than one right answer.

performance event

is "on demand" in that it is used for assessment purposes. It is a real-world, robust, problematic situation that monitors student progress towards the attainment of predetermined criteria.

performance task

-a real-world, highly robust problematic situation that requires students to use specified knowledge, skills, and processes in various content domains.


A program in the Microsoft Office suite which allows users to create presentations, and handouts. By creating PowerPoint "slides," users can add color, images, sounds, and movies to their text presentations.


is the first stage of the writing process. It is when a writer gathers his/her thoughts before writing. This can be done by making a list, web, outline, etc.

progress report

-also known as a mid-quarter. It is a report that shows the progress of your child. It is sent in the middle of each quarter.


Learner pauses to think about, and organize information gathered from reading, discussions, or other activities.

response log

students write responses to what they have read.

role sheet

these are the sheets that are completed for the literature groups. The roles include Discussion Director, Literary Luminary, Connector, Illustrator, and Vocabulary Enricher.


also known as a scoring guide. It is used as a set of guidelines for evaluating a student's work.

scope and sequence

A curriculum plan, usually in chart form, in which a range of instructional objectives, skills, etc., is organized according to the successive levels at which they are taught.


students reflect on their work or performance.


a plan of action.

special education

Programs designed to serve children with mental and physical disabilities.


Statements of what students should know and be able to demonstrate.

student-centered learning

the students and their needs are the focus and the teacher becomes the facilitator among them. The students are active participants in the learning process.

supplementary materials/activities

materials and/or activities used to extend or strengthen the topic being covered.


In education, a branch of knowledge based on the development and implementation of computers, software, and other technical tools, and the assessment and evaluation of students' educational outcomes resulting from their use of technology tools.

thick question

a question that requires more than a one or two word response. It causes a person to think.

thin question

a question that has a one or two word answer. It is usually a yes/no question or a recall of information.

visual learner

learns by sight, or seeing something being done.

Vocabulary Enricher

a role in literature groups. This individual locates four words to look up and find their definitions.


inquiry-oriented activity in which some or all of the information that learners interact with comes from information on the Internet.

Writer's Workshop

learning situation in which the teacher assits the students in developing their writing by learning the writing process and introducing different writing genres.

writing prompt

A writing prompt gives definition and direction to the assigned topic. It can be as simple as a general idea, or complex enough to define the position of the thesis as well as the supporting paragraph.

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