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ap chapter 16 Endocrine system

ap chapter 16 Endocrine system
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diabetes insipidus
results from the inability to produce ADH (which is produced in hypothalamus & released from posterior pituitary.
-Produces a large volume of urine
diabetes mellitus
common diabetes we think of ("sweet urine")
diuresis
an increased excretion of urine
goiter
thyroid enlarges when there is a lack of iodine in the diet. not as much T4 & T3 are produced b/c no iodine. bulging eyes
hypercalcemia
abnormally high levels of calcium in blood
release calcitonin
hyperglycemia
higher than normal blood glucose concentration
hypoglycemia
lower than normal blood glucose concentration or overstimulation of insulin
prostaglandins (pg)
any group of naturally occurring lipid-based substances that act in a hormone-like way to affect many body functions, including basodilation, uterine smooth muscle contraction & the inflammatory response
receptors
portion of a sensory neuron that responds to external stimuli & receptors that bond to neurotransmitters
second messenger
nonsteroid hormones
cAMP
target organ/cell
acts on or responds to a particular hormone
endocrine system define
1. glandular cells secrete hormone into bloodstream
target cells (cells with hormone receptors) respond to hormone
2. hormones have no effect on other cells
classification of hormones - function
Tropic hormones (four hormones from pituitary) - made by one endocrine gland whose target is another endocrine (Ex. pituitary targets thyroid)
classification of hormones - chemical structure
1. Steroid hormones - requires a carrier
a. Lipid-soluble (so can go straight thru membrane)
b. Examples: cortisol, aldosterone, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone
2. Nonsteroid hormones (water soluble, no carrier molecule & can't go thru membrane) uses 2nd messenger
a. Protein hormones (synthesized from AA)
b. Examples: insulin, thyroid and parathyroid hormone
Chemical structure - Steroid hormone
requires a carrier
a. Lipid-soluble (so can go straight thru membrane)
b. Examples: cortisol, aldosterone, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone
Chemical structure - Nonsteroid hormone
Nonsteroid hormones (water soluble, no carrier molecule & can't go thru membrane) uses 2nd messenger
a. Protein hormones (synthesized from AA)
b. Examples: insulin, thyroid and parathyroid hormone
Hormones & targets
1. Only tissues with receptors can react to hormones
2. need to produce a lot of hormones to hit all the targets, extra hormones filtered thru kidney & out thru urine
Hormone function
1. Synergism - stress - work better together
2. Antagonism - opposite effects

Control hormones by # of receptors
3. Up-regulation - increase receptors
4. Down-regulation - decrease receptors (overstimulation of cell, usually causes a disease. ex. Type 2 diabetes)
mechanism action of steroid hormones
ex. estrogen, progesterone & testasterone
have to have a carrier - can go thru cell & into nucleus to a receptor molecule
mechanism action of nonsteroid hormones
binds to receptor. In general, doesn't enter the cell. 2nd messenger (cAMP)activates something else in the cell, moving something else in the cell
Calmodulin Second Messenger system
only when calcium binds to it. cyclic AMP
feedback loops
Negative feedback - all other hormones
Positive feedback - childbirth, breast feeding
can cause problem if hormone loop doesn't work
Prostaglandins
1. Tissue hormones - not true hormone b/c doesn't go into bloodstream. goes into tissues that make them. limited effect
2. Potent chemical signals
3. Act locally
4. Some effects of prostaglandins include:
a. Uterine contractions
b. Reduce gastric secretion
c. Lower blood pressure
d. Inhibit platelet aggregation
e. cause headaches
5. Examples:
a. PGE: relaxes smooth muscle in bladder, intestines, bronchioles, uterus and stimulates contraction of blood vessels
b. PGF: opposite effects of PGE
Some effects of prostaglandins include:
a. Uterine contractions
b. Reduce gastric secretion
c. Lower blood pressure
d. Inhibit platelet aggregation
e. cause headaches
Pituitary gland (aka hypophysis)
Controlled by hypothalamus (neurons are what is used btw hypothalamus & pituitary)
1. AKA hypophysis
2. Infundibulum - hollow stalk, blood vessels & neurons. communicate thru infundibulum
3. Adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary)
a. arises from hypophyseal pouch (outgrowth of pharynx) - releases 7 hormones
4. Neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) - storage sac. releases hormones (2), doesn't make hormones
a. arises from brain
Adenohypophysis
1. Adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary)
a. arises from hypophyseal pouch (outgrowth of pharynx) - releases 7 hormones
2. release is controlled by chemical-releasing factors = RELEASING HORMONES, which travel through HYPOPHYSEAL PORTAL SYSTEM.
Neurohypophysis
1. Neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) - storage sac. releases hormones (2), doesn't make hormones
a. arises from brain
2. release is controlled by NERVOUS STIMULATION
Growth hormone (7)
1. Released from anterior pituitary
2. AKA somatotropin "body growth"
3. Promotes growth of bone, muscle, and other tissues
4. Protein synthesis increased (to make muscle), protein catabolism decreased
5. Lipid metabolism - stimulate release of free fatty acids and glycerol from adipose tissue
6. Carbohydrate metabolism - glucose sparing effect = less glucose used for energy
7. Promotes Na+, K+, Cl- retention, Ca 2+ absorption
Prolactin
Released from anterior pituitary
pituitary hormone, controlled by hypothalamus
1. Promotes development of the breasts, anticipating milk secretion
2. Stimulates the mother's mammary glands to produce milk
Tropic hormones
target/stimulating effect is other endocrine glands.
1. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
a. stimulates growth of gland and secretion of TH (thyroid hormones)
2. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
a. regulates response to stress, stimulates adrenal cortex
- corticosteroids regulate glucose, fat and protein metabolism
3. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
a. stimulates production of egg or sperm cells
4. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
a. mainly stimulates hormone production
- females - stimulates ovulation and corpus luteum to secrete progesterone and estrogen
- males - stimulates interstitial cells of testes to secrete testosterone
FSH and LH are called gonadotropins
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Tropic hormone. source is anterior pituitary
stimulates growth of gland and secretion of TH (thyroid hormones)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Tropic hormone. source is anterior pituitary
1. regulates response to stress, stimulates ADRENAL CORTEX
- corticosteroids regulate glucose, fat and protein metabolism
FSH & LH
1. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
a. stimulates production of egg or sperm cells
2. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
a. mainly stimulates hormone production
- females - stimulates ovulation and corpus luteum to secrete progesterone and estrogen
- males - stimulates interstitial cells of testes to secrete testosterone
FSH and LH are called gonadotropins
Control of anterior pituitary
controls told to release hormones by hypothalamus, through releasing hormones in hypophyseal portal system
Posterior pituitary
*** only storage sac
1. AKA neurohypophysis
2. Stores hormones does not manufacturer hormones
3. Hormones released are produced by hypothalamus
neurons are what is used btw hypothalamus & pituitary. release is controlled by nervous stimulation
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) 1/2
Hormone released by pituitary, produced in hypothalamus
1. Controls water balance/retain or not. Based on osmotic pressure w/in blood.
2. as you lose water then blood is concentrated resulting in increased osmotic pressure
3. osmo receptors measures water osmosis - This is in hypothalamus. Pituitary only relases, doesn't control.
4. Prevents the formation of a large volume of urine, helping the body conserve water
5. Causes reabsorption of water from the urine formed in renal tubules
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) 2/2
Hormone released by pituitary, produced in hypothalamus
6. Raises blood pressure by vasoconstriction of blood vessels, increases blood pressure (aka vassopressin)
7. Diabetes insipidus results from the inability to produce ADH which then produces large volume of water
Oxytocin
Hormone released by pituitary, produced in hypothalamus

1. Causes milk ejection from the lactating breast (need this to eject milk)
2. Stimulates contraction of uterine muscles that occurs during childbirth
Pineal gland
1. Part of BOTH NERVOUS SYSTEM (receives signals) and the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM (secretes hormones)
2. Supports the body's biological clock
3. Principal hormone is melatonin (if no sunlight then secretion continue & you get sleepy)
4. pineal gland shrinks w/age
thyroid gland
Target is every cell in the body
1. Thyroid Hormones - (thyroid hormones w/iodine & AA)
a. Tetraiodothyronine (T4)
- Thyroxine
b. Triiodothyronine (T3)
2. Require iodine
a. Lack of iodine - goiter
b. Deficiency during pregnancy - cretinism (severe retardation)
3. Increase metabolic rate
4. Increase heat production (b/c making ATP in metabol.)
5. Increase heart rate & contraction strength
6. Hypothyroidism - cold, gain weight, tired
7. Hyperthyroidism - hot, racing heart, can't stand still. Graves disease-you burn out, remove or kill thyroid)
Thyroid hormones
a. Tetraiodothyronine (T4)
- Thyroxine
b. Triiodothyronine (T3)
carrier molecule in blood & goes into cell
Calcitonin
1. Calcium Homeostasis
2. Secreted by thyroid gland when calcium concentration rises too high
3. Functions
a. Reduces osteoclast activity = less calcium released into blood
b. Increases the number and activity of osteoblasts = moves calcium out of blood & into bone

Parathyroid is antagonistic to Calcitonin
Parathyroid glands
1. Embedded in the posterior surface of thyroid gland
2. Not associated with thyroid gland
3. controls calcium (can't live w/o)
Parathyroid hormone
parathyroid gland
1. Released with low calcium blood levels
2. Functions increase blood calcium level
a. Increases number and function of osteoclasts (thus releasing calcium into blood). will pull out of bone. breaks down bone & calc. is released
b. Promotes calcium resorption by the kidneys
c. Promotes vitamin D activation in kidneys which increases calcium absorption in small intestine (don't lose calc. thru urine)
d. Inhibits osteoblast activity
homeostasis of calcium levels (TEST)
1. Helps maintain blood calcium levels
2. Calcium is essential for:
A. Bone formation, remodeling, and repair
B. Blood clotting
C. Transmission of nerve impulses
D. Skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle contraction
E. Gland secretion
F. Blood vessel diameter
calcium is essential for (TEST) (6)
1. Bone formation, remodeling, and repair
2. Blood clotting
3. Transmission of nerve impulses
4. Skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle contraction
5. Gland secretion
6. Blood vessel diameter
correction of hypocalcemia
blood calcium deficiency
A. Parathryoid hormone secretion results in:
1. Increased osteoclast activity
2. Decrease osteoblast activity
3. more urinary phosphate excretion (bring calc. in)
4. less urinary calcium excretion
correction for hypercalcemia
Blood calcium excess
A. Catcitonin secretion
1. reduced osteoclast activity
2. increased osteoblast activity
adrenal glands
Made up of two portions: Adrenal cortex (makes 21 hormones) and adrenal medulla
Aldosterone (TEST)
Source is Adrenal cortex
1. Mineralocorticoid
2. Primary function is maintenance of SODIUM HOMEOSTASIS in the blood by increasing sodium reabsorption in the kidneys
3. Increases water retention and promotes the loss of potassium and hydrogen ions
4. CONTROLLED by the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN mechanism and by blood potassium concentration
5. works w/ ADH to bring water in.
6. controls sodium, also controls potassium & water
7. not controlled by ACTH
Aldosterone function (TEST)
1. Primary function is maintenance of sodium homeostasis in the blood by increasing sodium reabsorption in the kidneys
a. sodium decreases then increase aldosterone
Renin-Angiostensin Mechanism
1. renin = enzyme
2. controls aldosterone secretion
3. angiotensin II = hormone tells adrenal gland to release Aldosterone (when sodium is low)
4. negative feedback mechanism that helps maintain homeostasis of blood pressure
Cortisol
Released by ADRENAL CORTEX. Controlled by ACTH & don't want in high levels
1. Anti-inflammatory, hormone of stress
2. Glucocorticoids
3. Stimulates utilization of fatty acids and proteins for energy
4. Stimulates gluconeogenesis = change to glucose
5. Acts with epinephrine - anti-inflammatory response (to protect & fight of infections)
6. Secretion increases in response to stress
Adrenal medulla
1. NEUROSECRETORY tissue - tissue that released a hormone based on sympathetic preganglionic fibers
2. Secretes epinephrine & norepinephrine (non-steroid hormones)
3. Increases alertness, anxiety, or fear
4. Increases BP, heart rate and air flow (think adrenaline high)
5. Raises metabolic rate
6. Inhibits insulin secretion
7. Stimulates gluconeogenesis & glycogenolysis
pancreas
Retroperitoneal, inferior and dorsal to stomach
EXOCRINE & ENDOCRINE gland
Glucagon
Release when SUGAR IS LOW
1. Glucagon & insulin are made by isolated cell so you can lose one but not the other
2. HOMEOSTASIS OF GLUCOSE.
3. Antagonistic to Insulin
4. Stimulates glycogenolysis = breakdown of glycogen to glucose
5. Stimulates fat catabolism
6.Promotes absorption of amino acids for gluconeogenesis (make sugar from protein)
Hypoglycemia
insulin
Release when sugar is high
1. Glucagon & insulin are made by isolated cell so you can lose one but not the other
2. HOMEOSTASIS OF GLUCOSE.
3. Antagonistic to Glucagon
4. Stimulates glucose and amino acid uptake by muscle and adipose cells
5. Stimulates glycogen (in liver - storgage of glucose), fat and protein synthesis
6. effect metabolism of sugar & fat
Gastric & intestinal mucosa
Hormones such as gastrin, secretin, and cholecystokinin-pancreozymin (CCK) play regulatory roles in coordinating the secretory and motor activities involved in the digestive process
heart
1. Atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH) - primary effect is to oppose increases in blood volume or blood pressure; antagonist to ADH and aldosterone.
2. Water balance problems in heart = heart failure
hypocalcemia
abnormally low calcium levels in blood
aldosterone
adrenal cortex, sodium reabsorption
calcitonin
thyroid gland, calcium too high
antagonistic to parathyroid hormone
parathyroid
parathyroid gland, calcium too low
antagonistic to calcitonin
mineralcorticoids
adrenal cortex, aldosterone
release NOT stimulated by ACTH
glucocorticoids
adrenal cortex, cortisol
release stimulated by ACTH
Two hormones released by posterior pituitary (Neurophypophysis)
AHD (water)
Oxytocin (contractions & milk)
Six hormones release by anterior pituitary (Adenohypophysis)
1. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
2. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
3. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
4. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
5. Growth hormone (GH)
6. Prolactin
tropic hormones (FLAT)
1. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
2. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
3. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
4. Luteinizing hormone (LH)